Subject : 

Physical and Health Education 

Term :




Class :


Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of

   Implications of Human Trafficking

that was taught as a topic during the last lesson.

Topic :


Behavioural objectives :

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • Define tort in sports
  • Mentions types of torts in physical education
  • Explain what is negligence?
  • Explain what is legal liability?
  • Say the precautionary measures a physical educator should take to avoid being sue?
  • Mention four ways by which negligence can be shown by a physical education instructor?


Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks



Introduction to Sports Laws

Physical Education has a lot of professional hazards, so it can be regarded as one of the most risky professions.

The Physical educator should be aware of what should be done as a reasonable and prudent person to avoid legal liability, as knowing the status  of pupils’ health, avoidance of the use of faulty facilities and teaching according to the level of maturity of the students. Therefore in any situation, be it in the classroom, the playground or on a class visitation, the teacher is responsible for the welfare and safety of his pupils.


This is an act in which a physical education teacher knowingly or unknowingly, behaves in a way that exposes the students to injuries. Tort is a form of professional misdeed that can be an act of omission or commission which is punishable under the law.

(i) Act of commission (Action): This is when teacher’s action deliberately or knowingly leads a student into injuries.

(ii) Act of omission (In-action): This is when teacher’s action unknowingly leads students into injuries.


Negligence occurs when a physical educationist or instructor or teacher fails to perform his/her functions or duties. Negligence is also the failure to act reasonably and carefully to avoid exposing others to unreasonable risk or injury. Negligence may also be termed as an act of carelessness or nonchalant attitudes towards work ethics or conducts

A physical educator may be careless or negligent in the following ways:

(i) If he didn’t take appropriate care or consideration of the learners under him

(ii) If didn’t give adequate warning to students

(iii) Inadequate supervision on the part of the teacher

(iv) Poor selection of playing ground

(v) Refusal to consider faulty equipment

(vi) Poor selection of activities

(vii) Acting without adequate skill

(viii) Failure to take protective measures

(ix) Poor instruction about activity

Legal Liability

This is a condition of affairs which gives rise to court action.

Liability means the state of being liable, that is, responsible to law. There are various aspect of liability in law, such as criminal liability, contractual liability, and tort liability.

Criminal liability: This is an act against society where the government prosecutes on behalf of the public, e. g arm robbery, murder, and rape.

Assumption of Risk: An individual takes a risk when engaging participating in various different games and sports; where bodies are coming in contacts with each other. A spectator at a football match who chooses to sit behind the goal post has assumed the risk of being hit by ball.

Contributory Negligence: This is a charge brought against the plaintiff who did not exercise any care to prevent an injury that he subsequently causes actionable negligence of another person e.g. a person is hit while walking on the wrong side of road by a car which exceeded the lawful speed limit.

Attractive Nuisance: This is whatever is injurious to health, indecent or offensive to the senses. Any unguided dangerous apparatus, building pavement, etc. with which one is likely to play would be regarded as attractive nuisance.

Act of God: This is a situation that exists because of certain conditions that are beyond the control of human beings, e.g. lightening, rain, earthquake, etc.


Precautions Against Liability

The following are precautions a physical educator should take in order to avoid being sued:

(i) Every instructor or educator should be properly trained and qualified to perform special work.

(ii) Be familiar with the health status of each child.

(iii) Be sure that both equipment and facilities are safe to use.

(iv) There should be regular inspection of equipment and apparatus.

(v) Students should be grouped on equal ability on the same competitive level.




The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.





  1. Say two health implications of human trafficking
  2. Define tort.
  3. What is negligence?
  4. What is legal liability?
  5. What are the precautionary measures a physical educator should take to avoid being suit?
  6. Mention four ways of negligence by a physical educator.
  7. What is physical education
  8. Explain four various financial implications of human trafficking
  9. LIst three social implications of human trafficking
  10. Mention two characterized behaviour that exhibit tort