Factors that Influence Posture


Meaning of Posture

Posture can be defined as the position the whole body assumes during the performance of any activity. Posture is also defined as the bearing of the body at any time, in any direction easily and without strains and minimum muscular effort.

When the body is carried in a proper way as expected by the physiological makeup of the individual, it is then referred to as good or ideal posture.

Factors that Influence Posture

The following are the factors that influence posture:

(i) Age

(ii) Occupation

(iii) Habit

(iv) Environment

(v) Heredity

Characteristics of Good Posture

The features or characteristics of good posture are as follows:

(i) The head is well back

(ii) The chin is in

(iii) The abdomen is flat

(iv) The back is straight

(v) The knees are straight and relax

(vi) The feet are slightly apart

(vii) The weight balances on both feet

(viii) The toes are pointed straight ahead

(ix) The chest is lifted forward and backward

(x) The buttocks are tucked under slightly


Values/Importance of Good Posture

The following are the importance of good posture:

(i) Good appearance

(ii) Efficient movement

(iii) Good posture prevent undue fatigue

(iv) Good posture ensures self confidence

(v) It helps the vital organs to be kept in the best functioning position

(vi) Good posture enhance mental alertness

Kinds of Posture

The kinds of posture are:

(i) Standing

(ii) Sitting

(iii) Walking

(iv) Running

(v) Lifting

(vi) Lying



  1. Define posture.
  2. Mention four (4) characteristics of a good posture.
  3. List five (5) kinds of posture.
  4. Enumerate five factors that influence posture.

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Meaning of Postural Defects/Deviation

Postural defects is the abnormal way of holding or carrying the body during the performance of various activities due to deviation from the normal axis of the bones, joint stiffening, and loss of muscle tone.

Aiding Factors of Postural Defects

The following factors are known to aid postural defects:

(i) Heredity

(ii) Muscles weakness

(iii) Occupation

(iv) Bad habit of movement

(v) Injuries, disease and infections

(vi) Defective sense organs

(vii) Rapid growth

(viii) Overweight

(ix) Accident


Kinds of Postural Defects

The following are the kinds of postural defects:

1. KYPHOSIS (Round shoulders): Kyphosis is a defect of the spine due to deficiency of vitamin D which is essential for the building of strong bones. The upper spine become excessively curved as a result of squeeze chest muscles and overstretched back muscles.

Postural defects - Scoliosis - Kyphosis

Causes of Kyphosis

Kyphosis is caused by the following:

(i) Carrying of heavy load on the back

(ii) Sitting an infant too early

(iii) Weak chest/back muscles

(iv) Accidents

(v) Diseases

(vi) Lack of physical exercise

Treatment of Kyphosis

The treatment of Kyphosis include the following:

(i) Participation in sports

(ii) Rest and immobilization

(iii0 Diet rich in vitamin D

(iv) X-ray examination

(iv) Physiotherapy and supportive brace


2. LORDOSIS: (Over extension of the lumber region): Lordosis refers to the excessive lateral curvature of the lumber region. This is due to the exaggerated tilt of the pelvis in congenital hip dislocation. Is is also caused by weak abdominal muscles due to the pressure exerted on it by fats in the abdomen.

Postural defects - Lordosis - Cifosis

Causes of Lordosis

Lordosis can be caused by the following:

(i) Congenital problem

(ii) Weak abdominal muscles

(iii) Lack of exercise

(iv) Accident

(v) Disease

Treatment of Lordosis

Lordosis can be treated by the following:

(i) Diet rich in vitamin D and calcium.

(ii) Exercises to strengthen the abdominal muscles.


3. FLAT FOOT: Flat foot is a situation where the arc of the foot is lost. It is common among children but gets corrected as they grow. There are three types of flat foot, namely mobile flat foot, rigid flat foot, and spastic flat foot

(a) Mobile flat foot: It develops when the arches sag due to weak muscles and ligament as a result of increase in weight

(b) Rigid flat foot: It develops due to strain of excessive walking and obesity

(c) Spastic flat foot: Is as a result of disease or congenital abnormality

Postural defects -Flat foot

Causes of Flat Foot

The following are the causes of flat foot:

(i) Overweight

(ii) Rapid growth

(iii) Diseases

(iv) Congenital problem

(v) Obesity

(vi) Excessive walking


Treatment of Flat Foot

(i) Constant exercise and physiotherapy to improve muscles tone

(ii) Arches supported inside the shoe


4. VARUS KNEE (Bow-legs): This is a deformity in which part of a limb is turned inward to an abnormal degree. It is a deformity in which the two leg form an arc. Bow usually improve with age.

5. VALGUS KNEE (K-legs): This is a deformity in which there is an abnormal displacement of the limbs away from the midline of the body. A valgus deformity of the knee is a knock-knee deformity.

Postural defects - Valgus kness - Varus knees


  1. Mention three (3) causes of kyphosis.
  2. Mention three aiding factors of postural defects.
  3. Mention two treatments of lordosis.

Causes of Postural Defects

The following are the causes of postural defects:

(i) Injury sustained from different form of accident

(ii) Diseases such muscular dystrophy or polio

(iii) Congenital abnormalities

(iv) Poor nutrition

(v) Postural habits e.g. walking with one shoulder too high

(vi) Habitual standing with weight on one foot

(vii) Habitual carrying of weight on one side


Effects of Poor Posture on the Body

The effects of poor posture on the body are as follows:

(i) Difficulty in breathing

(ii) Impaired blood circulation

(iii) Reduction in muscle tone

(iv) Unattractive appearance


Ways of Maintaining Good Posture

The following are the ways of maintaining good posture:

(i) Regular well planned physical exercise

(ii) Proper body carriage

(iii) Proper walking, standing, and sitting position

(iv) Good diet

(v) Adequate rest and sleep

(vi) Good recreation

(vii) Medical examination


  1. State five (5) causes of postural defects.
  2. Highlight four (4) effects of poor posture on the body.
  3. Enumerate five (5) ways of maintaining good posture.


Meaning of Human Trafficking

Human trafficking is simply defined as the illegal transportation of people from one place to another for the purpose of economic exploitation, slavery, forced labour and servitude.

Trafficking in persons means the recruitment, transportation, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payment or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation.

Forms of Human Trafficking

The forms of human trafficking include the following:

(i) Sex trafficking: This is when the victims are transported for sex act and it involves inducement by force.

(ii) Labour Trafficking: The victims are transported into a country where they later be forced to work under brutal and inhuman condition

(iii) Domestic servitude e.g. house keeper.

(iv) Individuals are being forced into drug trafficking.

(v) Compulsory recruitment for armed conflict to fight during a war.

(vi) Children being trafficked for illegal or false adoption.

(vii) Trafficking of children for the purpose of selling their organs for money.


Causes of Human Trafficking

The following are the causes of human trafficking:

(i) Social discrimination

(ii) Lack of employment opportunities

(iii) Group derivation

(iv) Marginalization of the poor

(v) Corruption in government

(vi) Economic disparities

(vii) Insufficient penalty against traffickers

(viii) Regional imbalance

(ix) Armed conflict


Health Implications of Human Trafficking

Trafficked persons are exposed to the following health related problems:

(i) Sexually transmitted diseases e.g. HIV/AIDS

(ii) Poor living condition

(iii) Physical violence

(iv) Unplanned pregnancy

(v) Depression

(vi) Stress related disorder

(vii) Phobia and panic

(viii) Death


Solutions to Human Trafficking

The problem of human trafficking can be solved through the following measures:

(i) Government should create enabling policies and environment

(ii) Creation of employment opportunities

(iii) Appropriate health policies

(iv) Skill training

(v) Overall poverty reduction

(vi) Job training for border communities

(vii) Communities based income generation scheme

(viii) Job placement scheme

(ix) Labour inspection service

(x) Enacting law prohibiting trafficking in persons



  1. What is human trafficking
  2. Mention six groups of human trafficking
  3. Highlight four causes of human trafficking


Introduction to Sports Laws

Physical Education has a lot of professional hazards, so it can be regarded as one of the most risky professions.

The Physical educator should be aware of what should be done as a reasonable and prudent person to avoid legal liability, as knowing the status  of pupils’ health, avoidance of the use of faulty facilities and teaching according to the level of maturity of the students. Therefore in any situation, be it in the classroom, the playground or on a class visitation, the teacher is responsible for the welfare and safety of his pupils.


This is an act in which a physical education teacher knowingly or unknowingly, behaves in a way that exposes the students to injuries.

(i) Act of commission (Action): This is when teacher’s action deliberately or knowingly leads a student into injuries.

(ii) Act of omission (In-action): This is when teacher’s action unknowingly leads students into injuries.


Negligence occurs when a physical education fails to perform his/her functions or duties. Negligence is also the failure to act reasonably and carefully to avoid exposing others to unreasonable risk or injury.

A physical educator may be negligent in the following ways:

(i) If he did not take proper care of the students under him

(ii) If didn’t give adequate warning to students

(iii) Inadequate supervision on the part of the teacher

(iv) Poor selection of playing ground

(v) Refusal to consider faulty equipment

(vi) Poor selection of activities

(vii) Acting without adequate skill

(viii) Failure to take protective measures

(ix) Poor instruction about activity

Legal Liability

This is a condition of affairs which gives rise to court action.

Liability means the state of being liable, that is, responsible to law. There are various aspect of liability in law, such as criminal liability, contractual liability, and tort liability.

Criminal liability: This is an act against society where the government prosecutes on behalf of the public, e. g arm robbery, murder, and rape.

Assumption of Risk: An individual takes a risk when engaging in various games and sports; where bodies are coming in contacts with each other. A spectator at a football match who chooses to sit behind the goal post has assumed the risk of being hit by ball.

Contributory Negligence: This is a charge brought against the plaintiff who did not exercise any care to prevent an injury that he subsequently causes actionable negligence of another person e.g. a person is hit while walking on the wrong side of road by a car which exceeded the lawful speed limit.

Attractive Nuisance: This is whatever is injurious to health, indecent or offensive to the senses. Any unguided dangerous apparatus, building pavement, etc. with which one is likely to play would be regarded as attractive nuisance.

Act of God: This is a situation that exists because of certain conditions that are beyond the control of human beings, e.g. lightening, rain, earthquake, etc.


Precautions Against Liability

The following are precautions a physical educator should take in order to avoid being sued:

(i) Every instructor or educator should be properly trained and qualified to perform special work.

(ii) Be familiar with the health status of each child.

(iii) Be sure that both equipment and facilities are safe to use.

(iv) There should be regular inspection of equipment and apparatus.

(v) Students should be grouped on equal ability on the same competitive level.


  1. Define tort.
  2. What is negligence?
  3. What is legal liability?
  4. What are the precautionary measures a physical educator should take to avoid being suit?
  5. Mention four ways of negligence by a physical educator.


Indoor Recreational Activities

Definition of Indoor Recreation

These are recreational activities that can be done or performed inside the room or inside the class. Such indoor activities requires less space, hence can be managed behind the door.

Types of Indoor Recreational Activities

The types of indoor recreational activities include the following:

(i) Ludo

(ii) Scrabble

(iii) Table tennis

(iv) Draught

(v) Chess

(vi) Badminton


Outdoor Recreational Activities

Definition of Outdoor Recreational Activities

These are activities that are done outside in the open and natural environment during leisure or free time. During this outing, participants are expected to be involved in varied activities and experience through which learners are expected to acquire skills, knowledge, enjoyment, satisfaction and qualities which will enhance their successful living.

Importance of Outdoor Recreation

Outdoor recreational activities are important in the following ways:

(i) It helps individual to relax and recreate.

(ii) It helps to learn and acquire skill.

(iii) It helps to examine nature at first hand.

(iv) It helps to provide fun and enjoyment.

(v) It leads to social integration.

(vi) It helps to appreciate the gift of nature.

(vii) It helps to promotes mental alertness.

(viii) It helps to acquire rule of safety living.

(ix) It improves learners problems solving ability.

(x) It helps to develop a sense of leadership and good citizenship.

(xi) It helps to build interest in adventure.

(xii) It helps to build self-reliance and cooperation among students.

Types of Outdoor Recreational Activities

The types of outdoor recreational activities include:

(i) camping

(ii) hiking

(iii) class picnic and field trip

(iv) canoeing

(v) fishing

(vi) hunting

(vi) jogging

(vii) overnight outing

(viii) bicycling

(ix) adventure

(x) horse riding

(xi) social dance

(xii) gardening

(xiii) nature study

(xiv) basket weaving

(xv) pottery

(xvi) mountaineering

(xvii) visiting game reserve

(xviii) trips to industries and places of interest



  1. Define indoor recreational activities.
  2. Define outdoor recreational activities.
  3. State five importance of outdoor recreational activities.
  4. Enumerate ten (10) types of outdoor recreational activities.

Description of Outdoor Recreational Activities


Camping involves the movement of students under the guidance of adults from home or school to an environment which is less familiar. The site of the camp may be a remote village, a hill foot , in dense jungle or heavily wooded forest.

During the trip, students are exposed to various experiences. The main aim of the camping is to make students learn by doing. The camp may last from a few days to a week, during this period students are grouped to take care of their needs. Activities that are jointly undertaking include:

(i) building of camp fire

(ii) playing of various game

(iii) sightseeing in the neighbourhood

(iv) singing and moonlight play

(v) storytelling, riddles and jokes

Safety Precautions during Camping

(i) Roll call of campers should be taken from time to time.

(ii) Campers should work in groups.

(iii) Camp site must be well cleared to keep away dangerous animals like snakes.

(iv) Any injury and sickness must be promptly reported.

(v) There should be adequate provision of materials to meet the need of the campers.


Hiking involved trekking to places of interest. The purpose of hiking is to improve physical fitness, for fun and enjoyment. During the long walk, student can engage in storytelling, singing and other activities that can add fun to the walking and make it less tiring.

Types of Hiking

(i) Physical fitness hike:- This is the development of physical fitness qualities

(ii) Moonlight hike:- This is an evening walking to enjoy the breeze of the night

(iii) Nature hike:- This is a long walk to countryside for sightseeing e. g to the river, lakes, mountains, forest etc.

Class Picnic and Field Trip

Class picnic and field trip can be organized for members of the class as part of their outdoor recreation.  During class picnic and field trip, participants should choose places of interest to visit. This can include visit to zoos farms, factories, sports arenas and swimming pools.


Fishing is moving on water by means of canoeing to throw net and catch fish. Fishing as outdoor recreation is usually done on streams, rivers, lakes, or the sea.


Hunting is attaining or attempting to shoot at small animals in the bush. Since hunting is associated with shooting (by the use of a gun, arrow or catapult). It can help to improve eye-hand coordination. Hunting makes students to appreciate their environment, and also develops the spirit of adventure in them.


  1. What do you understand by the term camping?
  2. Mention three (3) types of hiking.
  3. Define hunting.


Definition of Rhythmic Activities

Rhythmic activities are movements performed in response to regular or specific beats. The beat can be in the form of singing, drumming or improvised sound.

Classification of Rhythmic Activities

Rhythmic activities are classified into three areas:

(i) Fundamental rhythms

(ii) Creative rhythms

(iii) Dramatic rhythms

Fundamental Rhythms

Fundamental rhythms include walking, running, skipping, and other fundamental movements.

The general purpose of a programme of fundamental rhythm is to provide a variety of basic movement experiences. This will make students move effectively, efficiently and develop a sense of rhythms.

Creative Rhythms

Creative rhythms involve movement that initiates animals or man. In creative rhythms, the student expresses himself by trying to be something. The student in his own mind takes on the identity, for instance, of a soldier, giant, horse, elephant, train, or object. He proceeds to interpret this identity with expressive movements to be accompanied with a suitable rhythm.

Dramatic Rhythms

This could be based on a story and idea, a poem and emotion or a song. It could take almost any forms. A variety of rhythmic background can accompany the unfolding of the story. As the story progresses, suitable rhythmic background can be selected. A piece of music selected should have sufficient changes of tempo and pattern to provide different kinds and quality of background.

A general idea or plan of action can be selected and fitted to the music. Students should express mood and feelings. A piece of music is played, generally, a recording student however, can interpret the music differently.


1. Define the following term

(i) Fundamental rhythms

(ii) Creative rhythms

(iii) Dramatic rhythms

2. Differentiate between dramatic rhythms and creative rhythms.


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