Define metaphysics and state at least two issues in metaphysics

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that enquires into the problem of existence. The basic issues of metaphysics are:

  1. The Problem of Being: Some thinkers see existence as a hidden, mysterious reality that’s both everywhere and the source of everything. But there’s debate about whether it’s something beyond or right here with us.
  2. The Problem of Substance: Think of this as what truly exists on its own versus what’s just qualities or characteristics. For example, a chair is a substance, while its color or size are qualities. It’s like asking, what’s the real stuff and what’s just attributes?
  3. The Problem of Essence and Existence: Some philosophers wonder which comes first, our existence or our essence (the core of who we are). Traditional thinking says essence first, but some, like J.P. Sartre, argue that existence comes before defining who we are. So, it’s a big debate about what’s more important.



1. Metaphysics is a branch of ___________.
A. science
B. philosophy
C. mathematics

2. Metaphysics explores questions related to ________.
A. politics
B. existence
C. history

3. The Problem of Being in metaphysics concerns the ________ of existence.
A. origin
B. color
C. purpose

4. Some philosophers view existence as a _______ reality.
A. obvious
B. hidden
C. fictional

5. The Problem of Substance deals with what truly exists on its ______.
A. own
B. terms
C. surface

6. Aristotle distinguished between substance and _______.
A. quality
B. quantity
C. accident

7. Substance is something that can exist ________.
A. in isolation
B. temporarily
C. as an idea

8. According to John Locke, qualities cannot exist on their _______.
A. own
B. terms
C. purpose

9. Locke suggests that qualities exist in something that _______ them.
A. opposes
B. supports
C. questions

10. The Problem of Essence and Existence debates whether ______ comes first.
A. existence
B. essence
C. accident

11. J.P. Sartre argued that ________ precedes essence.
A. existence
B. accident
C. purpose

12. Traditional western philosophy gives primacy to ________.
A. existence
B. essence
C. accident

13. Metaphysicians are divided over the priority of _______ or essence.
A. existence
B. color
C. quantity

14. Metaphysics is primarily concerned with _______ questions.
A. small
B. everyday
C. fundamental

15. Metaphysics delves into the _______ aspects of reality.
A. superficial
B. profound
C. colorful


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