Meaning, Causes and Types of Postural Defects





Subject : 

Physical and Health Education 

Term :




Class :


Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of


that was taught as a topic during the last lesson.

Topic :

Meaning, Causes and Types of Postural Defects 

Behavioural objectives :

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • Explain the meaning of Postural Defects
  • Say the causes of Postural Defects
  • List types of Postural Defects
  • Mention four (4) characteristics of a good posture.
  • List five (5) kinds of posture.
  • Enumerate five factors that influence posture.


Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks



Meaning of Postural Defects/Deviation


Meaning of Postural Defects/Deviation

Postural defects is the abnormal way of holding or carrying the body during the performance of various activities due to deviation from the normal axis of the bones, joint stiffening, and loss of muscle tone.

Aiding Factors of Postural Defects

The following factors are known to aid postural defects:

(i) Heredity

(ii) Muscles weakness

(iii) Occupation

(iv) Bad habit of movement

(v) Injuries, disease and infections

(vi) Defective sense organs

(vii) Rapid growth

(viii) Overweight

(ix) Accident


Kinds of Postural Defects

The following are the kinds of postural defects:

  1. KYPHOSIS (Round shoulders): Kyphosis is a defect of the spine due to deficiency of vitamin D which is essential for the building of strong bones. The upper spine become excessively curved as a result of squeeze chest muscles and overstretched back muscles.

Causes of Kyphosis

Kyphosis is caused by the following:

(i) Carrying of heavy load on the back

(ii) Sitting an infant too early

(iii) Weak chest/back muscles

(iv) Accidents

(v) Diseases

(vi) Lack of physical exercise

Treatment of Kyphosis

The treatment of Kyphosis include the following:

(i) Participation in sports

(ii) Rest and immobilization

(iii0 Diet rich in vitamin D

(iv) X-ray examination

(iv) Physiotherapy and supportive brace


  1. LORDOSIS: (Over extension of the lumber region): Lordosis refers to the excessive lateral curvature of the lumber region. This is due to the exaggerated tilt of the pelvis in congenital hip dislocation. Is is also caused by weak abdominal muscles due to the pressure exerted on it by fats in the abdomen.

Causes of Lordosis

Lordosis can be caused by the following:

(i) Congenital problem

(ii) Weak abdominal muscles

(iii) Lack of exercise

(iv) Accident

(v) Disease

Treatment of Lordosis

Lordosis can be treated by the following:

(i) Diet rich in vitamin D and calcium.

(ii) Exercises to strengthen the abdominal muscles.


  1. FLAT FOOT: Flat foot is a situation where the arc of the foot is lost. It is common among children but gets corrected as they grow. There are three types of flat foot, namely mobile flat foot, rigid flat foot, and spastic flat foot

(a) Mobile flat foot: It develops when the arches sag due to weak muscles and ligament as a result of increase in weight

(b) Rigid flat foot: It develops due to strain of excessive walking and obesity

(c) Spastic flat foot: Is as a result of disease or congenital abnormality

Causes of Flat Foot

The following are the causes of flat foot:

(i) Overweight

(ii) Rapid growth

(iii) Diseases

(iv) Congenital problem

(v) Obesity

(vi) Excessive walking


Treatment of Flat Foot

(i) Constant exercise and physiotherapy to improve muscles tone

(ii) Arches supported inside the shoe


  1. VARUS KNEE (Bow-legs): This is a deformity in which part of a limb is turned inward to an abnormal degree. It is a deformity in which the two leg form an arc. Bow usually improve with age.
  2. VALGUS KNEE (K-legs): This is a deformity in which there is an abnormal displacement of the limbs away from the midline of the body. A valgus deformity of the knee is a knock-knee deformity.





The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.




  1. Define posture.
  2. Mention four (4) characteristics of a good posture.
  3. List five (5) kinds of posture.
  4. Enumerate five factors that influence posture.
  5. Mention three (3) causes of kyphosis.
  6. Mention three aiding factors of postural defects.
  7. Mention two treatments of lordosis .