PRIMARY FOUR AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE FIRST TERM

PRIMARY FOUR

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

FIRST TERM

WEEK TOPICS

1. Revision  of some topics in year three’s work

2. The land and the soil

– The meaning of land and soil

(i). Clay soil

(ii). Loamy soil

(iii). Sandy soil

3. Characteristics of types of soil

i. Sandy soil

– Has large, loosely packed particles

– Does not hold water

– Rough when it bis rubbed between the fingers

– Does not hold many nutrient

– Crops do not grow well on sandy soil

ii. Clay soil

– Has small and loosely packed particles

– Smooth when dry and sticky when wet

– Can hold a lot of nutrients

– Does not allow air and water through it

– It holds water very well

– Most crops do not grow on it.

4. Formation of soil

Soil formation

(i). Different types

(ii). How they are formed

5. Properties of Soil: Physical properties Lagos State Ministry of Education Schemes of work for Primary School

6. How to enrich the soil and maintain soil fertility:

Causes of loss in soil fertility

(i). Burning

(ii). Leaching

(iii). Overgrazing

(iv). Cleaning

(v). Clearing

(vi). Erosion etc.

7. Ways of making soil fertile/ How to maintain soil

Fertility

(i). Manuring

(ii). Mulching

(iii). Crop rotation

(iv). Bush fallowing etc.

8. Preparation of compost/manure

(a). Meaning of compost/manure

(b). Method of compost making

1. Pit method

2. Heap method

(c). Materials for compost making

– Dried flowers

– Sewage

– Farmyard waster

– Dry leaves

– Saw dust (use a little)

– House plants

– Weeds without seeds

– Soil

– Water

9. Processes involved in making compost.

– Pit method

i. Dig four pit (a, b, c, & d) of equal sizes Lagos State Ministry of Education Schemes of work for Primary School

(Mx) M X O. 5m

(ii). Empty the compost into pit a. arrange

in layers and wet with water

(iii). After two weeks, move the content in pit

A to pit B. this is called first turn.

(iv). After two weeks, move the content in pit

B to pit C. (second turn)

(v). Finally, move the content in pit C to pit

D. (third)

(vi). The content in pit D is referred to as

compost/manure after 6 – 8 weeks.

Cover to prevent evaporation before

applying to the soil.

– Heap method

Prepared by placing the compost

Materials in a heap buried with soil and

Moistened with water

10. Why farm produce should be processed

– meaning

– Importance of food processing

i. For better usage

ii. Removes poisonous agent

iii. Ready for eating directly or indirectly

iv. Improve food and market values

v. Prepares food for storage

vi. To get different varieties of food stuffs from

the same farm produce.

vii. Provides employment oppourtunities for

people

viii. It makes easier transportation of processed

farm produce easier since it required less

space.

11. Preservation of farm produce

– Meaning of preservation of farm produce Lagos State Ministry of Education Schemes of work for Primary School

– Importance of preservation

i. Retains the colour, taste and nutritional

values

ii. Prolongs life

iii. Makes the available in areas where they

are not produced.

iv. It helps in protecting farm produce

from insects and other pest attack.

v. Makes farm produce remain good and

viable for planting in the next season.

vi. Prevents possible contaminated and

infection from unpreserved food items.

vii. It saves money (buying at cheap price

when in season).

12-13 Revision and Examination

WEEK 2

TOPIC: THE LAND AND THE SOIL

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, Pupils should be able know:

The Meaning of land and soil

The Types of soil

Characteristics of Types of Soil

The Component of soil

Entry Behavior: Pupils are familiar with he topic

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Universal Basic Education Curriculum.

NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for Primary Schools.

Unified Schemes of Work Primary Schools four Agricultural Science (MIDDLE BASIC)

Internet.

Lagos State Agricultural Science Scheme of Work

Agricultural Science for Primary Schools

CONTENT

SOIL

Soil is the Material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow.

TYPES OF SOIL

Soil is divided into three part namely:

Sandy soil;

Clay soil;

Loamy soil.

SANDY SOIL

Sandy soil is a loose material made up of tiny particles. These tiny particles consist of grains of rock (clay or mud). Sandy soil is not good for growing crops because it does not contain decayed animal and plants materials that should enrich the soil

CLAY SOIL

Clay soil is a very fine-grained, smooth soil that can be moulded when wet (moist) and hard when the water in it dries up.

LOAMY SOIL

Loamy soil is a rich soil consisting of a mixture of sand and clay and decaying organic materials (dead plants and animals). It is the best soil for crops growing and can hold enough water.

Characteristics of Types of Soil

CHARACTERISTICS OF SANDY SOIL

It does not contain many nutrients.

It contains loose material of tiny particles

Growth of crops is very poor.

It can’t not hold water.

It is rough when touched with hand.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CLAY SOIL

It is a very fine-grained soil.

It is smooth

It can be used for mounding when wet.

It is hard when the water in it dries up.

Growths of crops are poor on it.

It can hold water.

It has small and closely packed particles.

It can hold a lot of nutrients.

It does not allow air and water through it.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LOAMY SOIL

It is a rich soil.

It contains mixture of sand and clay.

It is the best soil for crops growing.

It can hold enough water

It is rich with nutrients

It is rich with minerals.

COMPONENT OF SOIL

Soil is made up of the following components:

Mineral matters or inorganic matters (45%)

Organic matter (5%)

Soil water (25%)

Soil air (25%)

Living organisms (insignificance)

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

The Teacher revises the previous lesson.

The Teacher introduces the topic.

The Teacher explains the lessons.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

Learners participate in the class discussion

Learners practice how to identify soil

EVALUATIVE ACTIVITIES

Define soil.

Mention Types of soil.

Mention three Characteristics of each Types of Soil.

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarizes the lesson.

WEEK 3

TOPIC: CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPES OF SOIL

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, Pupils should be able know:

The Characteristics of Types of Soil

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Universal Basic Education Curriculum.

NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for Primary Schools.

Unified Schemes of Work Primary Schools four Agricultural Science (MIDDLE BASIC)

Internet.

Lagos State Agricultural Science Scheme of Work

Agricultural Science for Primary Schools.

CONTENT

CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPES OF SOIL

CHARACTERISTICS OF SANDY SOIL

It does not contain many nutrients.

It contains loose material of tiny particles

Growth of crops is very poor.

It can’t not hold water.

It is rough when touched with hand.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CLAY SOIL

It is very fine-grained soil.

It is smooth

It can be used for mounding when wet.

It is hard when the water in it dries up.

Growths of crops are poor on it.

It can hold water.

It has small and closely packed particles.

It can hold a lot of nutrients.

It does not allow air and water through it.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LOAMY SOIL

It is a rich soil.

It contains mixture of sand and clay.

It is the best soil for crops growing.

It can hold enough water

It is rich with nutrients

It is rich with minerals.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

The Teacher revises the previous lesson.

The Teacher introduces the topic.

The Teacher explains the lessons.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

Learners participate in the class discussion

Learners practice how to identify soil

EVALUATIVE ACTIVITIES

Mention three Characteristics of each Types of Soil.

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarizes the lesson.

WEEK 4

TOPIC: FORMATION OF SOIL

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, Pupils should be able to know:

The Agents of soil formation.

How soil is formed

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR/ PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: Pupils are familiar with the characteristics of types of soil.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Universal Basic Education Curriculum.

NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for Primary Schools.

Unified Schemes of Work Primary Schools four Agricultural Science (MIDDLE BASIC)

Internet.

Lagos State Agricultural Science Scheme of Work

Agricultural Science for Primary Schools.

CONTENT

FORMATION OF SOIL

Soil formation show us how soil is formed. Soil is formed when rocks break down into smaller particles. It can also be called Weathering. This happens as a result of the following Agents.

Agents of soil formation

The agent of soil formation is:

Rain

Temperature

Wind

Man

Animals

Plants

RAIN

When rain falls, it touches the rocks which tears out tiny pieces of rocks. The water from the rain will wash these pieces of rock to form soil

TEMPERATURE

High temperature makes rock to expand, crack and break down into small pieces. It is cause by hot sun or heat

WIND

When heavy wind blows, it will blow away small pieces of rocks from the large ones which creates more room for loose rock to fall which later turn to soil.

MAN

Man help in soil formation when he/she make use of some farm tools like hoe on rocky areas, he try to break the little rocks or stones which later turn to soil. Man splitting firewood on the rock or breaking objects on the rock leads to soil formation.

ANIMALS

When huge animal like cattle’s, elephant walk on a rocky place, it breaks the rock into smaller pieces thereby forming soil. Also when animal dies their body decays and mixed with the soil.

PLANT

As plant keeps growing, the root of the plants keep expanding and getting strong on the ground. Like the root of trees breaks down rock particle during expansion and growth. Also when plants die their body decays and mixed with the soil.

THE PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION

The decomposition and dissolution of rocks through weathering and with the help of soil organisms like earthworm. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa and the help of chemical substances in the soil bring about soil formation

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

The Teacher revises the previous lesson (CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPES OF SOIL).

The Teacher introduces the topic (SOIL FORMATION).

The Teacher explains the lessons.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

Learners participate in the class discussion

Learners observe some rock samples

EVALUATIVE ACTIVITIES

Mention three agent of Soil formation.

How is soil formed?

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarizes the lesson.

WEEK 5

TOPIC: PROPERTIES OF SOIL

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, Pupils should be able to know:

Mention the properties of loamy, sandy and clayey oil.

Explain the ways of enriching and maintaining soil fertility.

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR/ PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: Pupils are familiar with the characteristics of types of soil.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Universal Basic Education Curriculum.

NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for Primary Schools.

Unified Schemes of Work Primary Schools four Agricultural Science (MIDDLE BASIC)

Internet.

Lagos State Agricultural Science Scheme of Work

Agricultural Science for Primary Schools.

CONTENT

Physical properties of soil

Each soil type has some physical properties. The property of any soil type is what makes it different from the others.

Sandy soil

This soil is different from clay and loam in many ways. Sandy soil contains tiny stone particles. It is rough when rubbed between the fingers, and it runs freely through the fingers when dry. It is found mostly along footpaths, deserts and erosion areas. It is loose and not that fertile.

CLAYEY

Clayey soil is slippery and sticky when wet. When dry, clayey soil is hard, very smooth, feels like powder, and it cracks. Have you seen a cracked soil before? That is clay. Clay is a bit fertile.

LOAMY SOIL

This soil has properties that are different from sand and clay. Loamy soil has a mixture of the properties of sand and clay. It is very rich in humus. It is, therefore, fertile and the best for farming.

How to enrich the soil

Causes of loss of soil fertility

Soil is said to be fertile when all the nutrients necessary for plant growth and development are present in it. Soil can lose its fertility in five main ways:

In some places, big forests and vast grasslands are set on fire to burn. Some of these areas are good farmlands. When this is done, dead and decaying leaves, grasses and living soil organisms are burnt. Dead leaves, grasses and soil organisms add fertility to the soil. Soil, therefore, loses its fertility when they are burnt.

Leaching

This is the downward movement of nutrients from the top soil to the underground layers of the soil. Some nutrients dissolve in water for plants to absorb as food. When rain falls, some water collects in low-lying areas of the farm and stays there for some time. As this water sinks into the soil, it carries with it dissolved soil nutrients. These nutrients can no longer be available to the plants growing On the surface of the soil. The nutrients are lost or leached away.

Erosion

This is the gradual wearing away of the top soil by water or wind. When rain falls, water flows on the surface of the soil. The water carries the top soil along with it. The top soil contains nutrients dissolved in water. These nutrients are carried away by the flowing water and are no longer available for plants to use.

Wind blows and carries some soil particles from one place to another. This soil contains some nutrients which are also carried away by the wind.

Crop removal

The crops that farmers plant in their farms absorb nutrients from the soil for their growth and development. These nutrients, once taken up or absorbed, are no longer in the soil. Another crop planted in the same soil the following year may not have sufficient nutrients for its own growth and development.

Clean clearing

Leaves on forest trees drop on the soil. These leaves die and decay, and add nutrients to the soil. When these trees are removed and the forest under growths cut, the soil loses its regular supply of nutrients from the forest.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

The Teacher revises the previous lesson.

The Teacher introduces the topic.

The Teacher explains the lessons.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

Learners participate in the class discussion

Learners observe some rock samples

EVALUATIVE ACTIVITIES

Mention the properties of loamy, sandy and clayey oil.

Explain the ways of enriching and maintaining soil fertility.

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarizes the lesson.

WEEK 7

TOPIC: WAYS OF MAKING SOIL FERTILE

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, Pupils should be able to know about:

Ways of making soil fertile.

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR/ PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: pupils are familiar Soil Formation.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Universal Basic Education Curriculum.

NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for Primary Schools.

Unified Schemes of Work Primary Schools four Agricultural Science (MIDDLE BASIC)

Internet.

Lagos State Agricultural Science Scheme of Work

Agricultural Science for Primary School.

CONTENT

WAYS OF MAKING SOIL FERTILE

MANURING: use of manure and fertilizer will give the soil nutrient and make it productive.

MULCHING: it makes soil fertile by covering the top surface of the soil  and plant with palm fronds, leavers to prevent air or winds from blowing the soil particles away and thereby adding nutrient to the soil when it decay.

CROP ROTATION: planting of different crop on a farm land at a time improve the soil fertility.

BUSH FALLOWING: leaving a farm land for sometimes make the soil to regain it loss nutrient and make it fertile again.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

The Teacher revises the previous lesson (SOIL FERTILITY).

The Teacher introduces the topic (WAYS OF MAKING SOIL FERTILE).

The Teacher explains the lessons.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

Learners participate in the class discussion

EVALUATIVE ACTIVITIES

Mention three Causes of loss in soil fertility.

Mention three Ways of making soil fertile

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarizes the lesson.

WEEK 8

TOPIC: PREPARATION OF COMPOST/MANURE

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, Pupils should be able to know about the:

Meaning of compost/manure.

Location of the compost

Methods of compost making

Materials for compost making

Steps in making compost

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Universal Basic Education Curriculum.

NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for Primary Schools.

Unified Schemes of Work Primary Schools four Agricultural Science (MIDDLE BASIC)

Internet.

Lagos State Agricultural Science Scheme of Work

Agricultural Science for Primary Schools.

CONTENT

MEANING OF COMPOST/MANURE

Compost is a mixture of decaying vegetation and manure (animals and plants); used as a fertilizer. Compost improves plants food and makes the crop to grow well. Location of compost

LOCATION OF THE COMPOST

We should consider the following before preparing compost

A source of water should be close by.

The ground should be a level and well drained.

It should be close to the farm garden.

It should be close to where materials for preparing compost will be collected.

There should be some shade to prevent intense sunlight from drying up the heap.

The compost should be store in a cemented with an overhead cover.

MATERIALS FOR MAKING COMPOST

Water

Soil

Plant garbage

Animal muck

Food waste

Little Wood ash (saw dust)

Dried flower

Dry leaves

Weed without seed

METHODS OF COMPOST MAKING

Pit method

Heap Method

STEPS IN MAKING COMPOST (PIT METHOD)

The following are steps for preparing compost using pit method.

Dig four pits labeled A, B, C and D. of equal size (1m * 1m * 0.5m).

Arrange the materials for making compost in layer separated by soil in pit A (Loading pit) and wet with water for easy decomposition.

After two weeks, move the content of pit A to B (first turn).

After about one week, move the content of B to C (second turn).

After another one week, move the content of pit C to D.

Cover the compost to prevent evaporation, leaching and erosion before applying it to the farm.

The content in pit D ids now the COMPOST/MANURE after 6 -8 weeks.

PREPARING COMPOST USING HEAP METHOD

Compost is prepared using heap method by placing the compost materials in a heap buried with soil and moistened with water.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

The Teacher revises the previous lesson (Ways of making soil fertile).

The Teacher introduces the topic (PREPARATIONO OF COMPOST/MANURE).

The Teacher explains the lessons.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

Learners participate in the class discussion

EVALUATIVE ACTIVITIES

What is compost?

List the Methods of compost making

Mention five Materials for compost making

Explain the Steps in making compost

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarizes the lesson.

WEEK 9

TOPIC: PROCESSES OF MAKING COMPOST/MANURE

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, Pupils should be able to know about the:

Methods of compost making

Steps in making compost

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR/ PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: the students are familiar with how to make compost.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Universal Basic Education Curriculum.

NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for Primary Schools.

Unified Schemes of Work Primary Schools four Agricultural Science (MIDDLE BASIC)

Internet.

Lagos State Agricultural Science Scheme of Work

Agricultural Science for Primary School

CONTENT

METHODS OF COMPOST MAKING

Pit method

Heap Method

STEPS IN MAKING COMPOST (PIT METHOD)

The following are steps for preparing compost using pit method.

Dig four pits labeled A, B, C and D. of equal size (1m * 1m * 0.5m).

Arrange the materials for making compost in layer separated by soil in pit A (Loading pit) and wet with water for easy decomposition.

After two weeks, move the content of pit A to B (first turn).

After about one week, moves the content of B to C (second turn).

After another one week, move the content of pit C to D.

Cover the compost to prevent evaporation, leaching and erosion before applying it to the farm.

The content in pit D ids now the COMPOST/MANURE after 6 -8 weeks.

PREPARING COMPOST USING HEAP METHOD

Compost is prepared using heap method by placing the compost materials in a heap buried with soil and moistened with water.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

The Teacher revises the previous lesson (PREPARATION OF COMPOST/MANURE).

The Teacher introduces the topic (PROCESS OF COMPOST/MANURE).

The Teacher explains the lessons.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

Learners participate in the class discussion

EVALUATIVE ACTIVITIES

Explain the Steps in making compost

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarizes the lesson.

WEEK 10&11

TOPIC: WHY FARM PRODUCE SHOULD BE PROCESSED

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, Pupils should be able to know about:

The Meaning of farm produce.

The Importance of food processing

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR/ PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: the students are familiar with process of making compost.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Universal Basic Education Curriculum.

NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for Primary Schools.

Unified Schemes of Work Primary Schools four Agricultural Science (MIDDLE BASIC)

Internet.

Lagos State Agricultural Science Scheme of Work

Agricultural Science for Primary Schools.

WORD FILE: product, grinding.

CONTENT

MEANING OF FARM PROCESSING

It is the process of turning raw food into eatable food and other product.

The processes can be the following:

Sun drying

Peeling

Milling

Soaking

Shelling

Grinding

Sieving

Parboiling

PROCESS OF PROCESSING CASSAVA INTO GARRI

The farmer will harvest the cassava from his/her farmland.

The cassava tubers will peeled

Then the cassava will be wash and taken to a machine for grinding.

After grinding it.

It will be taken to another machine for removal of water.

After the removal of water

It will fried using heat (fire)

Then we will have garri

IMPORTANCE OF FOOD PROCESSING

It improves usage of food.

Improves food value

Removal of poisonous agents from the food.

Helps in storage of food

Provide employment

Provide source of income

It enables us to get different kinds of food from a farm produce.

It makes transporting of produce easy.

Importance of food processing

NSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

The Teacher revises the previous lesson (PROCESS OF MAKING COMPOST).

The Teacher introduces the topic (WHY FARM PRODUCE SHOULD BE PROCESSED).

The Teacher explains the lessons.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

Learners participate in the class discussion

Learners identify process and unprocessed food.

EVALUATIVE ACTIVITIES

Define farm produce.

List three Importance of food processing

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarizes the lesson.

 

(Visited 1,527 times, 1 visits today)

error: Content is protected !!