Weather : Meaning, Instrument, Symbols, and Records Basic Science Primary 4 First Term Lesson Notes Week 8

Class: Primary 4

Subject: Basic Science

Topic: Weather: Meaning, Instruments, Symbols, and Records

Sub-topic: Understanding weather, weather instruments, weather symbols, keeping weather records

Duration: 45 minutes

Term: First Term

Week: 8

Previous Knowledge: Students have learned about different seasons and basic weather conditions.

Set Induction: Begin the class by discussing the weather outside. Ask students about the current weather, if it’s sunny, rainy, windy, or cloudy.

Behavioural Objectives: By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

  1. Define what weather is.
  2. Identify some weather instruments and their uses.
  3. Recognize common weather symbols.
  4. Understand why we keep weather records.

Embedded Core Skills: Observational skills, critical thinking, and recording.

Learning Materials:

  1. Pictures of weather symbols.
  2. Diagrams of weather instruments.
  3. A whiteboard and markers.
  4. A chart illustrating weather records.

Teaching Methods:

  • Interactive discussion.
  • Use of visual aids.
  • Group activities.


Meaning of Weather: Weather refers to the atmospheric conditions in a specific place at a given time. It includes factors like temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed, cloud cover, and atmospheric pressure.

Instruments for Measuring Weather:

  1. Thermometer: A device used to measure temperature. It consists of a bulb containing a liquid (often mercury) that expands or contracts with changes in temperature.
  2. Anemometer: An instrument for measuring wind speed. It typically consists of cups or blades that rotate in the wind.
  3. Barometer: A tool used to measure atmospheric pressure. It can indicate whether pressure is rising or falling, which is important for weather forecasting.
  4. Hygrometer: A device to measure humidity in the air. It can be a wet-bulb/dry-bulb thermometer or an electronic sensor.
  5. Rain Gauge: An instrument to measure the amount of rainfall. It usually consists of a funnel that directs rainwater into a calibrated container.

Weather Symbols: Weather symbols are simple graphical representations used in weather maps and forecasts to convey information about conditions. Some common symbols include:

  • ☀️ for sunny weather
  • 🌧️ for rain
  • ⛈️ for thunderstorms
  • 🌪️ for tornadoes
  • 🌫️ for fog
  • ❄️ for snow
  • 🌀 for hurricanes

These symbols help people quickly understand the expected weather conditions.

Weather Records: Weather records are historical data that describe past weather conditions. They include temperature records, rainfall measurements, wind speeds, and more. These records are valuable for various purposes, including climate studies, agriculture, and disaster preparedness.

Weather records can help identify long-term trends in weather patterns, understand climate change, and make informed decisions based on historical data.

These concepts are essential for understanding and predicting weather conditions, making informed decisions, and even contributing to environmental conservation efforts.

Step 1 – Introduction (10 minutes):

  • Start by asking students what they know about the weather.
  • Define weather as the day-to-day condition of the atmosphere. It includes aspects like temperature, wind, rain, and sunshine.

Step 2 – Weather Instruments (15 minutes):

  • Introduce common weather instruments: thermometer (temperature), anemometer (wind speed), hygrometer (humidity), barometer (pressure), and rain gauge (rainfall).
  • Explain the purpose of each instrument and show diagrams for better understanding.

Step 3 – Weather Symbols and Records (15 minutes):

  • Display pictures of weather symbols and explain what each symbol represents (e.g., ☀️ for sunny, 🌧️ for rainy).
  • Discuss why we keep weather records: to track patterns, predict future weather, and understand climate changes.
  • Show a simple chart with weather records to illustrate.

Teacher’s Activities:

  • Lead the discussion.
  • Use visual aids effectively.
  • Monitor and guide student activities.

Learners Activities:

  • Participate in discussions.
  • Identify weather instruments and symbols.
  • Understand the importance of keeping weather records.


  1. Ask students to draw a weather symbol of their choice and explain what it represents.
  2. Discuss the role of each weather instrument in a brief quiz.
  3. Encourage students to explain why weather records are important.
  4. Weather refers to the atmospheric conditions in a specific place at a given ____. a) time b) temperature c) temperature
  5. A device used to measure temperature is called a _______________. a) thermometer b) barometer c) anemometer
  6. An instrument for measuring wind speed is known as an _______________. a) anemometer b) hygrometer c) barometer
  7. The device that measures atmospheric pressure is a _______________. a) barometer b) thermometer c) hygrometer
  8. A tool used to measure humidity in the air is called a _______________. a) hygrometer b) barometer c) thermometer
  9. Rainfall is measured using a device called a _______________. a) rain gauge b) thermometer c) anemometer
  10. Weather symbols are graphical representations used in __________ maps. a) weather b) science c) road
  11. The weather symbol for sunny weather is __________. a) ☀️ b) ❄️ c) 🌧️
  12. A symbol for rain in weather forecasts is __________. a) 🌧️ b) 🌪️ c) ☀️
  13. Weather records are historical data that describe past __________ conditions. a) weather b) road c) building
  14. Weather records are valuable for studying long-term __________ patterns. a) climate b) weather c) road
  15. Weather records help identify trends and understand __________ change. a) climate b) weather c) road
  16. The symbol for fog in weather forecasts is __________. a) 🌫️ b) 🌪️ c) ☀️
  17. In weather maps, the symbol ❄️ represents __________. a) snow b) sun c) rain
  18. A rain gauge is used to measure the amount of __________. a) rainfall b) sunlight c) wind


This simplified lesson plan aims to make the topic more accessible to Primary 4 students, ensuring they grasp the basic concepts of weather, instruments, symbols, and records.