Importance and Benefits of Science

Matter is anything that has weight and occupies space



Term : First Term

Week: Week 1

Class : JSS 1

Previous lesson : The pupils have previous knowledge of various topics that were taught in primary school 

Topic :Living thing and non-living thing (I)

Behavioural objectives :

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • explain what living things are
  • say the characteristics of living things
  • give examples of living things
  • define matter
  • explain the three state of matters


Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education


Content :





Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. All things that exist are all matter.

Matter can be living things such as plants and animals, it can also be non- living things e.g. stones, tables, spoons, papers, etc.

NOTE: Living things are matters that have life in them, while non- living things are matter that have no life in them.


Matter can be identified based on the following criteria

1.Life in them

2. Colour

3. Size


5. Taste

The above are properties of matter which can be used to identify them.

Let’s take SUGAR and IRON as examples.

Sugar is a white crystalline solid which dissolves in water and tastes sweet, while IRON is metallic lustre. It can get rusted in the presence moisture and gives reddish deposit.


Matter can exist in three states, namely:

1. Solid

2. Liquid

3. Gas

The fundamental difference between these three states of matter is the degree of movement of their particles.


  1. The particles are closely packed and held firmly together by forces of cohesion.
  2. The force of cohesion determines the strength of restriction of movement of particles.
  3. The particles can only vibrate and rotate about a fixed position.
  4. Solids have definite shape and are difficult to compress.


  1. The particles are slightly further apart than in solids.
  2. The particles vibrate, rotate and translate.
  3. Their movement are restricted.
  4. They have volume but have no definite shape, instead assume the shape of the container in which they are placed.
  5. Liquid are difficult to compress.


  1. The particles are further spaced apart than in liquid.
  2. Gases vibrate, rotate and translate with more particles.
  3. Gas is  free to move in all directions at great speed.
  4. The particles are restricted by the wall of the container.
  5. Gases have no definite shape.
  6. They occupy the whole volume of their container.
  7. Gases are easily compressed.



Matter is made up of discrete particles. When a substance is heated, its particles acquire more kinetic energy, while when cooled; they lose kinetic energy and become less energetic. Matter can change its state when heated to a particular temperature. Change of state is brought about by heating or cooling. A given substance can exist as solid, liquid and gas.







The main particles of matter are:

  1. Atom
  2. Molecules
  3. Ions



Benefits of science

1. We are able to produce good drugs and vaccine for dangerous diseases and infections
like malaria, cholera, ebola, covid 19 and vaccines for vaccine-
preventable diseases.

2. We are able to discover and explore new galaxies, planets
and perhaps, existence of life on them because of advanced knowledge of science and Technology

3. We value and respect nature because we now have have deeper knowledge of how they exist and their importance to our own existence

4. The knowledge of science and technology make our lives better because we now produce a lot of electrical home gadgets that make live better and fun

5. We can take decisions on
the uses of technology to improve the
world for humans and all living things.

6.  The knowledge of science has improved
the art of making fire and creating more
modern equipment instead of-
hand-crafted tools used in the olden

7. Science has helped us to improve the ways and Manners our farmers go about their business from being subsistence farmers together modern mechanized farmers

8. The knowledge of science has also
helped in the area of agriculture by
facilitating the production of high-
yieding seeds and disease-resistant crops.


Scientific methods of learning

  1. Asking questions :  Scientist ask a lot of questions in respect of how things work. How can we make water
    clean and fit for drinking? ‘Why do some
    objects float on water and others sink in
    it?’ For each question, they then try to find possible answers. What makes the planes or the birds to in the sky?
  2. Observations : Scientists try to study the subject matter of their enquiry very well and make further guesses or suggestions. What really makes the bird to fly, is it the wings of the birds. When scientists are making these observations they make use of thier senses like nose, eyes, skins, ears or skin. Hence they can feel, smell, touch or hear things that surround them in their environment.
  3. Record keeping : The third approach is by recording the
    things they have observed, so that they
    will not easily forget them. Also, it will
    help them to pass on their discoveries
    to other people.
  4. Sorting : This helps scientists to easily classify their discoveries and findings based on some categories like the colour, size, sex, weight, roughness, sound, odour or on any other category that they may deem fit
  5. Hypothesis : Hypothesis is also known as scientific guess that is put forward for further investigation or experimentation in order to establish a scientific fact. Scientists make guesses that can be checked or tested through experiment. Say for instance, they may say it is the wings that make the birds to fly, a bird is caught and the feathers on the wings are pulled out. The bird is later let go into the sky to see and check if the bird will fly
  6. Experiments : These are valid checks that are done tomorrow make sure that their guesses are actually right or wrong. Experiments are usually carried out in the laboratory by scientists. Their findings are recorded
  7. Theory : A theory is established after series of controlled experiments had been carried out in respect of a particular subject of interest. Scientists make records of their findings and outcomes when ever they perform any experiment. If these experiments that are performed kept producing the same results, then theories are made. Some scientific explanations are so well established that no new evidence is likely to alter them. The explanation becomes a scientific theory. In everyday language a theory means a hunch or speculation. Not so in science. In science, the word theory refers to a comprehensive explanation of an important feature of nature supported by facts gathered over time. Theories also allow scientists to make predictions about as yet unobserved phenomena.
  8. Laws : These are the combinations of already conducted and confirmed theories based on several tests and experiments. Scientific laws are similar to scientific theories in that they are principles that can be used to predict the behavior of the natural world. Both scientific laws and scientific theories are typically well-supported by observations and/or experimental evidence. Usually scientific laws refer to rules for how nature will behave under certain conditions, frequently written as an equation. Scientific theories are more overarching explanations of how nature works and why it exhibits certain characteristics. As a comparison, theories explain why we observe what we do and laws describe what happens.

A person that studies Science is called a scientist




The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows  corrects the pupils when and where   the needs arise .




The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.



  • Explain the three states of matter
  • Mention five non living things
  • Write out ten examples of living things
  • Give two main classifications of matter with four examples each.
  • What  is matter?
  • List five properties of matter by which they can be identified
  • Give five examples of matter in your environment that can be identified by using colour.
  • State four properties of solid, liquid and gas.
  • What are the particles of matter?
  • Name the three states of matter.
  • State three properties for each of the states of matter.
  • Name the three states of matter.
  • State three properties for each of the states of matter.
  • What are the particles of matter?
  • Give two main classifications of matter with four examples each.




  1. Matter can broadly be classified into——–and ———–[a] monkey and birds [b] living things and non-living things [c] living things and man [d] non-living things and table.
  2. Examples of living things are the following except———–[a] bird [b] goat [c] grass [d] plastics
  3. All of the following can be compressed except———– [a] oxygen [b] hydrogen [c] carbon dioxide [d] water
  4. In which of the following is the kinetic energy of particles of matter is greatest? [a] gas [b] liquid [c] solid [d] stone
  5. The process whereby a substance in solid state changes directly to gaseous state is known as———— [a] freezing [b] sublimation [c] melting [d] cooling
  6. In a tabular form, give four differences between solid, liquid and gaseous substances.
  7. Write briefly on atom, molecules and ions.
  8. State on item that can exit in the three state of matter which are solid , liquid and gas
  9. What state of matter is fire
  10. Are all living things examples of matter

 Review Questions on Importance and Benefits of Science

  1. What is science
  2. What is technology
  3. What is hypothesis
  4. What is theory
  5. What is experiment
  6. Mention four examples of social science
  7. Give four examples of four natural science
  8. Mention four profession or occupation that a science student can do in the future
  9. What is Biology
  10. Why is it necessary to conduct experiments why scientists have made scientific guesses


Objective Questions on Importance and Benefits of Science and Technology

  1. _______ is a systemic knowledge of observing, guessing and testing in order to know how things work (a) Music (b) Science (c) Accounting
  2. _______ is the application of scientific knowledge to get things done (a) Technology (b) Biology (c) Race
  3. _______ is known as scientific guess (a) Hypothesis (b) Theory (c) Law
  4. The field of science that studies life is known as _______ (a) Biology (b) Physics (c) Chemistry
  5. The knowledge of science and technology has helped man in the field of medicine, music, agriculture, weather, engineering and education (a) true (b) false (c) undecided
  6. A person that studies Science is called a _______ (a) teacher (b) banker (c) scientist