The Human Skeletal System


The Human Body. The Skeleton


Subject : 

Basic Science and Technology

Term :

Second Term


Week 3

Class :

Basic 5 / Primary 5

Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of   Reproduction in Domestic Animals  in their previous lesson

Topic :

The Human Skeletal System




Behavioural objectives :

At the end of lesson, pupils should be able to:

  • Define skeleton.
  • Describe some functions of the human Skeletal system.
  • Explain how skeleton is formed.
  • Names some bones in human body and their functions.

Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks


Content :

What is skeleton  ?

Skeleton is the bony framework of the body . There are about 206 bones in the body of a fully grown up adult. Bones are white and they are made up of calcium and collagen. The calcium phosphate is a mineral that add strength, sturdy and flexibility.


Functions Of The Skeleton. 

  • The skeleton enables movement in humans and animals
  • The skeleton protects the delicate organs of the body eg the skull protects the brain, the ribs protect the lungs, the eye sockets protects the eye balls
  • The skeleton gives the body its framework which other tissues and organs are attached.
  • The human Skeletal system also helps in the formation of some essential minerals in the body

Types and Functions of Bones that make up the Human Skeletal System.

The bones in human body can be classified into five different types based on their looks , shapes, or sizes

  1. The long bones : These are bones in the human body that are very long in size . the longest human bone is the femur . The Femur  is also known as the thigh bone. It is the longest and largest singular bone in the human body. It is also the strongest. It is used for movement, stability and weight balancing The second larger bone is the tibia that is located in between the ankle and the knee joint . The tibia supports movement and balance . Other examples of long bones that are located in the upper parts of the body are the humerus( the shoulder bone ), radius( the fore arm bone ), ulna etc
  2. The short bones :  These bones are not very long and they are located in the wrist or ankle of the human body . They are short and they look like a cube . Examples of such short  bones are the bones of the wrist and the bones of the wrist . Short bones enable flexibility and movement .
  3. The Flat Bones : These bones protect the delicate organs of the body . They are thin , curved and flat . They serve as the armor for the delicate organs of the body . Examples of flat bones in human body are the scapula, the colar bone . the ribs . the hips etc
  4. The Irregular bones : These bones are so named because their shapes are irregular and complex . These bones may be long , short , flat , curved or cube shaped . The  bones of the vertebrate column or the skull are very good examples of such irregular bones in the human body .
  5. The Sesamoid Bones : These are minute .tiny bones that are located in between joints in order to strengthen and enforce joints and tendons. These sesamoid bones are easily visible in the human foot beneath the big toe.


Other types of bones are the Phalanges which  are bones of the fingers and toes. They are pieces of jointed short bones. Eight carpals arranged in two rows of four each are connected to the phalanges.

Animals with backbones are called vertebrates .



The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.


Evaluation . Part A 

  1. Animals with backbones are called _______________________
  2. The longest bone in the human body is the ______________
  3. The second larger bone in human body is the ____________
  4. The skull protects the ________ in the head .
  5. The ribs protect the _________ and the ____________
  6. The bony structure of human body that supports movement is known as the ___________
  7. There are about _____ bones in the body of a fully grown up adult
  8. The ________ is located in between the ankle and the knee

Part B . Theory .

  1. Mention two examples of long bones in the human skeletal system .
  2. What is skeleton ?
  3. What are sesamoid bones ?
  4. Mention two functions of skeleton .
  5. What are Phalanges ?


Prepare for the next lesson by reading about the functions of joints in  The Human skeletal system