Lowest Common Multiple (L.C.M) Highest Common Factor (H.C.F) of Whole Numbers.
Subject :
Mathematics
Term :
First Term
Week:
Week Three
Class :
JSS 1
Previous lesson :
The pupils have previous knowledge of Whole Numbers Continued: Problems solving in quantitative aptitude reasoning using large numbers
Topic :
Whole Numbers Continued: Problems solving in quantitative aptitude reasoning using large numbers
Behavioural objectives :
At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to
 Write out the multiples of numbers
 write out the lowest common multiple of numbers (LCM)
 calculate the factors of numbers
 Write out common factors of numbers
 solve questions on Highest Common Factors ( HFC)
Instructional Materials :
 Wall charts
 Pictures
 Related Online Video
 Flash Cards
 Abacus
 Numeric Table Chart
Methods of Teaching :
 Class Discussion
 Group Discussion
 Asking Questions
 Explanation
 Role Modelling
 Role Delegation
Reference Materials :
 Scheme of Work
 Online Information
 Textbooks
 Workbooks
 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
 Workbooks
Content :
WEEK THREE
TOPIC: LEAST COMMON MULTIPLE AND HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR OF WHOLE NUMBERS
CONTENT

 Multiples
 Common Multiples
 Least Common Multiples (LCM)
 Highest Common Factors (HCF).
Multiples
Multiples mean finding the product of a positive integer with another positive integer. Simply put, when a whole number multiples another whole number, the result obtained is called the multiple of either of those numbers.
The first four multiples of 12 are
12 x 1 = 12
12 x 2 = 24
12 x 3 = 36
12 x 4 =48
Thus, we write 12, 24, 36 and 48 as the first for multiples of 12.
Note: Every whole number has an infinite number of multiples
Every whole number has a finite number of factors.
Example 1
Find the next five multiple of the following whole numbers.
(a) 4 (b) 8 (c ) 11.
Solution
In these questions, the numbers are not to be included because it reads next.
(a) 4, 4 x 1 = 4 (not included)
4 x 2 = 8
4 x 3 = 12
4 x 4 = 16
4 x 5 = 20
4 x 6 = 24
:. The next five multiples of 4 are 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24.
(b) 8, 8 x 1 =8 multiple of 11
8 x 2 =16 11 x 1 =11
8 x 3 =24 11 x 2 = 22
8 x 4 =32 11 x 3 = 33
8 x 5 =40 11 x 4 = 44
8 x 6 = 48 11 x 5 = 55
11 x 6 = 66
the next five multiples of the next five multiples of 11 are 22, 33,44,55 and 66
8 are 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48.
Example 2
Which of the following numbers 18, 20, 27 36 and 50 are


 multiples of 2
 multiples of 3
 multiples of 4.

Solution
When a number can be divided exactly by another number it means the quotient is a multiple of the divisor. 18, 20, 27 36, 50


 multiples of 2 are 18, 20, 27 36, 50
 multiples of 3 are 18, 27 and 36
 multiple of 4 are 20 and 36.

EVALUATION
 1.Find the next 7 multiples of the following numbers.
(a) 15 (b) 25 (c ) 13.
 Which of the following whole numbers 37, 68, 51, 128, 85 and 187 are
(a) multiples of 2
(b) multiples of 3
(c) multiples of 5
(d) multiples of 17.
Common multiples
When two or more numbers have a multiple in common, then the numbers is known as a common multiple.
Example
Find the first two common multiples of 4.6 and 8.
Solution
Their multiple are as shown below;
4 = 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 (24) 28,32, 36, 40, 44, (48) 52,56,60,64……
6 = 6, 12, 18,(24), 30, 36, 42, (48), 54, 60, 66, 72.
8= 8, 16,(24), 32, 40, (48), 56, 64, 72,
Considering the three whole numbers, their first two common multiples are
24 and 48.
Examples
Write down three common multiples of the following sets of numbers
(a) 5 and 6
(b) 3, 10 and 15.
Solution
(a) First three common multiples of 5 and 6.
5 = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, (30),35, 40 45, 50, 55 (60) 65, 70,75,80 85,(90) 95,100, 105,110,115,120.
6= 6, 12,18,24, (30),36, 42,48,54,(60),66,72,78,84, (90),96,102,106,114,120.
:.The first three common multiples of 5 and 6 are, 30 60 and 90.
(b) First three common multiples of 3, 10 and 15
3= 3,6,9,12,15,18,21, 24,27, (30),33,36,39,42,45,81,84,87,(90),93,96.
10= 10, 20, (30), 40, 50, (60) 70, 80 (90),100,110, etc
15 = 15, (30), 45,(60), 75, (90), 105, 120.
:. The first three common multiples of 3, 10, and 15 are 30, 60 and 90.
EVALUATION
Find the first four common multiples of the following sets of numbers
(a) 4 and 7 (b) 2,5 and 7 (c ) 3, 6, 9.
READING ASSIGNMENT
 Essential Mathematic for JSS1 by AJS Oluwasanmipg 32
 New General Mathematics for JSS1 by M.F Macraeetalpg 2627.
Least Common Multiples (LCM)
You can find the least common multiples of two or more numbers by listing as many multiples as you need until you have one that is common to both or all the numbers.
For instance to find the LCM of 24 and 15
Multiples of 24 = 24, 48, 72,96, 120………
Multiples of 15 = 15, 30, 45, 60, 75,90, 105, 120.
Although the numbers will have many common multiples but, looking at what we are after, that is the least of the common multiples, the answer will be 120.
:. LCM of 24 and 15 = 120.
Rather than writing out a long list of multiples for each number, you can use the prime factors method to find the LCM. This is the method we are going to apply.
Example 1
Find the LCM of the following whole numbers:
(a) 24 and 15 (b) 8 and 45 ( c ) 16 and 18 (d) 90, 105 and 210.
Solution
(a) The LCM of 24 and 15
2 24 15 2 8 45
2 12 15 2 4 45
2 6 15 2 2 45
3 2 5 3 1 45
5 1 1 3 1 15
3 1 5
5 1 1
LCM = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 5= 120 Lcm = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 = 360
:.LCM of 24 and 15 = 120 ;. LCM of 8 and 45 = 360.
(c) LCM of 16 and 18 (d) LCM of 90, 105 and 210
2 16 18 2 90 105 210
2 8 9 3 45 105 105
2 4 9 3 15 35 35
2 2 9 5 5 35 35
2 1 9 7 1 7 7
3 1 3 1 1 1
3 1 1cc
LCM = 2 x 2 x 2 x x 2 x3 x3 = 144 LCM = 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 x 7 = 630
:. LCM of 16 and 18 = 144 :. LCM of 90, 105 and 210 is = 630.
Given that the numbers are expressed as a product of prime factors, the lcmis the product of the prime factors of the numbers without double counting.
Example 2
Find the LCM of the following .Leave your answers in prime factors.
(a) 2 x 2 x 3, (b )2 x 2 x 5
2 x 2 x 2 x 5 3 x 5 x 7
2 x 2 x5 2 x 3 x 3 x 3
2x 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 3 x 5 x 5 x 7.
Solution
(a) 2 x 2 x 3
2 x 2 x 2 x 5
2 x 2 x 5
2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 5
LCM = 2 x 2 x2 x 3 x 3 x 5.
(b) 2 x 3 x 3
3x 5x 7
2 x 3 x 3 x 3
3 x 5 x 5 x 7
LCM = 2 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 5 x 5 x 7.
EVALUATION
1.Find the LCM of the following
(a) 4,6, and 9 (b) 6, 8, 10 and 12 (c ) 9, 10,12 and 15 (d) 108 and 360.
2. Find the Lcm of the following leaving your answers in index form.
(a) 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 (b) 3 x 3 x 5
2 x 3 x 5 x5 2 x 3 x 7
2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 2 x 5 x 5 x 7
(c) 2^{3} x 3^{2} x 5
3 x 5^{3} x 7^{2}
2^{4} x 3 x 7^{2},
3^{2} x 5^{2} x 7^{3}
Highest Common Factor
Highest common factor (HCF) of two or more numbers is the largest number that divides exactly into all the numbers.
Example 1
Find the HCF of 21 and 84.
Solution
3 21 2 84
7 7 2 42
1 3 21
7 7
1
21 = 3 x 7
84 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 7
HCF = 3 x 7 = 21
Example 2
Find the HCF of 195 and 330.
Solution
3 195
5 65
 13
11
HCF of 195 and 330
195 = 3 x 5 x 13
330 = 2 x 3x5x11
HCF = 3 x 5 = 15
 330
 165
5 55
11 11
1
Example 3
Find the HCF of 288, 180 and 106. leave your answer in index form.
Solution
2 288 2 180 2 108
2 144 2 90 2 54
2 72 3 45 3 27
2 36 3 15 3 9
2 18 5 5 3 3
3 9 1 1
3 3
1
288 = 2 x 2 x 2 x2x2 x 3 x 3
180 = 2×2 x 3 x 3
108 = 2×2 x3 x 3×3
HCF = 2x 2x 3 x 3 = 2^{2} x 3^{2} …….index form
= 36 (ordinary form).
Example 4
Find the HCF of the following . Leave the answers in prime factors and use index notation.
(a) 2^{3} x 3^{2} x 7
2^{2} x 3 x 5^{2}
2^{2} x 3^{3} x 5
(b) 2^{3} x 5^{2} x 7
2^{2} x 3^{2} x 5
3^{3} x 5^{3} x 7^{2}
Solution
(a)2^{3} x 3^{2} x 7 = 2 x 2^{2} x 3 x 3 x7
2^{2} x 3 x 5^{2 }= 2^{2} x 3 x 5^{2}
2^{2} x 3^{3} x 5 = 2^{2}x 3 x 32 x 5
HCF = 2^{2} x 3 index form
4 x 3 = 12.
(b) 2^{3} x 5^{2} x 7 = 2^{3}x 5^{2} x 7
2^{2} x 3^{2} x 5 = 2^{2} x 3^{2}x 5
3^{3} x 5^{3} x 7^{2}= 3^{3} x 5^{3} x 7^{2}
The factor that is common is in 5
:. HCF = 5
EVALUATION
1.Findthe HCF of the following;
 12 and 24
 16 and 40
 6 and 15
 13 and 31
 13 and 36
i. leaving your answers in index form
ii. leaving your answers in whole number
(a) 160, 96 and 224
(b) 189, 279and 108
(c) 126, 234 and 90.
2. Find the HCF of the following .Leave your answers in prime factors and use index notation.
22x 33 x 5
21 x 34 x 5
2 x 35 x 72
(b) 23 x 33 x 53
24 x 3 x 52 x 7
25 x 32 x 5 x 72
READING ASSIGNMENT
 New General Mathematics for jss 1 by m.Fmacraeetalpg 2526
 Essential Mathematics for jss1 by AjSOluwasanmi, pg 31.
WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT
1. The value of 23 x 32 is (a) 1291 (b) 658 (c) 729 (d)7 36 (e) 54
2. The LCM of 12 and 15 is (a) 90 (b) 60 (c) 30 (d) 120 (e) 180
3. The HCF of 63and 90 is (a) 7 (b) 3 (c) 12 (d) 6 (e) 9
4. The first three common multiples of 3 and 11 are (a) 3, 33, 66, (b) 11, 33, 66 ( c ) 33, 66, 99 (d) 33, 44, 55 (e) 33, 22, 11.
5. Which of the following whole numbers 22, 11, 54, 35, 40, 75, and 105 is /are multiples of 5? (a) 11, 22, 35 (b) 35, 40, 75, 105 ( c ) 54, 35, 40, 75, 105 (d) 35, 54, 40, 75 (e) 105,75,40,35,54.
THEORY
1. Give the first five multiples of the following
I. 5
II 7
III. 11
B Write down four common multiples of the following sets of numbers
I. 3, 4 and 5
II. 3, 10 and 15.
2a. Find the LCM of
I. 9, 24, 32, and 90 II. 2^{3} x 3^{2} x 5 x 7
3 x 5^{3} x 7^{2}
2^{4} x 3 x 7^{2}
3^{2} x 5^{2} x 7^{3}
b. Find the HCF of
i. 126, 234 and 90 ii. 2^{3} x 3^{3} x 5^{3}
b. 63, 42, and 21 2^{4} x 3 x 5^{2} x 7
2^{5} x 3^{2} x 5 x 7^{2}
Presentation
The topic is presented step by step
Step 1:
The class teacher revises the previous topics
Step 2.
He introduces the new topic
Step 3:
The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise
Conclusion
The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.
The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.
He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.