TOPIC: Religious group in our community


Religion is one of the most powerful pieces of the human experience. Come and learn about what religion is, some of the most common types, as well as how religion has played a part in our world’s history.

Religion is very difficult to define, but it basically refers to what you believe about human beings’ relationship to a higher power (or God). Religion teaches you a set of practices to live by, such as being kind to others, telling the truth or praying. Many religions have different traditions, like attending church or temple, celebrating religious holidays or wearing specific clothes.Ezoic

Something that all religions have in common is that they are based on faith, which is being confidently sure about something even if you cannot see it. There is no concrete proof that one particular religion is correct, so people have to turn to faith in order to practice their religion.
Religion is belief in a god or gods and the activities that are connected with this belief, such as praying or worshipping in a building such as a church or temple




African Religions


1. Religion refers to what you believe about human beings’ relationship to a higher power or ____ (a) universe, (b) nature, (c) God.
2. Religion teaches a set of practices to live by, such as being kind to others, telling the truth, or ____ (a) meditating, (b) fasting, (c) praying.
3. Faith is being confidently sure about something even if you cannot ____ (a) hear it, (b) touch it, (c) see it.
4. All religions are based on faith because there is no concrete ____ (a) evidence, (b) logic, (c) argument.
5. Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, and Traditional African Religions are examples of ____ (a) languages, (b) cultures, (c) religions.
6. In Christianity, followers worship in a building called a ____ (a) mosque, (b) synagogue, (c) church.
7. In Judaism, followers celebrate religious holidays like ____ (a) Hanukkah, (b) Diwali, (c) Ramadan.
8. Buddhism teaches followers to practice mindfulness and ____ (a) fasting, (b) yoga, (c) meditation.
9. Islam is a religion founded by ____ (a) Moses, (b) Buddha, (c) Muhammad.
10. Hinduism is the oldest religion in the world and originated in ____ (a) China, (b) India, (c) Egypt.
11. Traditional African Religions are practiced by people in ____ (a) Asia, (b) Europe, (c) Africa.
12. Traditional African Religions often involve worshipping ____ (a) spirits, (b) animals, (c) ancestors.
13. In Christianity, the religious book is called the ____ (a) Torah, (b) Bible, (c) Quran.
14. The founder of Buddhism is ____ (a) Jesus Christ, (b) Moses, (c) Gautama Buddha.
15. In Islam, followers pray five times a day facing the holy city of ____ (a) Jerusalem, (b) Mecca, (c) Rome.






Topic: Characteristics of different types of religion

* Practical and ritual dimension. …
* Experiential and emotional dimension. …
* Narrative or mythic dimension. …
* A doctrinal or philosophical dimension. …
* Ethical or legal dimension. …
* Social and institutional dimension. …
* Material dimension.

Similarities of different religion in our society


The most common similarity that Christianity, Islam and Judaism have is that they all believe in the existence of one God. There are many other reasons too, one major one being that they all refer to the prophet Abraham as there founding father. Abraham is another important figure uniting the three religions.

The differences in the religious in our community
* Human rights
* Peace making and conflict prevention
* Anti- corruption
* Business ethics.




1. The practical and ritual dimension of religion involves performing specific ____ (a) actions, (b) prayers, (c) songs.
2. The experiential and emotional dimension of religion relates to the personal ____ (a) beliefs, (b) experiences, (c) traditions.
3. The narrative or mythic dimension of religion includes stories and ____ (a) legends, (b) rituals, (c) symbols.
4. The doctrinal or philosophical dimension of religion deals with the ____ (a) teachings, (b) artifacts, (c) ceremonies.
5. The ethical or legal dimension of religion focuses on principles of ____ (a) morality, (b) spirituality, (c) mythology.
6. The social and institutional dimension of religion involves the organization of ____ (a) communities, (b) temples, (c) prayers.
7. The material dimension of religion pertains to physical ____ (a) objects, (b) practices, (c) rituals.


8. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism all believe in the existence of ____ (a) multiple gods, (b) no gods, (c) one God.
9. The prophet ____ (a) Jesus, (b) Abraham, (c) Muhammad is considered a founding figure in these religions.
10. One major similarity among these religions is their belief in ____ (a) reincarnation, (b) resurrection, (c) enlightenment.



11. Human rights are an important area of difference among religions in terms of ____ (a) gender equality, (b) freedom of speech, (c) religious tolerance.
12. Peace making and conflict prevention approaches may vary based on religious ____ (a) beliefs, (b) rituals, (c) scriptures.
13. Different religions may have distinct sets of ____ (a) values, (b) prayers, (c) rituals.
14. Anti-corruption efforts can differ based on religious ____ (a) doctrines, (b) leaders, (c) communities.
15. Business ethics can be influenced by religious ____ (a) traditions, (b) practices, (c) teachings.



Topic: Respect for other peoples religion

You don’t need to know all the details about a religion to respect its practitioner, but you should be respectful towards other people’s religions even if you’re not religious, simply because respect earns trust and trust earns love. And this world would be a better place if we loved, trusted, and respected each other.

Respect others’ beliefs

Not everyone has religious or spiritual beliefs, and that’s fine. The important thing is to accept that some people place a lot of importance on this aspect of their lives, and to respect their right to believe whatever they want, even if you don’t agree with them.

What our religion teach

Religion is very difficult to define, but it basically refers to what you believe about human beings’ relationship to a higher power (or God). Religion teaches you a set of practices to live by, such as being kind to others, telling the truth,praying, believe and faith In God.


1. Respecting other people’s religions, even if you don’t practice them, helps to build ____ (a) understanding, (b) trust, (c) friendship.
2. You don’t need to know all the details about a religion to ____ (a) respect its practitioner, (b) convert to it, (c) criticize it.
3. Respecting others’ religious beliefs is important because it promotes ____ (a) harmony, (b) diversity, (c) conflict.
4. Even if you don’t agree with someone’s religious beliefs, it is important to ____ (a) listen to them, (b) challenge them, (c) ignore them.
5. Accepting that some people place importance on their religious or spiritual beliefs demonstrates ____ (a) empathy, (b) tolerance, (c) indifference.


6. Not everyone has religious or spiritual beliefs, and it is important to ____ (a) respect their choices, (b) convince them otherwise, (c) disregard their opinions.
7. The important thing is to accept that some people place a lot of importance on their ____ (a) education, (b) religious beliefs, (c) hobbies.
8. Respecting others’ right to believe whatever they want shows ____ (a) empathy, (b) ignorance, (c) superiority.
9. It is acceptable to disagree with someone’s beliefs, but it is essential to ____ (a) debate with them, (b) mock them, (c) respect them.



10. Religion teaches us a set of practices to live by, such as being kind to others and ____ (a) helping those in need, (b) seeking revenge, (c) promoting discrimination.
11. One of the teachings of religion is to tell ____ (a) lies, (b) the truth, (c) secrets.
12. Prayer is a practice taught by religion that involves ____ (a) communication with a higher power, (b) self-reflection, (c) daydreaming.
13. Believing in God or a higher power is a fundamental aspect of ____ (a) religion, (b) science, (c) atheism.
14. Religion emphasizes the importance of having ____ (a) faith, (b) doubt, (c) skepticism.
15. Respecting others’ religious beliefs also means respecting their ____ (a) customs, (b) languages, (c) occupations.

Topic: Division Of Labour

Division of labor: Dividing a job into many specialized parts, with a single worker or a few workers assigned to each part. Division of labor is important to mass production.

Division of labour within each group of occupation.

Occupational or Simple Division of Labour: This means division of people in society according to occupations or trades. In this each individual takes a particular type of occupation for which he is best suited.




1. Division of labor is the process of dividing a job into __________ specialized parts.
a) similar
b) interchangeable
c) many

2. Each part in the division of labor is assigned to __________ workers.
a) multiple
b) a few
c) different


3. Division of labor is important for __________ production.
a) individual
b) mass
c) customized

4. Occupational division of labor is based on __________.
a) skills and abilities
b) personal interests
c) geographical location

5. In occupational division of labor, individuals take up occupations that they are __________ suited for.
a) least
b) randomly
c) best

6. The process of dividing people in society according to occupations is known as __________ division of labor.
a) social
b) occupational
c) industrial

7. Division of labor helps in increasing __________ in production.
a) diversity
b) efficiency
c) competition

8. The concept of division of labor was introduced by __________.
a) Karl Marx
b) Adam Smith
c) John Locke

9. Specializing in a particular occupation can lead to __________.
a) monotony
b) confusion
c) innovation

10. In a division of labor, each worker focuses on a specific task, leading to __________ in their skills.
a) improvement
b) stagnation
c) redundancy

11. Division of labor allows for the __________ of resources.
a) optimal utilization
b) wastage
c) scarcity

12. The goal of division of labor is to increase __________.
a) unemployment
b) specialization
c) independence


13. In a division of labor, workers become __________ in their respective tasks.
a) interdependent
b) isolated
c) inefficient

14. Occupational division of labor helps in __________ the needs of society.
a) ignoring
b) prioritizing
c) neglecting

15. Division of labor can result in __________ production costs.
a) higher
b) lower
c) stagnant

Topic: Occupation requiring division of Labour
Projects/ occupation that requires division of Labour are:. Medical services framing, home, schools etc.

What are the four stages of division of labour?


1. Specialisation in one trade: ADVERTISEMENTS: …
2. Specialisation in specific processes of production: After, the Industrial Revolution, the techniques of production changed. …
3 Localisation of territorial specialization: Large scale industry could not be run efficiently at home. …
4. International Division of labour:

1. Production of Quality Goods.
2. Increase in production.
3. Reduction in the cost of production.
4. Maximum utilisation of machinery.
5. Large scale production.
6. Saving of time.
7. Encouragement to inventions.
8. Increase in profit.
9. Best selection of the workers.



1. Projects or occupations that require division of labor include medical services, __________, home construction, and schools.
a) farming
b) manufacturing
c) transportation


2. The four stages of division of labor are specialization in __________, specialization in specific processes of production, localization of territorial specialization, and international division of labor.
a) multiple trades
b) one trade
c) unrelated trades

3. Specialization in one trade is the first stage of division of labor where individuals focus on __________ specific trade.
a) every
b) any
c) a single

4. The Industrial Revolution led to specialization in specific processes of production where different workers became skilled in __________ tasks.
a) unrelated
b) interchangeable
c) specific

5. Localisation of territorial specialization refers to the concentration of __________ industries in specific areas for efficient operation.
a) small-scale
b) large-scale
c) global-scale

6. International division of labor is the fourth stage where countries specialize in producing goods or providing services based on __________ advantages.
a) geographical
b) cultural
c) political


7. The division of labor allows for the production of __________ goods due to specialization and expertise.
a) low-quality
b) average-quality
c) high-quality

8. One of the advantages of division of labor is an increase in __________ due to the efficient allocation of tasks.
a) unemployment
b) production
c) competition

9. Division of labor leads to a reduction in the __________ of production due to economies of scale.
a) cost
b) quality
c) speed

10. Maximum utilization of machinery is achieved through division of labor as each worker focuses on __________ task.
a) multiple
b) a specific
c) any

11. Large-scale production is possible through division of labor as workers specialize in different tasks and work __________.
a) independently
b) collectively
c) randomly

12. Division of labor saves __________ as workers become skilled and efficient in their assigned tasks.
a) money
b) time
c) resources

13. Encouragement to inventions is a benefit of division of labor as workers focus on __________ tasks, leading to innovations.
a) unrelated
b) generic
c) specific

14. Increase in profit is achieved through division of labor as it improves __________ and reduces costs.
a) productivity
b) diversity
c) competition

15. Division of labor allows for the best selection of workers as individuals can specialize in the tasks they are __________ suited for.
a) least
b) randomly
c) best


Topic: Food Poisoning
Meaning of food poisoning:
Food poisoning, also called food borne illness, is illness caused by eating contaminated food. Infectious organisms — including bacteria, viruses and parasites — or their toxins are the most common causes of food poisoning. … Contamination can also occur at home if food is incorrectly handled or cooked.


Food poisoning symptoms vary with the source of contamination. Most types of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms:

Watery or bloody diarrhea
Abdominal pain and cramps
Stomach ache.
Running stomach.


Contamination of food can happen at any point of production: growing, harvesting, processing, storing, shipping or preparing. Cross-contamination — the transfer of harmful organisms from one surface to another — is often the cause. This is especially troublesome for raw, ready-to-eat foods, such as salads or other produce. Because these foods aren’t cooked, harmful organisms aren’t destroyed before eating and can cause food poisoning.




1. Food poisoning, also known as food borne illness, is caused by eating __________ food.
a) healthy
b) contaminated
c) organic

2. Infectious organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, as well as their __________, are the common causes of food poisoning.
a) antibodies
b) toxins
c) enzymes

3. __________ is one of the symptoms of food poisoning, characterized by a feeling of sickness in the stomach.
a) Nausea
b) Fatigue
c) Dizziness

4. Vomiting is another common symptom of food poisoning, where the body forcefully expels the __________ from the stomach.
a) food
b) water
c) toxins

5. Watery or bloody __________ is a symptom of food poisoning, often accompanied by abdominal discomfort.
a) vomit
b) diarrhea
c) saliva

6. Abdominal pain and __________ are commonly experienced by individuals with food poisoning.
a) cravings
b) cramps
c) constipation

7. __________ is a symptom of food poisoning, indicating an increase in body temperature.
a) Fever
b) Coldness
c) Sweating

8. Headache is another common symptom that can accompany food poisoning, causing pain or discomfort in the __________.
a) neck
b) head
c) back

9. Stomach ache is a prevalent symptom of food poisoning, which refers to pain or discomfort in the __________ area.
a) chest
b) stomach
c) leg

10. Running stomach, also known as __________, is a symptom of food poisoning characterized by frequent and loose bowel movements.
a) constipation
b) diarrhea
c) indigestion

11. Contamination of food can occur at any stage of __________, from growing to preparing.
a) transportation
b) production
c) consumption

12. Cross-contamination, which involves the transfer of harmful organisms from one surface to another, is a common cause of food poisoning, especially for __________ foods.
a) cooked
b) raw
c) frozen


13. Ready-to-eat foods like salads or produce can cause food poisoning if they are not __________ before consumption.
a) peeled
b) cooked
c) washed

14. Harmful organisms in raw, ready-to-eat foods are not destroyed because they are not __________ before consumption.
a) refrigerated
b) packaged
c) cooked

15. Incorrect handling or cooking of food at __________ can also lead to contamination and food poisoning.
a) restaurants
b) home
c) factories






Topic: Community Sanitation

Community sanitation means the work we do to keep our environment clean. We must live in a healthy, clean environment. There are some activities we need to do in order to live in a clean environment. We must sweep our surroundings and remove the dirty things by taking them away or burning them.

Traditional ways of community Sanitation

Most traditional sanitation programmes provide some form of subsidy to individual families to reduce the cost of building a toilet. This approach is based on the assumption that both the construction and use of toilets depend on private decisions and on hygiene behaviour at the household level.
Modern way of community Sanitation
Modern Sanitation. … It documented developments in sanitation, water infrastructure, and later building developments and maintenance in Britain, with a particular focus on London. By 1946 it was known as Sanitation, drainage and water supply, but by 1967 it was known as Modern Sanitation and Building Maintenance.

Problems of Community Sanitation

What are the problems of community sanitation?
Poor sanitation is linked to transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis A, typhoid and polio and exacerbates stunting. Poor sanitation reduces human well-being, social and economic development due to impacts such as anxiety, risk of sexual assault, and lost educational opportunities.

Our role of community Sanitation in our area.


Sanitation is one of the most important aspects of community well-being because it protects human health, extends life spans, and is documented to provide benefits to the economy. … One key goal of sanitation is to safely reduce human exposure to pathogens.
How can we improve sanitation in our community?
These are:
1: Access to safe drinking water (e.g. water safety planning (the management of water from the source to tap); household water treatment and safe storage)

2: Access to improved sanitation facilities.

3: Hand washing with soap at critical times (e.g. after toilet use and before the preparation of food)

1. Community sanitation refers to the activities we do to keep our __________ clean and healthy.
a) surroundings
b) homes
c) schools

2. In order to live in a clean environment, we need to sweep our surroundings and __________ dirty things.
a) collect
b) bury
c) ignore


3. Traditional sanitation programs often provide subsidies to individual families to reduce the cost of __________.
a) building a house
b) constructing a toilet
c) buying groceries

4. The assumption behind traditional sanitation programs is that the construction and use of toilets depend on __________ decisions at the household level.
a) government
b) private
c) community

5. Modern sanitation focuses on sanitation, water infrastructure, and building maintenance, with an aim to provide __________ developments.
a) traditional
b) outdated
c) modern

6. Poor sanitation is linked to the transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, and __________.
a) diabetes
b) malaria
c) hepatitis A

7. Stunting, anxiety, and lost educational opportunities are some of the impacts of poor sanitation on __________ development.
a) social and economic
b) physical and mental
c) educational and cultural


8. Sanitation plays a crucial role in protecting human health, extending __________, and providing economic benefits.
a) life spans
b) leisure time
c) family sizes

9. The key goal of sanitation is to safely reduce human exposure to __________.
a) chemicals
b) pathogens
c) pollution

10. Access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation facilities are important aspects of __________ in a community.
a) education
b) health
c) transportation

11. Hand washing with soap at critical times, such as after toilet use and before food preparation, is a key practice for maintaining __________.
a) personal hygiene
b) social connections
c) environmental cleanliness

12. __________ and safe storage of drinking water are important for ensuring its safety in a community.
a) Proper distribution
b) Regular testing
c) Household treatment

13. To improve sanitation in our community, we must promote access to safe drinking water, improved sanitation facilities, and __________.
a) regular health check-ups
b) community events
c) handwashing with soap

14. Maintaining cleanliness in public places, such as __________, is a responsibility of the community for better sanitation.
a) parks and gardens
b) restaurants and cafes
c) shopping malls and cinemas

15. Everyone in the community has a role to play in maintaining sanitation and ensuring a __________ environment for all.
a) polluted
b) dirty
c) clean

Week 8
Topic: Personal hygiene

Meaning of personal hygiene:
Personal hygiene refers to maintaining cleanliness of one’s body and clothing to preserve overall health and well-being.


How to maintain good Personal hygiene
1: Bathe regularly. Wash your body and your hair often. …
2: Trim your nails. …
3: Brush and floss. …
4: Wash your hands. …
5: Sleep tight.

What is the meaning of cosmetics?
Cosmetics are care substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. They are generally mixtures of chemical compounds, some being derived from natural sources, many being synthetic.

Advantages of maintaining a good personal hygiene
One personal benefit of good hygiene is having better health. Keeping your body clean helps prevent illness and infection from bacteria or viruses. Like in our example, the simple act of washing your hands regularly is an effective way to keep germs from spreading.
1: Eliminating odours.
2: Healthy mouth
3: Clearer skin
4: staying well.

1. Personal hygiene refers to maintaining cleanliness of one’s body and clothing to preserve overall health and __________.
a) beauty
b) comfort
c) well-being

2. To maintain good personal hygiene, it is important to __________ regularly to keep your body and hair clean.
a) exercise
b) bathe
c) meditate


3. Trimming your nails regularly is an important aspect of __________.
a) personal style
b) personal hygiene
c) fashion trends

4. Brushing and flossing regularly is essential for maintaining __________ hygiene.
a) oral
b) mental
c) physical

5. Washing your hands frequently is a crucial practice for maintaining good __________.
a) manners
b) hygiene
c) communication

6. Getting enough __________ is important for personal hygiene and overall health.
a) sunlight
b) exercise
c) sleep

7. Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or __________ of the human body.
a) taste
b) odor
c) texture


8. Cosmetics can be derived from natural sources or created using __________ compounds.
a) organic
b) synthetic
c) herbal

9. One personal benefit of good hygiene is having better __________.
a) style
b) health
c) relationships

10. Maintaining good personal hygiene helps prevent illness and __________ from bacteria or viruses.
a) happiness
b) infection
c) creativity

11. Eliminating odors is an advantage of maintaining good personal hygiene as it helps in __________ social interactions.
a) improving
b) avoiding
c) ignoring

12. Good personal hygiene contributes to a healthy __________ and prevents dental problems.
a) mouth
b) hairstyle
c) wardrobe


13. Clearer skin is a benefit of maintaining good personal hygiene as it helps in reducing __________ and acne.
a) wrinkles
b) scars
c) breakouts

14. Staying well is an advantage of good personal hygiene as it helps in __________ illnesses and infections.
a) spreading
b) preventing
c) treating

15. Personal hygiene plays a vital role in maintaining overall __________ and promoting a sense of well-being.
a) laziness
b) cleanliness
c) boredom

Week 9
Topic: Modern Toilet facilities
The water closet (Wc)
The water closet is a ceramic sanitary ware product which is used as a toilet. This kind of toilets is more hygiene and easy to clean. The Toilet which is designed to sit is known as water closets. Usually Sitting height of the water closet will be 400mm(16 inches) from the ground.

Various parts of water closet and how it works.
There are really only two main toilet tank parts: the toilet flush valve, which lets water gush into the bowl during the flush; and the fill valve, which lets water refill the tank after the flush. When a toilet runs constantly or intermittently, one of these valves is usually at fault.


It’s maintenance and repairs.
Cleaning and Maintenance

Like all heavy-use fixtures in your home, your toilet requires continuous cleaning and maintenance. Follow these simples steps:

1. Put on your cleaning gloves—your toilet is a haven for bacteria!

2. Moisten sponge with hot water and wipe off grime around the tank, lid, seat, base, and exterior of the bowl.

3. Apply a specially formulated cleaner to the interior of the bowl and let it soak in for a few minutes. Scrub off grime with a brush, using water from the bowl to activate suds. We recommend cleaning the toilet bowl manually and on a regular basis instead of using in-tank tablet cleaners. These tablets often cause erosion to gaskets and washers that keep your fixture running properly.


4. Flush the toilet. Continue to scrub as the water drains from the bowl. This will rinse the bowl and brush at the same time.

5. Clean the rest of your toilet with disinfectant spray. Be sure to clean the handle thoroughly, as this is a place where germs can spread.

Toilet Cleaning and Maintenance Troubleshooting
Sometimes a regular clean will not get the job done. Maybe there is a more serious underlying issue. If your toilet has been working fine but suddenly flushes or drains slowly, chances are you are dealing with a clog. First, open the tank and check the water level. Is the water level lower than normal? A low water level means there may not be enough water to initiate the siphoning action that pushes water through the bowl. To add water to the tank, bend the float arm up slightly and allow water up to 11/2 inches of the top.

If the clog persists, look for other causes of poor flushing. Sometimes the small ports around the underside of the toilet bowl’s rim can clog with buildup from chemicals in the water. Simply use a coat hanger or screw driver to remove any debris. As always, it is best to call your friends at Baker Brothers to assist with any unmanageable toilet troubles.

When is it time to buy a new toilet altogether? When your repair costs outweigh replacement costs, it is time to consider a new purchase. If you are experiencing recurring clogs and constantly pulling out hairs, plunging your toilet on a regular basis, perhaps it’s time to upgrade. A crack in the bowl of the toilet that is causing excessive leaking and poor flushing is also a good reason to start anew. Even small leaks can result in long term floor damage for your bathroom. For your next purchase, be sure to select a water saving toilet. Not only will you help the environment by conserving water with every flush, but also you will notice an improvement in your water bill.

A healthy toilet is one that is maintained and cared for. Keep your bathroom clean, but also take time to checkup on your toilet from time to time.


1. The water closet is a ceramic sanitary ware product used as a __________.
a) sink
b) shower
c) toilet

2. The water closet is considered more __________ and easy to clean compared to other types of toilets.
a) affordable
b) hygienic
c) stylish

3. The sitting height of a water closet is typically __________ from the ground.
a) 200mm (8 inches)
b) 300mm (12 inches)
c) 400mm (16 inches)

4. The two main parts of a toilet tank are the flush valve, which lets water gush into the bowl during the flush, and the __________, which refills the tank after the flush.
a) fill valve
b) drain pipe
c) float arm

5. Continuous or intermittent running of a toilet is often caused by a faulty __________ or fill valve.
a) flush valve
b) seat cover
c) tank lid

6. When cleaning a toilet, it is recommended to wear __________ to protect against bacteria.
a) a mask
b) gloves
c) goggles

7. To clean the exterior of the toilet, moisten a sponge with hot water and wipe off grime from the tank, lid, seat, base, and __________.
a) mirror
b) showerhead
c) exterior of the bowl

8. Applying a specially formulated cleaner to the interior of the bowl and scrubbing with a brush helps remove __________.
a) mold and mildew
b) rust stains
c) soap scum

9. Instead of using in-tank tablet cleaners, it is recommended to clean the toilet bowl manually to prevent __________ to gaskets and washers.
a) erosion
b) discoloration
c) leakage

10. After cleaning the toilet bowl, flushing helps rinse the bowl and __________ at the same time.
a) disinfectant spray
b) brush
c) cleaning gloves

11. Poor flushing or slow drainage can be caused by a clog or __________ water level in the tank.
a) high
b) normal
c) low

12. Buildup from chemicals in the water can clog the small ports around the underside of the toilet bowl’s rim, which can be cleared using a __________ or screwdriver.
a) plunger
b) coat hanger
c) mop

13. When repair costs outweigh replacement costs, it may be time to consider buying a new __________.
a) sink
b) bathtub
c) toilet

14. Excessive leaking, poor flushing, or a crack in the bowl of the toilet are indications that it may be time to __________ the toilet.
a) repair
b) upgrade
c) replace

15. Selecting a water-saving toilet not only helps conserve water but can also lead to improvements in __________.
a) electricity bill
b) water bill
c) gas bill


Week 9
Topic: Advantages of modern toilets.
(i)You do not need to go outside the house to use the facility. (ii) We can easily clean the toilet every morning to reduce bad odour and flies. (iii) Modern toilets make life more comfortable when we want to ease ourselves. (iv) Modern toilets are easy to maintain even when they are used by a large number of people.

Traditional toilets

Traditional toilet facilities (i) Traditional toilets are available everywhere especially in the villages and other rural areas. (ii) We do not need regular supply of water to use traditional toilets. (iii) We do not need special paper to clean up after using traditional toilets. (iv) They are cheaper to construct.

The different between modern and traditional toilets facilities
Another point of difference between traditional toilets and modern toilets is the price point. Traditional variety is cheaper than the modern variety. Unlike traditional toilets which work on the gravity model, modern toilets work on pressure assist model. The water tank has another tank inside it which is sealed.




1. One advantage of modern toilets is that you do not need to go outside the house to use the __________.
a) shower
b) facility
c) garden

2. Regular cleaning of modern toilets helps reduce bad odor and __________.
a) insects
b) bacteria
c) flies

3. Modern toilets provide a more comfortable experience when we need to __________.
a) eat
b) sleep
c) ease ourselves

4. Even when used by a large number of people, modern toilets are __________ to maintain.
a) difficult
b) expensive
c) easy

5. Traditional toilets are commonly found in villages and __________ areas.
a) urban
b) suburban
c) rural

6. Traditional toilets do not require a regular supply of __________ to be used.
a) electricity
b) water
c) gas

7. Traditional toilets do not require special paper for __________ after use.
a) cleaning up
b) decoration
c) recycling

8. Traditional toilets are generally __________ to construct compared to modern toilets.
a) cheaper
b) costlier
c) larger

9. The price point of traditional toilets is __________ than that of modern toilets.
a) higher
b) lower
c) the same

10. Unlike traditional toilets, modern toilets work on a __________ model.
a) gravity
b) pressure assist
c) manual

11. Modern toilets have a sealed tank inside the water tank, which contributes to their __________ functionality.
a) efficient
b) outdated
c) complex

12. Modern toilets provide better __________ due to their pressure-assist mechanism.
a) cleanliness
b) comfort
c) durability

13. The water-saving feature is a notable advantage of __________ toilets.
a) traditional
b) modern
c) portable

14. Modern toilets offer improved sanitation and __________ compared to traditional toilets.
a) accessibility
b) durability
c) convenience

15. Modern toilets are designed with advanced technology, making them more __________ in terms of performance.
a) traditional
b) efficient
c) traditional


Week 10
Topic: Transportation.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.

Transport in the older days

1. Wooden rafts and boats(for river/lake/ ocean bodies).
2. Carts with wheel dragged by domesticated animals like horses, buffaloes, bulls etc.
3. Sledges in the snow covered areas driven by dogs.
4. Camelback riding in desert areas.
5. Horseback riding was most commonly used in the world for long distance (as well as route(travelling).

Modern means of Transportation.


Roadways Transportation.
Railways Transportation.
Water Transportation.
Air Transportation.
Pipelines Transportation.

Advantages of modern means of transportation:
* It is economical mode for transporting heavy loads and even cargo.
* It is the safest mode which provides convenience to the people without accidents.
* Cost of construction and maintenance is very low.
* It even provides international transport





1. Transportation refers to the movement of humans, animals, and goods from one __________ to another.
a) country
b) location
c) continent

2. In the older days, wooden rafts and boats were used for transportation on __________ bodies.
a) rivers
b) mountains
c) forests

3. Carts with wheels were dragged by domesticated animals like horses, buffaloes, and __________ for transportation.
a) cows
b) elephants
c) bulls

4. Sledges driven by dogs were used for transportation in __________ areas.
a) desert
b) snow-covered
c) coastal

5. Camelback riding was commonly used for transportation in __________ areas.
a) mountainous
b) forested
c) desert


6. Horseback riding was a popular means of transportation, especially for long distances, in the __________.
a) modern era
b) older days
c) future

7. Modern means of transportation include roadways, railways, water transportation, air transportation, and __________ transportation.
a) underground
b) pipeline
c) space

8. Roadways transportation is an economical mode for transporting __________ loads and cargo.
a) lightweight
b) medium-sized
c) heavy

9. Railways transportation is considered the safest mode of transportation, providing convenience without __________.
a) delays
b) accidents
c) congestion

10. The cost of construction and maintenance in railways transportation is __________.
a) high
b) moderate
c) low


11. Water transportation is suitable for transporting goods across __________ distances, such as between continents.
a) short
b) long
c) medium

12. Air transportation allows for __________ transport, connecting different countries and continents.
a) quick
b) slow
c) local

13. Pipelines transportation is commonly used for transporting __________, such as oil and gas.
a) electricity
b) water
c) liquids

14. Modern means of transportation provide international transport, facilitating __________ trade and travel.
a) local
b) regional
c) global

15. The advantages of modern means of transportation include economic transportation of heavy loads, safety, low construction and maintenance costs, and __________ transport.
a) national
b) international
c) local




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