PRIMARY 2 THIRD TERM LESSON NOTE AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE  THIRD TERM E NOTES FOR BASIC TWO

WEEK               TOPIC

  1.                METHOD OF FARM PRODUCE PRESERVATIONS
  2.                METHOD OF FARM PRODUCE PRESERVATIONS CONT. 
  3.               MATERIALS FOR GROWING CROPS      
  4.               MATERIALS FOR GROWING CROPS CONT. 
  5.               SAFETY MEASURE IN APPLYING CHEMICALS
  6.                 HOW TO RAISE ORNAMENTAL CROPS
  7.                HOW TO RAISE ORNAMENTAL CROPS
  8.                COMPOST MAKING 
  9.               IMPORTANCE OF EACH FACTOR OF PRODUCTION  
  10.                REVISION 

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Agricultural Science 

Week:- 1 and 2

Topic:  Method Of Farm Produce Preservation

Behavioral objective:- At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:-

1.State the methods of preserving foods on the farm

  1. Mention the importance of farm produce preservation

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Basic Agricultural Science UBE edition for priimary school book 4

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with the various examples of farm produce such as maize, tomatoes etc and their tendency to get spoilt quickly.

Content

METHOD OF FARM PRODUCE PRESERVATION

The proper keeping of food until they are needed is called food preservation. Some crop Plants will need to store until the next planting season. To make sure that they are good for planting (viable), they must be properly preserved. 

 IMPORTANCE OF FARM PRODUCE PRESERVATION 

 

  1. To retain the freshness of the food
  2. To reduce the loss of quality of the food
  3. To prolong the food shelf life 
  4. To prevent possible contamination and infection. 

 

METHODS OF FARM PRODUCE PRESERVATION 

 

The different methods of farm produce preservation are: 

  1.  Sun drying 
  2.  Smoking 
  3. Salting 
  4. Frying 
  5. Refrigeration 
  6. Canning 
  7. Bagging 
  8. Bottling 

 

  1. Sun drying
  2. Peeled cassava, peeled yam, maize, beans can be preserved by spreading them under the sun. Drying reduce the water content of the food stuff.

 

  1. Smoking

Fish and meat can be smoked with coal fire. Smoking dries the meat and fish. These meat and fish can be kept for a long time without getting spoilt. 

 

  1. Salting

Adding salt to some food stuffs like meat and fish can preserve them for a short period of time. The salt keeps out germs away from the from the food stuff.

 

  1. Frying

Meat, fish, chicken, plantain, yam and potato can be preserved by frying. Frying removes water from the food items so that it can be kept for a long [period of time. 

 

  1. Refrigeration 

This is a modern way of preserving food. Food items like eggs, fruits and vegetables can be preserved in the fridge. For longer preservation, meat, fish should be stored in the freezer.

  1. Canning

In factories food are processed and canned so that they can be stored for a long time. Such foods include fruits, pepper, tomato, sardine, corned beef and soup. the can is sealed after adding some chemicals called preservatives.

 

  1. Bagging 

Foodstuffs can be preserved in a bag so that they can be stored for a long time e.g. rice. 

 

  1. Bottling 

Fruit juice can be put in sealed bottles for preservation purposes. 

[mediator_tech]

1. The proper keeping of food until they are needed is called ________.
a) food cultivation
b) food preservation
c) food harvesting

2. To make sure that crop plants are good for planting, they must be properly ________.
a) preserved
b) harvested
c) watered

3. Food preservation helps to retain the ________ of the food.
a) freshness
b) color
c) size

4. Which of the following is NOT an importance of farm produce preservation?
a) Retaining the freshness of the food
b) Reducing the loss of quality of the food
c) Increasing the growth rate of crops

5. Farm produce preservation helps to reduce the loss of ________ of the food.
a) weight
b) flavor
c) size

6. One of the methods of farm produce preservation is ________.
a) sun drying
b) watering
c) harvesting

7. Which method of farm produce preservation involves exposing the produce to the sun to remove moisture?
a) Sun drying
b) Smoking
c) Salting

8. ________ is a method of farm produce preservation that involves using smoke to dry the produce.
a) Sun drying
b) Smoking
c) Frying

9. ________ is a method of farm produce preservation that involves adding salt to the produce.
a) Sun drying
b) Smoking
c) Salting

10. ________ is a method of farm produce preservation that involves deep-frying the produce.
a) Frying
b) Refrigeration
c) Canning

11. Which method of farm produce preservation involves keeping the produce in a cold environment?
a) Frying
b) Refrigeration
c) Canning

12. ________ is a method of farm produce preservation that involves sealing the produce in airtight containers.
a) Bagging
b) Bottling
c) Canning

13. Which method of farm produce preservation involves keeping the produce in bags?
a) Bagging
b) Bottling
c) Canning

14. ________ is a method of farm produce preservation that involves storing the produce in bottles.
a) Bagging
b) Bottling
c) Canning

15. The different methods of farm produce preservation are sun drying, smoking, salting, frying, refrigeration, canning, bagging, and ________.
a) planting
b) watering
c) bottling

 

Evaluation:- 

  1. What is food preservation 
  2. State four importance of food preservation 
  3. Methods of preserving food include:
  1. ________________________________________
  2. _________________________________________
  3. _________________________________________
  4. _________________________________________
  5. __________________________________________
  6. __________________________________________

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Agricultural Science 

Week:- 3 and 4

Topic:  Materials Needed To Grow Crops

Behavioral objective:- At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:-

  1. List four materials needed for growing crops
  2. Describe good seeds that can germinate easily
  3. Describe good stem cuttings that can sprout easily 
  4. Explain the importance of fertilizer or manure. 
  5. List and Explain the importance of pests killing chemicals 

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Basic Agricultural Science UBE edition for primary school book 4

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with the materials needed to grow crops 

Content

MATERIALS NEEDED TO GROW CROPS 

The following materials are needed to grow crops: 

  1. Good seeds 
  2. Good stem cuttings 
  3. Fertilizer or manure 
  4. Pest killing chemicals ( including weed killers) 

 

  1. Good seeds 

Seeds to be grown must be viable (living healthy seeds). They must not be seeds that are affected by diseases. Examples are good seeds of beans, melon and maize grains. 

 

  • Good stem cutting 

Good stem cuttings are used in growing cassava and some tree crops. The cuttings must not be affected by diseases and must be clean and healthy looking.

 

  • Fertilizer or manure 

Fertilizers or manure supply mineral nutrients that serve as food to crop plants. They are usually added to the soil to make our crops grow well and healthy. 

 

  • Pest killing chemicals 

Chemicals called insecticides can be spayed on the plants to kill insects. Baits are used for rodents (rats, rabbit) and scare crow for birds. Chemicals called rodenticides can be used to kill rodents

[mediator_tech]

1. Good ________ are needed to grow crops.
a) leaves
b) seeds
c) stems

2. Good seeds must be ________.
a) small
b) viable
c) dry

3. Examples of good seeds are beans, melon, and ________ grains.
a) wheat
b) rice
c) maize

4. Good stem cuttings are used in growing ________ and some tree crops.
a) flowers
b) cassava
c) tomatoes

5. Good stem cuttings must be ________ and healthy looking.
a) diseased
b) wet
c) clean

6. Fertilizer or ________ supply mineral nutrients to crop plants.
a) manure
b) water
c) sunlight

7. Fertilizers or manure are added to the ________ to make crops grow well.
a) air
b) soil
c) water

8. Pest killing chemicals include weed killers and ________.
a) fertilizers
b) insecticides
c) seeds

9. Insecticides are sprayed on plants to kill ________.
a) birds
b) insects
c) rodents

10. ________ are used for rodents like rats and rabbits.
a) Scarecrow
b) Weed killers
c) Baits

11. Chemicals called rodenticides can be used to kill ________.
a) insects
b) rodents
c) weeds

12. Materials needed to grow crops include good seeds, good stem cuttings, fertilizer or manure, and pest killing ________.
a) tools
b) chemicals
c) animals

13. Good seeds must be ________ healthy seeds.
a) diseased
b) living
c) small

14. Good stem cuttings are used in growing cassava and some ________ crops.
a) fruit
b) flower
c) tree

15. Fertilizers or manure supply mineral nutrients to crop plants and make them grow ________.
a) tall
b) well
c) fast

 

 

Evaluation :- 

  1. Four materials needed for growing crops
  2. Describe good seeds that can germinate easily
  3. Describe good stem cuttings that can sprout easily 
  4. Explain the importance of fertilizer or manure. 
  5. List Explain the importance of pests killing chemicals 

 

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Agricultural Science 

Week:- 5

Topic: Safety measures in applying chemicals 

Behavioral objective:- At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:-

  1. List two safety measures in applying chemicals 
  2. State two dangers of excessive use of chemicals 

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Basic Agricultural Science UBE edition for primary school book 4

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge: Students are familiar with some dangerous chemicals such as acid.

Content

SAFETY MEASURES IN APPLYING CHEMICALS 

  1. Spray the chemicals with the aid of a knapsack sprayer with your mouth and face covered. This is to disallow chemicals to get into your mouth. 
  2. Do not allow chemicals to come in contact with your skin. 
  3. Always wash your hands with soap and water after use. It is even better to take a full bath after use. 

 

DANGERS INVOLVED IN EXCESSIVE USE OF CHEMICALS 

  1. Chemicals can be toxic to the crop and kill our crops.
  2. It can destroy the useful living things in the soil. 
  3. It can be washed into streams and rivers and kill fish and other water living organisms. 
  4. Chemicals can cause water and air pollution 
  5. Some chemicals if they touch our skin, can burn the skin. 

Evaluation :-

  1. List two safety measures in applying chemicals 
  2. State two dangers of excessive use of chemicals 

[mediator_tech]

Certainly! Here are 15 fill-in-the-blank questions with options for primary 2 Agricultural Science students on the topic of “Safety Measures in Applying Chemicals” and “Dangers Involved in Excessive Use of Chemicals”:

Safety Measures in Applying Chemicals:

1. When applying chemicals, use a knapsack sprayer with your mouth and face ________.
a) uncovered
b) covered
c) washed

2. The purpose of covering your mouth and face when applying chemicals is to disallow chemicals from getting into your ________.
a) eyes
b) ears
c) mouth

3. It is important not to allow chemicals to come in contact with your ________.
a) clothes
b) shoes
c) skin

4. After using chemicals, always wash your hands with ________ and water.
a) vinegar
b) soap
c) oil

5. It is even better to take a full ________ after using chemicals.
a) nap
b) bath
c) meal

Dangers Involved in Excessive Use of Chemicals:

6. Excessive use of chemicals can be ________ to the crop and kill our crops.
a) beneficial
b) toxic
c) nutritious

7. Chemicals can destroy useful ________ things in the soil.
a) living
b) non-living
c) mechanical

8. Excessive use of chemicals can wash into streams and rivers and kill ________ and other water living organisms.
a) plants
b) fish
c) birds

9. Chemicals can cause ________ and air pollution.
a) noise
b) water
c) light

10. Some chemicals, if they touch our skin, can ________ the skin.
a) moisturize
b) burn
c) heal

11. Safety measures in applying chemicals include covering your mouth and face and avoiding ________ contact.
a) eye
b) skin
c) nose

12. After using chemicals, it is important to wash your hands with soap and ________.
a) vinegar
b) water
c) oil

13. Excessive use of chemicals can harm ________ in the soil.
a) insects
b) birds
c) living organisms

14. Chemicals can cause ________ pollution if not used properly.
a) soil
b) water
c) air

15. Dangers involved in excessive use of chemicals include the risk of killing ________.
a) crops
b) humans
c) animals

 

 

 

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Agricultural Science 

Week:- 6 and 7

Topic:  How to raise ornamental plants  

Behavioral objective:- At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:-

  1. Define ornamental plants
  2. List  the importance of planting flowers in school?
  3. List the steps in raising namental crops 
  4. List four ornamental plants grown in school.
  5. Name three tools for planting ornamental plants

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Basic Agricultural Science UBE edition for priimary school book 4, picture chart.

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with the various examples of flower in their environment.

Content

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

CONTENT

HOW TO RAISE ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 

Ornamental plants are plants that beautify our environment. They are mostly flowers e.g. hibiscus, rose flower, flamboyant flower and sun flower.

 

The Steps in growing ornamental crops are:

  1. Land clearing

Before planting, the land must be cleared of weeds and debris. Hoes and machetes can be used in clearing the land. 

  1. Seed bed or pot preparation 

Seed bed should be well planned. Pot should also be fine and filled with good soil. Topsoil should be loosening for removal or roots, stones and woods. 

  1. Planting 

Most ornamental plants are planted through their seedlings. So, seedlings are transplanted tpo the pots ot flower bed. 

  1. Weeding 

This is the removal of unwanted plants. It is done regularly with the aid of hoes in the flower bed. In the pot, hand weeding should be done i.e. pulling out the weeds with hands. 

  1. Manuring 

This means applying manure to the flower beds or the soil in the pots. Manure helps the plants to grow well. 

  1. Watering 

The flower bed should be regularly watered particularly, in the dry season. The pots should be watered daily.

 

  1. Mulching 

This is the covering of the surface of the soil or the seed bed with cut dry leaves, stems and even plastic to reduce the loss of water from the soil.

 

  1. Pruning

Trimming should be done constantly to make the flower look attractive. 

 

Evaluation 

  1. What are ornamental plants? 
  2. What are the importance of planting flowers in your school?
  3. List the steps you would take to raise ornamental crops 
  4. List four ornamental plants grown in your school.
  5. Name three tools for planting ornamental plants. 

 

1. Ornamental plants are plants that ________ our environment.
a) beautify
b) destroy
c) pollute

2. Land clearing involves clearing the land of ________ and debris.
a) trees
b) weeds
c) flowers

3. ________ and machetes can be used in clearing the land.
a) Hoes
b) Rakes
c) Shovels

4. Seed bed or pot preparation involves planning the seed bed and filling the pot with ________ soil.
a) good
b) dry
c) wet

5. Topsoil should be loosened to remove ________, stones, and woods.
a) plants
b) roots
c) flowers

6. Most ornamental plants are planted through ________.
a) seeds
b) roots
c) seedlings

7. Seedlings are transplanted to the ________ or flower bed.
a) trees
b) pots
c) seeds

8. Weeding involves the removal of ________ plants.
a) wanted
b) unwanted
c) large

9. Weeding in the flower bed is done with the aid of ________.
a) hands
b) hoes
c) shovels

10. In the pot, weeding should be done by ________ the weeds with hands.
a) pulling out
b) cutting down
c) spraying

11. Manuring means applying ________ to the flower beds or soil in the pots.
a) water
b) seeds
c) manure

12. Manure helps the plants to ________ well.
a) die
b) grow
c) shrink

13. The flower bed should be regularly ________ particularly in the dry season.
a) watered
b) pruned
c) mulched

14. The pots should be watered ________.
a) daily
b) weekly
c) monthly

15. Mulching involves covering the surface of the soil or seed bed with cut dry leaves, stems, and ________ to reduce water loss.
a) stones
b) plastic
c) flowers

[mediator_tech]

 

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Agricultural Science 

Week:- 8 and 9

Topic:  Preparation of compost manure 

Behavioral objective:- At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:-

  1. Define compost
  2. List the material required for compost making
  3. Explain the steps involved in compost making 
  4. Give reasons why we do the following during the compost preparation: 

   — Watering – 

   —Turning the heap – 

   — Shading from light – 

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Basic Agricultural Science UBE edition for primary school book 4

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with the materials used in making compost manure

CONTENT 

PREPARATION OF COMPOST MANURE 

 What is compost manure? 

Compost is mixture of decayed plants refuse, decayed animal dung and chicken waste. When added to the soil, it makes the soil fertile. Compost improves plant food and makes the crop to grow well. 

Materials for making compost

  • Plant refuse 
  • Animal dung(farm yard manure) 
  • Household refuse(kitchen) 
  • Wood ash 
  • Soil 
  • Water 

Steps in making compost 

  1. Dig four pits labeled A, B, C and D. the size should be 1 m × 1m x 0.5.
  2. Pit A is called loading pit. Arrange the materials for making compost in layer separated by soil in pit A. make sure you moisten the heap with water to allow for easy decomposition. 
  3. After two weeks, move the contents of pit A to B ( first turn). 
  4. After about one week, mo e the content of B to C (second turn).
  5. After another one week, move the content of C to D. 
  6. Cover up the compost to prevent evaporation, leaching and erosion before applying it to the farm. Content of D is transferred to as compost after 4 – 6 weeks. Turning the heap allow the air into the heap and make for even decay. 

 

Evaluation 

  1. What Is Compost?
  2. List the material required for compost making
  3. Explain the steps involved in compost making 
  4. Give reasons why we do the following during the compost preparation: 
  1. Watering – 
  2. Turning the heap – 
  3. Shading from light – 

 

[mediator_tech]

1. Compost manure is a mixture of decayed ________, decayed animal dung, and chicken waste.
a) leaves
b) plants
c) fruits

2. Compost makes the soil ________ when added to it.
a) dry
b) fertile
c) sandy

3. Compost improves ________ food and helps crops grow well.
a) human
b) plant
c) animal

4. The materials for making compost include plant refuse, animal dung, household refuse, wood ash, ________, and water.
a) sand
b) soil
c) stones

5. In making compost, four pits labeled A, B, C, and D are dug, each with a size of ________.
a) 1 m × 1 m
b) 2 m × 2 m
c) 0.5 m × 0.5 m

6. Pit A is called the ________ pit in making compost.
a) loading
b) turning
c) covering

7. The materials for making compost are arranged in layers separated by ________ in pit A.
a) water
b) air
c) soil

8. To allow for easy decomposition, the compost heap in pit A should be ________ with water.
a) dried
b) moistened
c) covered

9. After two weeks, the contents of pit A are moved to pit ________ in the compost-making process.
a) A
b) B
c) C

10. After about one week, the content of pit B is moved to pit ________.
a) A
b) B
c) C

11. After another one week, the content of pit C is moved to pit ________.
a) B
b) C
c) D

12. The compost heap should be covered to prevent evaporation, leaching, and ________.
a) decay
b) erosion
c) growth

13. The content of pit D is transferred as compost after ________ weeks.
a) 2-4
b) 4-6
c) 6-8

14. Turning the compost heap allows ________ into the heap and promotes even decay.
a) water
b) air
c) sunlight

15. Compost is used to make the soil fertile and improve plant growth in ________.
a) agriculture
b) construction
c) transportation

[mediator_tech]

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