Examples of Ethnic Dances



  1. Foreign Dances
  2. Traditional Music/Dance
  3. Examples of Ethnic Dances
  4. Some Notable Nigerian Musicians
  5. Reasons for Traditional Dance
  6. Values of Dance/Rhythmic Activities

Foreign Dances

Foreign dances are the imitations of the dance rhythms from other countries are mostly played for social dances by the younger generation. These music include reggae, pop, jazz, highlife, rock and roll, calypso, rumba.

Traditional Music/Dance

Traditional music/dance are of folks and ethnic origin, ethnic dances have a race cultural bound which tie them to a race or tribe.

Ethnic dances may be based upon

(i) religious beliefs

(ii) cultural development

(iii) racial heroes

(iv) gods or other ideas

Examples of Ethnic Dances

Examples of ethnic dances include

  1. Ekiti dance
  2. Obitun dance
  3. Eyo dance
  4. Oyoyo dance
  5. Fuji dance
  6. Sango dance
  7. Gunda dance etc.

Some Notable Nigerian Musicians

  1. King Sunny Ade
  2. Chief Ebenezer Obey
  3. Sir Victor Uwaifo
  4. Sunny Okosun( Late)
  5. Fela Anikulapo Kuti
  6. Lagbaja
  7. Yinka Ayefele, etc

Reasons for Traditional Dance

  1. For religions purpose e.g. during festival
  2. For communal entertainment and enjoyment
  3. For celebration of events e.g. new yam festival , marriages etc
  4. For physical fitness
  5. For the performance of traditional rite

Values of Dance/Rhythmic Activities

Apart from the relaxation and the feeding of the soul, good music and active dancing contribute to mental and emotional development of an individual.

  1. It contributes to self-expression
  2. Development of physical strength, agility, flexibility and coordination
  3. Social integration


  1. Mention two occasions when people dance
  2. List two foreign dances
  3. List five local dance



  1. Meaning of Computer Game
  2. Types of Computer Games
  3. Reasons for Playing Computer Games
  4. How to Operate a Computer Game
  5. Advantages of Computer Games


Meaning of Computer Game

A computer game is a game played on a computer in the form of computer software run on a personal computer or game machine and played by one or more people using all the following:

  1. Keyboard
  2. Mouse
  3. Control Pad
  4. Joystick

Computer games usually combine sound and graphics and range from traditional games such as chess to fast moving action game.

Types of Computer Games

The following are common computer games:

  1. Nature park
  2. Beach rally
  3. Vehicle rally
  4. PlayStation
  5. Scrabble
  6. Soccer
  7. Volley ball
  8. Basket ball
  9. Tennis, etc.

Reasons for Playing Computer games

Computer game is played for the following reasons:

  1. Entertainment
  2. Challenges
  3. Educational purpose
  4. Recreation
  5. Reduction of tension
  6. for relaxation

How to Operate a Computer Game

The stage of starting a computer are as follows:

  1. Switch on the power
  2. Switch on the UPS
  3. Switch on the CPU for electricity supply

Advantage of Computer Games

  1. Player could store their progress continue the game at a later time.
  2. Source of entertainment
  3. It has a standard sound protocol to give the game a robust music


  1. What is a computer game?
  2. Mention three types of computer games.



  1. History and Development of Table Tennis
  2. Basic Skills and Techniques of the Game
  3. Equipment Used in Tennis
  4. Dimensions of the Equipment Used in Tennis
  5. Rules and Regulations of the Game
  6. Officials of Tennis and their Functions

History and Development of Table Tennis

The origin of table tennis is not very certain but it is believed to have originated in the Far East. It has been called many names such as indoor tennis, whiff-whaff, and Ping pong by the Chinese. The name table tennis was given by the Parker brothers.

The English table tennis association was formed in 1923, the International Table Tennis Federation was formed in 1926 and Nigeria Table Tennis Federation was formed in 1951.

Basic Skills and Techniques of Tennis

The skills and techniques of tennis are the following:

  1. The grip (Tennis grip, penholder grip)
  2. The serve/service (freehand, backhand, chop, side spin)
  3. The footwork/stance
  4. The stroke/drive (forehand and back hand)
  5. The drop short
  6. The smash
  7. The half volley

Equipment Used in Tennis

  1. The table
  2. The net
  3. The racket (bat)
  4. The ball
  5. The dress

Dimensions of the Equipment Used in Tennis


Length = 2.74m

Width = 1.52m

Height = 0.76m

Net – 15.25cm high at the centre

Racket – may be of any size, shape or weight .

Ball – locally called “egg”, white, orange, yellow in colours and it must be celluloid.

However, table tennis can be played as singles or doubles or mixed doubles.

Rules and Regulations of the Game

The rules and regulations of table tennis include the following:

  1. The ball must be shown as service is delivered
  2. Opponents must be ready before service is delivered.
  3. The ball must bounce once before it is returned.
  4. No part of the body is allowed to touch the table during play.
  5. A served ball that touches the net before dropping on the receivers end of the table is “let” and shall be re-served. But if it bounces back to the servers side, then it is a point to the receiver.
  6. A player must not distract the attention of the opponents.
  7. A match consists of winning best odd numbers of games
  8. The hand must not be on the table when making a return.

Officials of Tennis and their Functions

  1. Referee
  2. Umpire
  3. Table manager
  4. Recorder
  5. Scorer

The Referee

  1. He takes the final decision in disputed matters
  2. He supervises other officials

The Umpire

  1. He tosses for choice of ends and service
  2. He announces points made by players
  3. He declares the winner or looser at the end of the game
  4. He awards penalties to erring players

The Table Manager

He ensures that the table is ready for the game.

The Recorder

He records scores of players or side in a score sheet after each game or set.

The Scorer

He records scores of players and on the scoreboard.

Note: The game of table tennis consist of 11 points. At 10 – 10 (deuce) a player must lead with 2 points in order to win a game. Matches are played to the best of 3 or 5 games


  1. Mention another name for table tennis.
  2. Describe movement of the ball from the server to the receiver.
  3. State the officials in table tennis.

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  1. History and Development of Lawn Tennis
  2. Basic Skills and Techniques of Lawn Tennis
  3. Rules of Lawn Tennis
  4. Officials and Functions
  5. Equipment and Facilities

History and Development of Lawn Tennis

Tennis was originally called lawn tennis when the playing was done on lawns only. The name was changed to Tennis when the playing court included clay, asphalt and cement. The game was introduced to England in 1873 by Major Walter Clapton Winfield. It was introduced to U.S in1875 by Mary Ewing Outer bridge of New York. The game is popular in most countries of the world. The game of tennis was introduced to Nigeria by the early missionaries and colonial masters. The game is played for competition, recreation and both sexes can enjoy it. Tennis is a lifetime sports and is for individual or dual game.

Basic Skills and Techniques of Lawn Tennis

The fundamental skills are:

  1. The grip (Western grip, eastern grip and continental)
  2. The serve
  3. The stance
  4. The footwork
  5. The strokes which includes forehand drive, backhand drive, volley, lobs, drop shot spin, net shot, smash and half volley

Rules of Lawn Tennis

Scoring in a Game

The score of a player who has won no points is said to stand at LOVE i.e.

No Score    –    LOVE

1st Point     –    15

2nd Point    –    30

3rd Point     –    40

4th Point     –    Game

Deuce: If the players score three points each (i.e. 40 – all) the score is called deuce

Advantage in (Van-in) is the next point won by the server after a deuce.

Advantage out (Van-out) is the next point won by the receiver after a deuce

Other rules of Lawn Tennis

  1. The server should not serve until the receiver is ready.
  2. The service is “let” if the served ball touches the net and the receiver fails to return the ball.
  3. The receiver wins a point, if the server serves two consecutive faults.
  4. A line ball is good ball.
  5. The service is faulted if the server misses the ball in attempting to strike it.
  6. Player losses a point if the ball touches him or anything he puts on (except the racket) while the ball is in play.
  7. The maximum numbers of sets in a match shall be 5 for men and 3 for women.

Officials of Lawn Tennis and their Functions

The officials are:

  1. The referee
  2. The ball boys
  3. The umpire
  4. The linesmen
  5. The net – cord judges

Equipment and Facilities Used in Lawn Tennis

The equipment and facilities used in lawn tennis include the following:

  1. The playing court
  2. The net
  3. The balls
  4. The white “T” Shirt
  5. The canvass shoes
  6. The racket
  7. The towel

The Court

Single court = 23.8m by 8.2m

Double court = 23.8m by 11m

The Net

Height of net = 0.9m

The Racket

The racket has the following:

The butt, grip, handle, throat, face and racket edge.


  1. Who introduced tennis into Nigeria?
  2. List 3 basic skills of tennis
  3. Outline the scoring system in tennis.



  1. Definition of Safety, Safety Education and Accident
  2. Classifications of Accidents
  3. Causes of Accidents
  4. Measures for Preventing Accidents

Definition of Safety

Safety means “freedom from hazards”. It is a state of being free from danger, threat, injury or harm. Freedom from hazards can only be achieved if these hazards are identified and removed.

Definition of Safety Education

Safety education is the acquisition of knowledge and skills for dealing with emergencies, resulting from accidents, and also preventing accidents; through early removal of hazards.

Definition of Accident

An accident is an unintended and unforeseen event usually resulting in injuries or property damaged.

Classifications of Accidents

Accidents are classified into the following areas:

  1. Home/domestics accidents
  2. School accidents
  3. Transportation accidents
  4. Work place accidents/industrial accidents.

Causes of Accidents

Home/Domestic Accidents

The causes of domestic accidents include the following:

  1. Poor environment
  2. Haste (Hurrying)
  3. Tiredness
  4. Slippery floor
  5. Defective house hold utensils
  6. Poor home design
  7. Congestion/poor property arrangements
  8. Poor lightening

School Accidents

The causes of school accidents include the following:

  1. Lack of skills
  2. Ignorance
  3. Poor ventilation
  4. Improper use of equipment and machines
  5. Faulty equipment and machines
  6. Dilapidated building/damaged facilities
  7. Slippery play ground

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Transportation Accidents

The causes of transportation accidents include the following:

  1. Poor conditions of engine
  2. Over speeding
  3. Lack of concentration
  4. Sudden loss of contact
  5. Poor weather condition
  6. Carelessness
  7. Lack of road/route signs
  8. Sudden mechanical break down
  9. Dangerous overtaking

Work Place (Industrial) Accidents

The causes of work place accidents include the following:

  1. Improper handling of objects
  2. Carelessness
  3. Fatigue
  4. Disobedience of safety rules
  5. Emotional upset
  6. Faulty machine or gadget
  7. Unsafe environments

Safety Measures Against Accidents

At Home

Safety living is an important aspect of living comfortably at home. Therefore the following safety measures should be taken at home:

  1. Discard defective house hold utensils
  2. Good structural design
  3. Clean environment
  4. Take adequate rest when necessary
  5. Avoid being in haste
  6. Always maintain proper arrangement at home
  7. Always keep drugs and dangerous material out of reach of the children.
  8. Avoid slippery floor.

On the Play Ground

The following safety measures should be taken on the play ground:

  1. Check for broken sticks, bottles and stones.
  2. Ensure a swampy free play ground.
  3. If a playground is with grass, it should be well trimmed,
  4. Do not play with defective materials, equipment/facilities.
  5. Be conscious of safely rules and avoid rough play.

On the Road

The following safety measures should be taken on the road:

  1. High way should be made wider.
  2. Public awareness about driver’s education.
  3. Existence of federal road safety corps.
  4. Driving test for the issuance of driver’s license made more vigorously
  5. Enforcement of traffic rules and regulations by the road safety corps.
  6. More road signs that are clearly and boldly written should be installed in strategic places.


  1. Define (i) Safety (ii) Safety education
  2. List 3 classes of accidents.
  3. State five safety measures to be observed in the school.


Meaning of Injury

Injury is damage to any part of the body that may allow the escape of blood as a result of accident.

Factors that Cause Injury

Injuries are caused by two major factors:

(i) The human/man-made elements

(ii) The natural or environmental elements

The Human Elements

These are due to human behavior such as:- ignorance, risk taken, carelessness, overconfidence, inadequate warm-up, miscalculation, disregard to safety rules, drunkenness, effects of drugs, mistakes, and faulty judgments. It is otherwise known as avoidable or man-made accident

The Natural Elements

These are brought about by nature; as a result, they are difficult to control e.g. cyclone, flood, tornado, hurricane, earthquake, land slide, volcanic eruption, heavy rain, thunderstorm, tidal waves etc. However, human elements sometimes aid natural factors. It is otherwise known as unavoidable accident.

Factors that Can Cause Injuries During Sports

  1. Carelessness
  2. Fatigue/tiredness
  3. Poor lighting/poor visibility in activity areas
  4. Lack of skills/lack of knowledge
  5. Unsafe physical environment/hazard
  6. Faulty equipment/apparatus/inappropriate costume
  7. Lack of instruction/negligence
  8. Effects of drugs e.g. alcohol


Sports Injuries

What are sports injuries?

Sports injuries are the injuries that occur during participation in sports and games due to accident.

Common Sports Injuries

  1. dislocation
  2. strain
  3. fracture
  4. wounds
  5. sprain
  6. drowning
  7. muscles cramp
  8. bleeding

Description of Common Sports Injuries


Meaning of Dislocation

It is the displacement of one or more bone ends at a joint as a result of injury to the Joint. Common sites of dislocation are the elbow, shoulder, ankle, hip, wrist, toe and finger joints.

Signs and Symptoms of Dislocation
  1. Pain
  2. Swelling
  3. Discoloration (change in color)
  4. Tenderness
  5. High temperature at the area
  6. Subluxation (out of alignment)
  7. Loss of movement
  8. Bone displacement
  9. Deformity
First Aid Treatment of Dislocation
  1. Bandage the affected joint
  2. Rub with cold compress
  3. Never attempt to put back the bones
  4. Seek medical attention


Meaning of Strain

It is an injury to the muscle. It occurs in the muscle when a group of muscle is overstretched, the fibers may tear thereby causing an internal bleeding.

Causes of Strain
  1. Lifting of heavy weight.
  2. Forceful stretching of the muscle
  3. Action of antagonizing muscle. (opposite muscle)
  4. Overstretching of muscle
  5. Lack of adequate warm-up before activity.
Muscles Mostly Affected by Strain
  1. Hamstring muscles.
  2. Quadriceps muscles
  3. Triceps extensors
Signs and Symptoms of Strain
  1. Sharp pain
  2. Muscle tenderness
  3. Inability
  4. Swelling of muscle
First Aid Treatment of Strain
  1. Position the victim comfortably
  2. Apply a cold compress
  3. Bandage the affected part
  4. Seek medical attention
Differences between a Sprain and a Strain
  1. Sprain occurs in the joint while strain occurs in the muscle.
  2. In sprain, the ligament is either overstretched or turned while in strain, the muscle fibers are either overstretched or turned.


Meaning of Fracture

Fracture is a break in the bone of the body. It may be simple or complicated otherwise called compound.

Difference between Simple and Compound Fractures
  1. In a simple fracture, a bone only broken while in a compound fracture, a broken bone pierces (cut) the skin or tissue.
Types of Fractures
  1. Greenstick fracture
  2. Simple fracture
  3. Compound or complicated fracture
  4. Comminuted fracture
  5. Impacted fracture
  6. Depressed fracture
Signs and Symptoms of Fracture
  1. Pains
  2. Deformity
  3. Abnormal mobility
  4. Loss of mobility
  5. Crepitus (sound of bones)
  6. Bone tenderness
  7. Discoloration of skin (change of color)
First Aid Treatment of Fracture
  1. Stop any bleeding.
  2. Immobilize the fractured area, that is, make the victim avoid movements of the area.
  3. Apply cold, such as ice cubes and ice packs in a piece of cloth, to the area.
  4. Treat the victim for shock.



  1. What are sports injuries?
  2. List five common sports injuries.
  3. What is fracture?
  4. Name five signs and symptom of fracture.



  1. Causes of Road Traffic Accidents
  2. First Aid Treatment for Victims of Road Traffic Accidents

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Causes of Road Traffic Accidents

The following are the causes of road traffic accidents:

(i) Poor conditions of engine

(ii) Over speeding

(iii) Lack of concentration

(iv) Sudden loss of contact

(v) Poor weather condition

(vi) Carelessness

(vii) Lack of road/route signs

(viii) Sudden mechanical break down

(ix) Dangerous overtaking


First Aid Treatment for Victims of Road Traffic Accidents

The following first aid treatments should be administered to victims of road traffic accidents:

(i) The first step to take if you are involved in a road traffic accident is to check yourself for signs of any injuries. This is important because you need to be fit first before you can help others.

(ii) Check others for signs of injuries and the level or extent of injuries. The most quiet victims have probably suffered the gravest injuries, so treat them first before the ones who can speak.

(iii) Inspect the victim for signs of breathing or pulse.

(iv) Check for obstruction of the victim’s airways (the mouth and nose). If anything is obstructing breathing, use your index and middle finger to remove them.

(v) Immediately call for professional medical help or rush the person to a nearby health care centre.

(vi) Perform life saving techniques if there is no pulse in the victim. Start Cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or External Air Resuscitation (EAR).

(vii) If there are open or extensive wounds, try to control the bleeding using a cloth and applying pressure with your palm.

(viii) If the person’s neck is in an abnormal or awkward position or the person is unconscious, keep the patient as still as possible, as movements may cause more damage. It is possible that the patient’s neck is broken. Get medical help fast.

(ix) Try to keep the victim warm as most accident victims suffer from cold as a result of shock.

(x) Avoid giving the person food or water through the mouth to prevent choking.



  1. Mention 5 causes of road accidents.
  2. Outline five major first aid measures to take in helping a victim of a road traffic accident.



  1. Preventive Measures against Sport Injuries
  2. Preventive Measures against Domestic/Home Accidents
  3. Measures for Preventing Road Traffic Accidents


Preventive Measures against Sport Injuries

The following are the measures for preventing sport injuries:

  1. The playground must be kept clean
  2. Do not play or perform activities on slippery ground.
  3. Warm-up properly before performing any activity.
  4. Apparatus must be arranged and inspected before use.
  5. Students should follow the instructions of the teacher.
  6. Students should watch the teacher‘s demonstration before performing any activities.
  7. Start from known to unknown and simple to complex.
  8. Students dress/sportswear should  be smart and loose enough to allow free movement of the body.

Preventive Measures against Domestic/Home Accidents

  1. All sharp instruments and  gadgets must be kept away from the reach of young
  2. Cooking with gas ,ensure that the  container  is properly installed and regularly
  3. Children should be protected against misuse of  fire
  4. Provide adequate measure against slippery floors.
  5. Always use insulating glove s or protective materials when handling hot objects such as pots, kettles etc.

Measures for Preventing Road Traffic Accidents

The following are the measures for preventing sport injuries:

  1. Avoid over confidence
  2. Take adequate rest when necessary
  3. Adequate enlighten for drivers
  4. Avoid being in an hurray or over speeding
  5. Use of safety devices should always be encouraged
  6. Compliance with traffic rules and regulation
  7. Avoid driving/piloting under the influence of drug/alcohol.
  8. Avoid unnecessary distraction.
  9. Ensure efficient communication system.
  10. Drivers should undergo training and pass driving test.
  11. Drivers should not drive under the influence of alcohol.
  12. Operators of motor vehicles should know and obey traffic rules.
  13. Drivers should respect the right of others road users on the road and highways.
  14. Driver who is physically, mentally, or emotionally incapable of good judgment should not drive a car/vehicle.
  15. Pedestrians should keep off the roads when under the influence of alcohol.
  16. Pedestrians walking along the road should face the on-coming vehicle.



  1. Mention 5 causes of road accidents.
  2. State 3 ways of preventing road accidents.
  3. Explain the following terms in one single sentence  each:  sports accidents, domestic/home accidents, road   traffic accidents.
  4. List 5 five preventive measures of each.