1. Meaning of School Health Programme
  2. The Components of School Health Programme


Meaning of School Health Programme

The school health program is an integral (important) part of community health. It mainly refers to all the health activities and measures that are carried out with the community to promote and protect the health of the students as well as the school personnel, These activities may take place both within and outside the school compound.

The Components of School Health Programme

School health program has been divided into four interrelated areas, namely:

  1. Healthful school environment.
  2. Health services.
  3. School health education.
  4. School community relationship.

Healthful School Environment

This is the totality of physical, social, mental and emotional aspect of the school and the measure provided to ensure health and safety of students and staff.

Health Services

Health education means science of health behavior, as well as education process used to bring about positive and mental health.

In school health services activities involved include,

  • Community scientific health information.
  • Developing favorable health attitudes.
  • Bringing about the target population involvement.
  • Planning for meeting the needs.
  • Helping to promote voluntary health habits.

School Health Education

Knowledge and experiences gained enable students, community as well as individuals to practice health habits and live a healthy life.

School Community Relationship

This is concerned with all scientific measure for improving the quality of life so that people will enjoy long life.



  1. What is school health program?
  2. list three components of school health program



  1. Meaning of Environmental Pollution
  2. Types of Environmental Pollution


Meaning of Environmental Pollution

Environmental Pollution is the introduction of unwanted materials into the environment, thereby making it unfit for human habitation.

Types of Environmental Pollution

The following are types of environmental pollution

  • Air Pollution
  • Water Pollution
  • Land Pollution
  • Noise Pollution

Others include:

  • Visual Pollution
  • Thermal Pollution
  • Radioactive Pollution


Air Pollution

This is the addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage of the environment, human health and quality of life. Examples of such pollutants are smoke, carbon monoxide dust, etc.

Water Pollution

This is the contamination of streams, lakes, underground, water, bags or oceans by substances harmful to living thing e.g. oil spillage, faces sewage, etc.

Land Pollution

Land pollution involves the deposition on land of solid wastage e.g. Wed cars, cans bottles, plastic container paper etc. Noise is combination of sound in pleasant to the hearing e.g. traffic generator radio etc.

Noise Pollution

Noise pollution encompasses roadway noise, aircraft, loud speaker and industrial noise.

Visual pollution

This refers to presence of overhead power lines motor way bill board or pornography.

Thermal Pollution

This is a temperature change in natural water e.g use of water as coolant in a power plant.

Radioactive Contamination

Such as nuclear power penetration, nuclear weapon search.

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  1. Define the term pollution.
  2. List and explain three types of pollution.



  1. Prevention of Air Pollution
  2. Prevention of Water Pollution
  3. Prevention of Noise Pollution
  4. Prevention of Land Pollution


Prevention of Air Pollution

Air pollution can be prevented by the following measures:

  1. Ensure good health habit
  2. Provide cross ventilation in your room
  3. All smoky vehicles on the road should be banned.
  4. Industries/factories should not be located near dwelling houses

Prevention of Water Pollution

Water pollution can be avoided by applying the following preventive measures:

  1. Observe good cleaning habits
  2. Factories and industries should dispose their waste properly instead of using rivers,lakes, streams
  3. Avoid using dangerous chemicals

Prevention of Noise Pollution

Noise pollution can be prevented in the following ways:

  1. Reduce the volume of your radio and television.
  2. Legislation against the use of siren.
  3. Educate the public or give public enlightenment campaign.

Prevention of Land Pollution

The following are the preventive measures against land pollution:

  1. Provide good public toilets.
  2. Ensure good cleanliness of the environment.
  3. Burn or bury all waste from the house.
  4. Water ways for erosion should be constructed.



  1. What is environmental pollution?
  2. Mention four (4) ways of preventing environmental pollution.



  1. Meaning of FRESH
  2. FRESH Approach to School Health Programme


Meaning of FRESH

FRESH is an acronym for Focusing Resources on Effective School Health.

FRESH Approach to School Health Programme

The major strategies to enhance the development, realization and sustainability of the school health programme are good planning, administration and evaluation. These strategies can be further broken into the following specifics:

(i) Written school health programme: Policies and guidelines for the implementation of the policy should be in place.

(ii) Adequate funds and facilities: Political commitment, financial and technical support should be readily available.

(iii) School health coordinator: It is essential to have one directly in charge in coordinating capacity. Mechanical, dental, nursing ,and other consultants should be available.

(iv) Capacity building: In-service education for all health personnel should be encouraged to be up-to-date in health matters.

(v) Partnership and collaboration: All the stakeholders must work as a team while implementing their areas of role. Depend on the extent to which community members are aware of ,and willing to support health promotion efforts.

(vi) Monitoring and evaluation: Evaluation of health needs and its effectiveness of school health programme is very important for improvement.

(vii) Research and knowledge sharing: Research into school health issues should be carried out and widely publicized for promoting healthy living.



  1. Write in full the acronym FRESH.
  2. List six strategies to enhance the school health programme.



  1. Meaning of Non-communicable Diseases
  2. Causes of Non-communicable Diseases
  3. Common Non-communicable Diseases and their Causes
  4. Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases


Meaning of Non-communicable Diseases

Non-communicable diseases are diseases that cannot be transmitted from one to another.

Causes of Non-communicable Diseases

They have many causes but are never caused by germs, bacteria or other living organisms that attack the body. They are rather caused by:

  1. Atomic fallouts
  2. Chemical fallouts
  3. Physiological failure of the tissues
  4. Brain damage
  5. Congenital problems
  6. Dietary imbalance
  7. Malnutrition
  8. Heredity
  9. Endocrine/hormonal accident

Atomic fallout: Deposition on the surface of the earth of radioactive particles, released into the atmosphere as a result of nuclear explosions and by discharge from nuclear-power and atomic installations.

Chemical fallouts: Chemical agents such as nerve gas, or biological weapons such as the contagious disease anthrax.

Physiological failures of the tissues: Inability of the body tissues to work properly.

Brain damage: Injury to the brain tissue that can impair its ability to function.

Congenital problem: Also called congenital disorders, any abnormalities of structure or function that are present at birth.

Dietary imbalance: Poor diet and malnutrition.

Common Non-communicable Diseases and their Causes

S/n Diseases Causes
1. Rheumatism, heart-attack, epileptic
fits, migraines, cataract, cancer
Physiological failure of the tissues
2. Snake-bite, cough from smoke, stomach
ulcer, alcoholism, allergies, asthma
Chemical or atomic fallouts
3. Marasmus, pellagra, anaemia, goiter,
kwashiorkor, cirrhosis
Malnutrition, dietary imbalance
4. Hare-lip, crossed eyes, epilepsy, retarded
brain, birthmark, other deformities,
sickle cell, marasmus
Congenital problem or heredity
5. Paranoia, anxiety, neurosis, schizophrenia,
phobias, psychosis, hypochondria
Brain damage or emotional

Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases

  1. Personal hygiene
  2. Eat balance diet
  3. Regular check- up in good hospital
  4. Regular exercise
  5. Immunization
  6. Use insecticide mosquito net
  7. Drink water free from germs

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  1. Define non-communicable diseases


(i) Sickle Cell

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder of the blood leading to frequent and severe infection damage to major organs and episodes of unpredictable pains in the back, chest, abdomen and extremities. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a defective genes that produces an abnormal form of hemoglobin.

(ii) Boils

A painful pus filled abscess on the skin caused by bacteria infection of a hair follicle

(iii) Marasmus

This is a disease resulting from protein energy malnutrition (PEM). Marasmus occurs when a child is weaned earlier than normal and receives foods low in nutrients. A child with maramus is very underweight, with no body fit and wasted muscles.

(iv) Kwashiorkor

This occurs when a child is weaned later than normal and receives starchy foods low in protein. Kwashiorkor is a disease resulting from a deficiency of dietary protein relative to calorie intake. Kwashiorkor is characterized by swollen and discolored skin on the arms and legs, thin and pale hair that is easily and painlessly pulled out, diarrhea, loss of appetite.

(v) Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition characterized by storage of excess body fat. The human body naturally stores fat tissue under the skin and around organs and joint.

(vi) Rickets

Rickets is a nutritional disorder characterized by skeletal deformities. Rickets is caused by a decreased concentration of the mineral hydroxyapatite in bones and cartilage due to low levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Generally, rickets leads to skeletal deformities.

(vii) Otitis media

Otitis media is the infection of the middle ear, whether acute or chronic. It is characterized by pus forming as a result of the bacteria that enter the middle ear through the Eustachian tube. It can also result into hearing impairment.

(viii) Dental carries

This is another word for tooth decay. Dental carries are three main diseases of human teeth which are gum disease, periodontal disease and malocclusion i.e. problems with tooth alignment. When bacteria in the teeth (due to lack of care) are exposed to sugars commonly found in the foods, the bacteria produce harmful acids that attack tooth enamel. Left unchecked, the acid eats holes in the enamel and forms cavities causing tooth decays.



  1. What are non-communicable diseases?
  2. Enumerate five (5) types of non-communicable diseases.
  3. Mention three (3) causes of non-communicable diseases