# Properties, Area and Perimeter of Squares and Rectangles Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes  Mathematics Week 4

### Lesson Plan: Properties, Area, and Perimeter of Squares and Rectangles

Mathematics

Primary 4

Third Term

4

#### Topic:

Properties, Area, and Perimeter of Squares and Rectangles

#### Sub-topic:

Differences and similarities, calculations of area and perimeter, real-life applications

1 Hour

### Behavioral Objectives:

By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

1. Differentiate between a square and a rectangle.
2. Identify and describe the properties of squares and rectangles.
3. Calculate the area and perimeter of squares and rectangles.
4. Apply these calculations to solve real-life problems.

• Square
• Rectangle
• Area
• Perimeter
• Length
• Width
• Side
• Angle

### Entry Behavior:

Pupils should know basic shapes and simple multiplication.

### Learning Resources and Materials:

• Flashcards with shapes (square and rectangle)
• Rulers
• Graph paper
• Colored pencils

### Building Background/Connection to Prior Knowledge:

• Pupils have learned basic shapes and simple measurements in earlier classes.
• Pupils know how to multiply small numbers.

### Embedded Core Skills:

• Critical thinking
• Problem-solving
• Measurement skills

### Learning Materials:

• Lagos State Scheme of Work
• Mathematics textbook
• Chart showing properties of squares and rectangles

### Instructional Materials:

• Flashcards with shapes
• Whiteboard and markers
• Rulers
• Graph paper

### Content:

• Properties of squares and rectangles
• Area and perimeter formulas
• Real-life applications

### Properties of Squares and Rectangles

1. Square 🟦
• All four sides are the same length.
• All four angles are right angles (90°).
• Opposite sides are parallel.
2. Rectangle 🟩
• Opposite sides are the same length.
• All four angles are right angles (90°).
• Opposite sides are parallel.

### Differences between a Square and a Rectangle

1. Side Lengths:
• Square: All sides are equal.
• Rectangle: Opposite sides are equal, but not all four sides.
2. Special Case:
• A square is a special type of rectangle where all sides are equal.

### Formulas for Area and Perimeter

1. Square 🟦
• Area: Side × Side
• Example: If one side is 4 cm, Area = 4 cm × 4 cm = 16 cm²
• Perimeter: 4 × Side
• Example: If one side is 4 cm, Perimeter = 4 × 4 cm = 16 cm
2. Rectangle 🟩
• Area: Length × Width
• Example: If length is 5 cm and width is 3 cm, Area = 5 cm × 3 cm = 15 cm²
• Perimeter: 2 × (Length + Width)
• Example: If length is 5 cm and width is 3 cm, Perimeter = 2 × (5 cm + 3 cm) = 16 cm

### Real-Life Problem Solving

1. Finding the area to lay tiles:
• If a room is a square of 6 m each side, the area is 6 m × 6 m = 36 m².
• If a garden is a rectangle with a length of 8 m and width of 5 m, the area is 8 m × 5 m = 40 m².
2. Calculating the perimeter to put a fence:
• If you want to fence a square playground with each side of 10 m, the perimeter is 4 × 10 m = 40 m.
• If you want to fence a rectangular yard of 12 m by 7 m, the perimeter is 2 × (12 m + 7 m) = 38 m.

### Examples with Emoji

1. Square Example 🟦:
• Imagine a small park that is a square shape with each side of 5 meters. The area is 5 m × 5 m = 25 m², and the perimeter is 4 × 5 m = 20 m.
2. Rectangle Example 🟩:
• Think of a classroom that is a rectangle with a length of 8 meters and a width of 6 meters. The area is 8 m × 6 m = 48 m², and the perimeter is 2 × (8 m + 6 m) = 28 m.

By understanding these properties and formulas, you can easily solve many problems in everyday life. Happy learning! 🎓📏📐

### Class Activity Discussion on Squares and Rectangles

1. Q: What is a square?
• A: A square is a shape with four equal sides and four right angles.
2. Q: What is a rectangle?
• A: A rectangle is a shape with opposite sides equal and four right angles.
3. Q: How are a square and a rectangle different?
• A: A square has all sides equal, while a rectangle has opposite sides equal.
4. Q: What are the properties of a square?
• A: Four equal sides, four right angles, and opposite sides parallel.
5. Q: What are the properties of a rectangle?
• A: Opposite sides equal, four right angles, and opposite sides parallel.
6. Q: How do you find the area of a square?
• A: Multiply one side by itself (Side × Side).
7. Q: How do you find the area of a rectangle?
• A: Multiply the length by the width (Length × Width).
8. Q: How do you find the perimeter of a square?
• A: Multiply one side by four (4 × Side).
9. Q: How do you find the perimeter of a rectangle?
• A: Add the length and width, then multiply by two (2 × (Length + Width)).
10. Q: Can a square be a rectangle?
• A: Yes, because a square has all properties of a rectangle.
11. Q: If a square has a side of 5 cm, what is its area?
• A: The area is 5 cm × 5 cm = 25 cm².
12. Q: If a rectangle has a length of 8 cm and a width of 3 cm, what is its area?
• A: The area is 8 cm × 3 cm = 24 cm².
13. Q: If a square has a side of 6 cm, what is its perimeter?
• A: The perimeter is 4 × 6 cm = 24 cm.
14. Q: If a rectangle has a length of 7 cm and a width of 4 cm, what is its perimeter?
• A: The perimeter is 2 × (7 cm + 4 cm) = 22 cm.
15. Q: How can you use these shapes in real life?
• A: To find areas for flooring or perimeters for fencing.

### Evaluation Questions

1. A square has all four sides of __________ length.
• a) different
• b) same
• c) uneven
• d) equal
2. A rectangle has __________ pairs of equal sides.
• a) one
• b) two
• c) three
• d) four
3. The angles in a square are all __________ degrees.
• a) 45
• b) 60
• c) 90
• d) 120
4. The formula for the area of a square is __________.
• a) Side + Side
• b) Side × Side
• c) Side ÷ Side
• d) Side – Side
5. The perimeter of a rectangle is calculated as __________.
• a) 2 × (Length + Width)
• b) Length × Width
• c) Length + Width
• d) Length – Width
6. A square is a special type of __________.
• a) triangle
• b) circle
• c) rectangle
• d) oval
7. The opposite sides of a rectangle are __________.
• a) parallel
• b) not parallel
• c) equal
• d) a and c
8. If one side of a square is 7 cm, its area is __________ cm².
• a) 7
• b) 14
• c) 49
• d) 21
9. If the length of a rectangle is 8 cm and the width is 3 cm, the perimeter is __________ cm.
• a) 22
• b) 24
• c) 30
• d) 16
10. A square has __________ sides.
• a) three
• b) four
• c) five
• d) six
11. The opposite sides of a rectangle are of __________ length.
• a) equal
• b) different
• c) mixed
• d) any
12. If a rectangle has a length of 9 cm and a width of 5 cm, its area is __________ cm².
• a) 14
• b) 45
• c) 35
• d) 25
13. All angles in a rectangle are __________ degrees.
• a) 45
• b) 60
• c) 90
• d) 120
14. If the side of a square is 4 meters, the perimeter is __________ meters.
• a) 12
• b) 16
• c) 8
• d) 4
15. A rectangle with a length of 6 meters and a width of 2 meters has a perimeter of __________ meters.
• a) 16
• b) 12
• c) 8
• d) 10

### Presentation:

#### Step 1: Revision of Previous Topic (5 minutes)

The teacher revises the previous topic on basic shapes and measurements. Pupils will be asked to name and describe some shapes they know.

#### Step 2: Introduction of New Topic (10 minutes)

The teacher introduces the new topic and explains that today they will learn about squares and rectangles, their properties, and how to calculate their area and perimeter.

Teacher’s Activities:

• Show flashcards of squares and rectangles.
• Explain the properties of each shape.

Properties of a Square:

• All sides are equal.
• All angles are 90 degrees.
• Opposite sides are parallel.

Properties of a Rectangle:

• Opposite sides are equal.
• All angles are 90 degrees.
• Opposite sides are parallel.

#### Step 3: Contributions and Corrections (15 minutes)

The teacher allows pupils to describe the shapes and identify their properties. The teacher corrects any mistakes.

Teacher’s Activities:

• Draw examples on the board.
• Ask pupils to come to the board and identify properties.

Learners’ Activities:

• Pupils describe and identify properties of shapes.
• Pupils come to the board and participate in identifying properties.

#### Step 4: Calculating Area and Perimeter (15 minutes)

The teacher explains how to calculate the area and perimeter of squares and rectangles.

Formulas:

• Square Area: Side × Side
• Square Perimeter: 4 × Side
• Rectangle Area: Length × Width
• Rectangle Perimeter: 2 × (Length + Width)

Examples:

• Square: If the side is 4 cm, Area = 4 cm × 4 cm = 16 cm², Perimeter = 4 × 4 cm = 16 cm
• Rectangle: If length is 5 cm and width is 3 cm, Area = 5 cm × 3 cm = 15 cm², Perimeter = 2 × (5 cm + 3 cm) = 16 cm

Teacher’s Activities:

• Write examples on the board.
• Guide pupils through calculations.

Learners’ Activities:

• Pupils solve example problems in their notebooks.

#### Step 5: Real-Life Applications (10 minutes)

The teacher explains how these calculations are used in real life, like finding the area of a room for tiles or the perimeter for fencing.

Teacher’s Activities:

• Provide real-life scenarios.
• Guide pupils to solve these problems.

Learners’ Activities:

• Pupils solve real-life problems in groups.
• Pupils share their answers with the class.

### Assessment:

• Teacher gives exercises based on the topic.

#### Ten Evaluation Questions:

1. What is the shape with all sides equal called?
• a) Rectangle
• b) Triangle
• c) Square
• d) Circle
2. What is the sum of all angles in a rectangle?
• a) 360°
• b) 180°
• c) 90°
• d) 120°
3. A square has all four sides of __________ length.
• a) different
• b) same
• c) uneven
• d) equal
4. The area of a square with a side of 6 cm is __________.
• a) 12 cm²
• b) 24 cm²
• c) 36 cm²
• d) 48 cm²
5. The perimeter of a rectangle with length 7 cm and width 3 cm is __________.
• a) 10 cm
• b) 14 cm
• c) 20 cm
• d) 28 cm
6. The opposite sides of a rectangle are __________.
• a) parallel
• b) not parallel
• c) equal
• d) a and c
7. If one side of a square is 8 cm, its perimeter is __________.
• a) 16 cm
• b) 24 cm
• c) 32 cm
• d) 64 cm
8. The formula for the area of a rectangle is __________.
• a) Length × Width
• b) Length + Width
• c) 2 × (Length + Width)
• d) Length ÷ Width
9. If a rectangle has a length of 10 cm and a width of 5 cm, its area is __________.
• a) 15 cm²
• b) 20 cm²
• c) 25 cm²
• d) 50 cm²
10. The perimeter of a square with a side of 9 cm is __________.
• a) 18 cm
• b) 27 cm
• c) 36 cm
• d) 45 cm

### Conclusion:

• The teacher goes around to mark the pupils’ work.
• The teacher provides feedback and additional practice if needed.
• The teacher summarizes the key points of the lesson.

### Reference Books:

• Lagos State Scheme of Work
• Primary 4 Mathematics Textbook

### Embedded Core Skills:

• Critical thinking
• Problem-solving
• Measurement skills

### Learning Resources and Materials:

• Flashcards with shapes
• Rulers
• Graph paper
• Colored pencils

This lesson plan ensures pupils understand the properties, area, and perimeter of squares and rectangles and how to apply this knowledge in real life.

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