Lesson Plan Presentation: Production of Consonant Sounds and Words
Grade: Primary 2
Subject: English Studies (Phonics)
Term: First Term
Duration: 45 minutes
Learning Objectives: By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:
- Identify and produce consonant sounds.
- Recognize consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words.
- Blend consonant sounds with vowels to form words.
- Enhance pronunciation and phonics skills.
Embedded Core Skills:
- Phonemic awareness.
- Vocabulary development.
- Listening and speaking skills.
- Reading readiness.
- Phonics flashcards with consonant sounds (e.g., “b,” “c,” “d,” “f,” “g,” “h,” “j,” “k,” “l,” “m,” “n,” “p,” “q,” “r,” “s,” “t,” “v,” “w,” “x,” “y,” “z”).
- CVC word flashcards (e.g., “cat,” “dog,” “hat,” “pen,” “bus,” “rug”).
- Whiteboard and markers.
- Pictures of objects corresponding to CVC words.
- Worksheets for blending exercises.
Introduction (5 minutes):
- Start by explaining that today’s lesson is about consonant sounds and words.
- Display and introduce the consonant sounds flashcards.
- Ask students if they can recognize any of the sounds and if they know any words that start with those sounds.
Producing consonant sounds involves using different parts of your mouth and vocal cords to create distinct sounds. Here are some examples of common consonant sounds along with how to produce them:
- /b/ sound: To produce the /b/ sound, close your lips together and release them with a slight burst of air. Example: “bat.”
- /k/ sound: For the /k/ sound, use the back of your tongue to block the airflow, then release it suddenly. Example: “cat.”
- /d/ sound: Make the /d/ sound by placing your tongue against the roof of your mouth, then quickly release it. Example: “dog.”
- /f/ sound: For the /f/ sound, put your top teeth against your bottom lip and blow air through, making a soft, hissing sound. Example: “fish.”
- /g/ sound: To produce the /g/ sound, use the back of your tongue to block the airflow, then release it with more force than for /k/. Example: “goat.”
- /h/ sound: Create the /h/ sound by simply exhaling air while keeping your vocal cords relaxed. Example: “hat.”
- /j/ sound: To make the /j/ sound, place the front of your tongue close to the roof of your mouth and produce a slight buzzing sound. Example: “jump.”
- /l/ sound: For the /l/ sound, lightly touch the tip of your tongue against the roof of your mouth and allow air to pass around the sides. Example: “leaf.”
- /m/ sound: To produce the /m/ sound, close your lips together and exhale through your nose, creating a humming sound. Example: “moon.”
- /n/ sound: Create the /n/ sound by placing your tongue against the roof of your mouth and allowing air to flow through your nose. Example: “nest.”
- /p/ sound: Make the /p/ sound by closing your lips tightly and releasing them with a strong puff of air. Example: “pen.”
- /r/ sound: The /r/ sound is produced by lightly flicking the tip of your tongue against the roof of your mouth. Example: “rabbit.”
- /s/ sound: For the /s/ sound, keep your tongue close to the roof of your mouth and allow air to pass through a small gap, creating a hissing sound. Example: “snake.”
- /t/ sound: To produce the /t/ sound, place your tongue against the roof of your mouth and release it with a burst of air. Example: “top.”
- /v/ sound: Create the /v/ sound by placing your top teeth against your bottom lip and making a buzzing sound. Example: “van.”
- /w/ sound: For the /w/ sound, round your lips and produce a slight, humming sound. Example: “wet.”
- /x/ sound: The /x/ sound is less common in English, but it’s similar to the /ks/ sound. It’s produced by placing the back of your tongue against your soft palate. Example: “box.”
- /y/ sound: The /y/ sound is similar to the /j/ sound and is made by producing a slight buzzing sound with your tongue. Example: “yellow.”
- /z/ sound: To make the /z/ sound, keep your tongue close to the roof of your mouth and allow air to pass through, producing a buzzing sound. Example: “zebra.”
Practicing these consonant sounds can help improve pronunciation and language skills.
Presentation (10 minutes):
- Show each consonant sound flashcard and pronounce the sound clearly.
- Ask students to repeat each sound after you, emphasizing correct pronunciation.
- Write the corresponding letters on the board and connect them to the sounds.
- Introduce CVC words and explain that these are words with a consonant-vowel-consonant pattern.
Content (10 minutes):
- Present CVC word flashcards (e.g., “cat,” “dog,” “hat”) and pronounce them.
- Ask students to identify the consonant sound at the beginning of each word.
- Use pictures of objects corresponding to CVC words to reinforce understanding.
- Have students practice pronouncing these words individually.
Recognizing Consonant-Vowel-Consonant (CVC) words is an essential step in developing reading and phonics skills. CVC words are three-letter words with a consonant-vowel-consonant pattern, and they are often among the first words children learn to read. Here are some examples of CVC words along with how to recognize them:
- Cat: In the word “cat,” “c” is the consonant, “a” is the vowel, and “t” is the consonant. CVC words usually have a simple, straightforward sound pattern.
- Dog: In “dog,” “d” is the consonant, “o” is the vowel, and “g” is the consonant. CVC words typically have short vowel sounds.
- Hat: “Hat” contains “h” as the consonant, “a” as the vowel, and “t” as the consonant. The consonant-vowel-consonant structure is evident in how the word is formed.
- Pen: In “pen,” “p” is the consonant, “e” is the vowel, and “n” is the consonant. CVC words are often easy to sound out because of their simple structure.
- Sun: “Sun” consists of “s” as the consonant, “u” as the vowel, and “n” as the consonant. Recognizing the CVC pattern helps in reading fluency.
- Hop: In “hop,” “h” is the consonant, “o” is the vowel, and “p” is the consonant. These words are frequently used in early reading materials.
- Leg: “Leg” contains “l” as the consonant, “e” as the vowel, and “g” as the consonant. CVC words are foundational for building reading skills.
- Mat: In “mat,” “m” is the consonant, “a” is the vowel, and “t” is the consonant. Students learn to recognize CVC words through repetition and practice.
- Sit: “Sit” has “s” as the consonant, “i” as the vowel, and “t” as the consonant. These words are often used as starting points for early readers.
- Web: In “web,” “w” is the consonant, “e” is the vowel, and “b” is the consonant. Identifying CVC words aids in building reading fluency.
Recognizing CVC words is crucial because they serve as the building blocks for reading more complex words. Students often start with these simple words to gain confidence in their reading abilities before moving on to longer and more challenging texts
Teacher’s Activities (10 minutes):
- Engage the class in a discussion about CVC words and their importance in reading.
- Conduct a blending exercise, where you say each consonant sound separately and then blend them with the vowel sound to form words (e.g., “c-a-t” – “cat”).
- Write CVC words on the board and have students sound them out together.
Learners’ Activities (10 minutes):
- Participate in the discussion about CVC words and consonant sounds.
- Practice blending consonant sounds with vowels to form words.
- Sound out and read CVC words from the board or flashcards.
Blending consonant sounds with vowels to form words is a fundamental skill in phonics and early reading development. Here’s how it works:
- Recognize the Consonant and Vowel Sounds:
- Identify the individual consonant and vowel sounds in a word. For example, in the word “cat,” the consonant is “c,” the vowel is “a,” and the final consonant is “t.”
- Sound It Out:
- Pronounce each sound in the word clearly and separately. In the case of “cat,” it would be “k – a – t.”
- Blend the Sounds:
- Gradually blend the individual sounds together without any pauses. In this example, it becomes “kat.”
- Say the Word:
- Once you’ve smoothly blended the sounds, say the whole word as a single unit. In this case, it’s “cat.”
- Practice with Different Words:
- Continue practicing this process with various CVC (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant) words to improve your blending skills. For instance, try words like “dog,” “hat,” “pen,” “sun,” and “leg.”
- Progress to Longer Words:
- As you become more confident in blending CVC words, you can move on to longer and more complex words, gradually building your reading skills.
Remember, the key to successful blending is to pronounce each sound clearly and smoothly merge them together. This technique helps early readers sound out and read words accurately, laying the foundation for reading fluency
1. What sound does the letter “b” make?
2. In the word “cat,” which letter is a vowel?
3. What is the first sound in the word “dog”?
4. Which letter represents the /f/ sound in the word “fish”?
5. What sound does the letter “m” make in the word “moon”?
6. Which consonant sound starts the word “pen”?
7. In “sun,” which letter makes the vowel sound?
8. What’s the last sound in the word “hat”?
9. Which sound is made by the letter “l” in “leg”?
10. In “mat,” what’s the middle sound?
11. What sound does the letter “s” make in “sit”?
12. Which consonant ends the word “web”?
13. In “leg,” what sound is represented by “g”?
14. What sound does “x” represent in “box”?
15. In “yell,” which letter represents the /y/ sound?
Assessment (5 minutes):
- Distribute worksheets with CVC words for students to practice blending.
- Ask students to read the words and circle the corresponding pictures.
- Review and discuss their answers as a class.
Conclusion (5 minutes):
- Summarize the key points of the lesson: consonant sounds, CVC words, and blending.
- Encourage students to continue practicing these skills at home.
- Assign students to find and list CVC words in a book or magazine they have at home.
- Practice sounding out and reading these words.
Note: This lesson plan aims to develop students’ phonics skills by focusing on consonant sounds and CVC words. It includes interactive activities to engage students and reinforce their understanding.