Ethnicity : Meaning , Types, Problems and Suggested Solutions

Subject :

Civic Education

Term :

Second Term / 2nd Term


Week 6

Class :

Basic 4 / Grade 4 / Primary 4


Previous lesson :

The pupils have previous knowledge of National Consciousness  (2) that has been taught in their previous classes

Topic :

Ethnicity : Meaning , Types and Problems

Behavioural objectives :

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • Define ethnicity
  • List ethic groups in Nigeria
  • Explain the problems that are associated with ethnicity in Nigeria
  • Mention some bad civic values that must be frown at
  • Explain the solutions to ethnicity and tribalism


Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks


Content :

Meaning of Ethnicity

Ethnicity simply means being loyal to a particular tribal group that speak the same language or have the same culture or tradition .Ethnicity means preferring one’s ethnic group to other ethnic groups. It can also be regarded as tribalism.  There are more than two hundred and fifty ethnic groups in Nigeria and the prominent ones are

  • Hausa (27.4%)
  • Yoruba (21%)
  • Igbo (14.1%)
  • Fulani (6.3%)
  • Ibibio (2.2%)
  • Tiv (2.2%)
  • Ijaw (2%)
  • Kanuri (1.7%)   (Source : Wikipedia )


Problems that are associated with ethnicity in Nigeria

Nigeria is a multi religious and tribal National that based its national values on Cultural diversity and yet there are still some problems that are easily noticed in the country because of some people tribal and ethnic loyalty that they placed above National interest . These are some of the problems that are associated with ethnicity in Nigeria

  • Political instability
  • Religious Intolerance
  • Communal Fighting
  • Unnecessary Discrimination when it comes to appointment into political office
  • Underdevelopment of infrastructure
  • Waste of resources.
  • Regional development at the detriment of other region in the country


What are the ways forward when it comes to ethnicity

  • Political appointments should be based on merits rather than tribalism
  • There should be religious tolerance among the various religious groups in Nigeria
  • Every man is equal in the sight of God Almighty and hence No ethnic group or tribal should see themselves as leaders as if other tribes or ethnic groups are slaves or what ? We should discard  such state slogan that says  BORN TO RULE
  • There should be even and equal development of facility and infrastructure  spread across the six geo political entities of the country
  • Politicians should be more studious when it comes to handling and management  of National Wealth
  • The Justice system should be independent and be free from ethnic or tribal influence when it comes to the administration of justice


Fill-in-the-Blank Questions:

  1. Ethnic loyalty often leads to ____________ in Nigeria. a) political stability b) economic growth c) religious harmony d) political instability
  2. Interreligious conflicts arise due to ____________ in Nigeria. a) religious tolerance b) ethnic diversity c) religious intolerance d) cultural celebrations
  3. Ethnic tensions can result in ____________ in Nigeria. a) communal unity b) regional development c) national pride d) communal fighting
  4. Discrimination in political appointments often occurs based on ____________ in Nigeria. a) merit b) tribalism c) qualifications d) fairness
  5. Neglect of certain regions in favor of others leads to ____________ in Nigeria. a) infrastructure overdevelopment b) resource utilization c) resource wastage d) infrastructure underdevelopment
  6. Resources are often misused due to ____________ considerations in Nigeria. a) political affiliation b) economic growth c) ethnic and tribal d) cultural diversity
  7. Uneven development among regions is known as ____________ in Nigeria. a) regional balance b) regional integration c) regional development d) regional imbalance
  8. To address ethnicity issues, political appointments should be based on ____________. a) luck b) favoritism c) merits d) traditions
  9. Encourage ____________ among religious groups in Nigeria. a) religious intolerance b) religious favoritism c) religious tolerance d) religious unity
  10. Eliminate the notion of any ethnic group being “born to rule” and promote ____________. a) tribalism b) religious discrimination c) equality for all d) regional development
  11. Ensure equal ____________ across regions in Nigeria. a) economic growth b) political appointments c) infrastructure development d) resource utilization
  12. Promote responsible ____________ to avoid wastage of resources. a) resource management b) resource allocation c) resource production d) resource distribution
  13. Ensure an impartial justice system free from ____________. a) cultural diversity b) tribal influence c) political stability d) economic growth
  14. Political appointments should prioritize ____________ over ethnicity. a) favoritism b) tribalism c) merit d) resource utilization
  15. The concept of “born to rule” should be ____________. a) encouraged b) abolished c) celebrated d) prioritized




The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.



  • What are civic values
  • Discuss one problem associated with ethnicity in Nigeria and its impact on the nation.
  • Explain why religious intolerance is a challenge related to ethnicity in Nigeria.
  • How can even development of infrastructure help address ethnic issues in the country?
  • Describe the significance of promoting religious tolerance among various religious groups in Nigeria.
  • Discuss the importance of an independent justice system free from ethnic influence in Nigeria.
  • Define ethnicity
  • List four  ethic groups in Nigeria
  • Explain and mention four problems that are associated with ethnicity in Nigeria
  • Mention four bad civic values that must be frown at
  • Explain and mention four solutions to ethnicity and tribalism problems in Nigeria




Prepare for the next lesson by reading about consequences of ethnicity



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