1 Speed development and accuracy skills
2 Technical development in keyboarding
3 Paragraphing
4 Page setting
5 Memorandum
6 E – mail
7 Printer correction signs
8 Office equipment
9. Office procedure
10 & 11 REVISION



Speed development and accuracy as only possible through a rhythm in typewriting.

Rhythm means the striking of keys with the same time interval between strokes.

The greatest advantage of typing by rhythm is that the typists can affair greater accuracy in work.

Alphabetic sentence drills.

  1. Type the following exercises in double line spacing:

a s d f g j I k h q w e r t p o l u y z x c v b / ; m n 1 2 3 4 5 0 9 8 7 6.

  1. Ask pad jyj lkn dpn dnd sop abc dep figure drill.(type in double line spacing) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 3 5 7 9 0 8 6 4 2

  1. Left margin ii, right margin 97 = pica

Left margin 20, right margin 79 = elite

You are required to type each sentence four times using single line spacing

  1. The bag was full of eggs
  2. Bintu refused to eat snacks during break.
  3. You must plan to succeed
  4. Visit a dentist once a year
  5. Have your bath twice daily
  6. Early to bed, early to rise
  7. Look before you leap
  8. Make hay when the sun shines
  9. Success is a product of good time planning

(If errors are more than ten pages, type the exercise again for better mastery)

One line sentence drills

The essence of one- line sentence drills is for the typist to type a sentence on a line before proceeding to the next one.

Exercise 1: you are required to type the following sentences, one on each line three times using single line spacing.

Margin – pica 10 & 70

Elite12 & 80

  1. You must encourage your family to pray together
  2. A stitch in time save nine
  3. Baby is a gift from almighty God.
  4. Life requires thorough preparation
  5. Success is a product of hard work.
  6. Primary health care is good for your village
  7. Free Medicare for logicians- congratulation
  8. Benin city the home of culture and heritage
  9. Failing to plan is planning to fail
  10. Panadol is recommended for body pains.


Speed and accuracy enable typist to identify the number of words he/she can type per minute and the errors made while typing.

Some of the errors committed while typing are:

  • Errors of omission of a letter or words
  • Mistyping or over-typing
  • Error of addition of a letter/ word
  • Incorrect punctuation
  • Incorrect indentation, spacing and incorrect alignment of a letter

At the end of a page or exercise given circle the errors and count. If the error exceeds ten, it is advisable to repeat the exercise.


Nnamdi, who is from the eastern part of Nigeria refused a scholarship to further his education to the university. According to him, it is more profitable to serve as an apprentice under the tutelage of his father for three years and be on his own thereafter.


  1. List 5 errors committed while typing
  2. You are required to type the following sentences, one on each line three times using single line spacing:
  • You must encourage your family to pray together
  • A stitch in time save nine
  • Baby is a gift from almighty God.
  • Life requires thorough preparation



Keyboarding is a skill that helps in rising in the chosen profession. The goal to be aimed at is to be able to type as fast as possible.

In typewriting, some of the techniques that must be effectively mastered in typing for expedient and neat typing are:

1. Tabular key operation – it consist of three tabular control keys which are:

a. tab set key to set the tab stop (+) key

b. A tab clear key to clear the tab stop (-) key

c. A tab bar to more carriage to tab stop.

+ Tab Key –

Tabulator key is used for paragraphing and when items are typed in columns.

2. Live space regulator – is used to provide the desired spacing between typed lines when the carriage return lever is turned. Most typewriters have regulators for single, double, and treble line spacing e.g. ½ , 1, 1 ½, 2, 2 ½, 3.

3. Carriage return lever – is used to move the carriage back to the left margin and the next line of typing as set by the line space regulator.

4. Margin release lever – is used to temporarily unlock the margins to enable typing beyond the margin set. In Computer studies – create tables

Name Age Birthday

To make a table from the tables and boarders toolbar. The following points must be followed:

  1. Place the cursor where the table is to be created.
  2. Click on the insert table icon on the tables and board toolbar at the top of window.
  3. The corner of the table should be dragged until the desired number of columns and rows are created.
  4. Click the mouse to insert the table.

To make a table from the insert table dialogue box. Follow these steps:

  1. Click on table from the menu bar, select insert and then on table – a dialogue box will appear.
  2. Enter the desired number of rows and columns.
  3. Choose auto fit behaviour if the table’s cells are to be expanded. Auto format can also be chosen.
  4. Click OK to insert your table.

To draw a table in other ways:

  1. Select table from the menu bar
  2. Select draw table
  3. Drag the pencil diagonally across the page to make a rectangle where the table is to be placed.
  4. Draw lines vertically and horizontally to create the columns and rows that are needed.

Colours and lines can be changed in there manner

  1. Click the table tab
  2. Choose table properties
  3. Click on the boarder and shading-button make the desired selections and click OK and then OK again.

Enter key: it is used to command line, window form, or dialog box to operate. It can be used as an alternative to pressing an OK button

< enter > key is used to begin a new line. It can also be used in place of the mouse for other tasks on the computer in order to save time.


  1. What is the use of table?
  2. Explain how to create a table
  3. What is the function of a line space regulator
  4. Write two functions of the enter key.
  5. List the procedure to follow in making a table



A paragraphing is a part of a document or a group of sentences which deals with a particular idea.


There are three different types of paragraphs:

1. BLOCKED PARAGRAPH: All lines including the first line of the paragraph begin from the left margin e.g. business or official letter.

2. INDENTED PARAGRAPH: The first line begins after five space (pica) six spaces for elite from the left.

3. HANGING PARAGRAPH: This is one in which the first line of each paragraph begins three spaces of the left of the subsequent lines. With this method, typing can be on single line spacing as well as double line spacing. E.g. legal matters, poem, drama.


  1. Define paragraphing
  2. Explain the following term with the format
  3. Blocked paragraph
  4. Hanging paragraph
  5. Indented paragraph



Page setup means parameters which are normally defined by a user and which help to determine how a printed page will appear.

These parameters can include everything from margins, quality print, size etc.

Text Alignment

This is found in the program’s toolbar. It may be shown as a row of four icons:

Left aligned, right aligned, centred and justified options.

1. LEFT ALIGNED: it is also called flush left or left justified. It is used just as blocked style, each line begins along the left margin of the document. A straight margin is formed on the left and an uneven margin is formed on the right


2. RIGHT ALIGNED: it is also known as right justified of flush right. Each line of text begins along the right margin of the document in this kind of setting. The text expands to the left of the cursor. If more than one line is typed, the next line begin along the right margin.


3. CENTRED ALIGNED: text that is centred text is placed in the centre of each line. The text expands equally to the left and right and it leaves the same amount of space on either side.


4. JUSTIFIED ALIGNED: it combines left and right aligned text, when a block of text is justified, each line fills the entire space from left to right the text occupies 100% of the space.



  1. Define page setup
  2. Write short note on the following:
  • Justified aligned
  • Right aligned
  • Left aligned
  • Centre aligned



Memorandum is used in offices for correspondence with other department or calling information from or conveying information to its employees.


  1. It is written in the third person
  2. It bears no salutation or complimentary close.
  3. Name and designation appear on it.
  4. It is used in correspondence with attached and subordinate offices.


NO: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

DEPARTMENT OF: …………………………………………………………………………………….


SUB: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

The under signed is directed to refer to this department O.M.

No: …………………. Date: …………………………………. And to say that …………………………………..

Tel: ……………………………………… (ABC) Mobil No: …………………………………………


  1. Define memorandum
  2. State 5 features of memorandum



E-mail means electronic mail or e- mail. It is used on the internet to send written messages between individuals or groups of individuals.

E-mail messages are sent from and received by mail servers computers that are dedicated to processing directing e-mail.

Feature of e-mail

  1. Low cost: it is cost effective
  2. Speed: it delivers as far as the wire can carry it.
  3. Waste reduction: it goes a long way
  4. Patience: it waits until you read it.
  5. Ease use
  6. Record maintenance: all messages are field.

Format for sending E-mail by internet.

E-mail is sent on a specific format which appears automatically on the computer screen when you click the e-mail button on the section of screen, called the toolbar







From – address of the person sending the e-mail

To – to whom the e-mail is to be sent.

Subject – title of the content of the message.

Message – this is just the body of a letter.

CC – to whom carbon copies of the message are sent, if any

BC – to whom blind copies are to be sent (names may not be sent with the message).

Attach – attachments sent with the message if any, the date and time of sending the message will appear automatically.

Creating a web-based e-mail account one can create one’s web-based free e-mail account upon many sites.

They are:





You can log on to any of these sites and register there as a new user.

Get connected to the internet by following the steps:

  1. Log on to the site http/mail.sify.com
  2. Register for the first time click at ‘’New user register here’’.
  3. It will take you to the member registration form – you fill all the details required once you created your e-mail account, you can log In and view your e-mail.

To rely or forward an e-mail message:

You can reply to the sender immediately by clicking on the rely button. When you write the reply mail message and send it.


  1. Define e-mail.
  2. Outline 5 features of e-mail



Correction signs are signs that are made by editors and typesetters to mark corrections before goes for printing.


The tables below list the commonly used correction signs:

Description in text Instruction in margin
Caps/upper case TEXT CAPS or u/c
Lower case Text i/c
Undercase Text u/s
Run on run on
New paragragh NP
Stet Text stet


State 5 commonly used correction signs.



Office equipment is any office item which is operated either manually, mechanically, or electronically to aid the office worker perform their duties faster, neater and efficiently.

Office equipment consists of stationery as well as the machines present in the office. Stationery are the products that used daily by the employees like staplers, gum, notebook, pins, pen, clip, markers etc. whereas, machines are the big costly instruments used by employees like Xerox machine, printer, scanner, pen drive,e.t.c.


Below mentioned are few office equipment that every office requires


An office with at least one computer must have a printer to make hard copies of files and documents. Business documents such as product list, financial dealings, invoices, letters, reports, etc. need to be stored as hard copies.

In addition to transferring the electronic files to paper format, they can also create composite documents containing scanned images and digital information.


While a printer is used to convert electronic documents into paper format, a scanner does just the opposite- converting hard copies into digital format. These include photographs, cash receipts, hand-filled forms, drawings, identification proofs of employees and even pages from print publications.

Scanners copy these images created on paper and convert them to electronic format so that they can be stored on a computer or emailed.

Photocopying or fax was the most commonly used format before scanners were invented. Photocopying is still followed today at many places.


This is one of the best ways of replicating a document and maintaining a hard copy especially if it is hand-written. There was a time when offices used to employ clerks called ‘scribes’ to create a duplicate copy of a document by typing or rewriting it again.

However, this was a very difficult task and the printing press was not an easy, practical solution. Some offices made use of small printing presses while most of them outsourced the work to large printing presses. Slowly this passed away and offices started using carbon papers, cyclostyling, etc.

Eventually, copying options like roller copiers, copy pads xerographs etc. came into practice. Xerography and copiers are popular copying options – both in black and white as well as color, even today.

Dictation Machines:

Many offices do not find it important to have this equipment. However, this is one of the most important equipment.

Speech recognition software is available but it is not as efficient and reliable. Typically, in an office, the audio is first recorded by someone, processed into file format by an employee, transcribed by another employee who later emails or prints it.

Typing out every word cannot be done as fast and fluently as speaking. Drafting memos and letters are best done through dictation and recording- especially because it is easier to speak while performing other tasks.

Cassette tapes were popular dictation equipment but modern digital versions are more popular owing to the ease and convenience.


Making presentations are an integral part of any office work whether it is building a strategy, providing training to employees or even making a business proposal.

Simple lecturing and talking is often confusing and needless to say- boring. Using the age-old traditional method of chalk and board is cumbersome since making notes is difficult. Going back to a particular point to clarify doubts is also difficult.

In addition, people find it difficult to keep a record of the meeting. Presentations throw clarity into the picture simply because it is easier to maintain records, clear doubts and also make notes.

So, what does a projector do in the presentation?

Simple- it helps project the presentations on a bigger screen thus grabbing everybody’s attention. You can also share the presentations with colleagues, attendees simply by e-mailing the same to them.


Like dictation machines, shredders also fall into the ‘most important’ office equipment category when it comes to protecting the confidentiality, business and trade secrets.

Ironically, shredders are used to destroy the very same documents that the employees work so hard to produce. Hand tearing is time-consuming and tiring in addition to being ineffective.

Shredders cut papers such that putting them back and recovering the lost information is almost impossible. They are extremely necessary when confidential information and reports relating to human resources are documented.


If the office is involved in binding operations, then they will require a good office equipment for binding because all the customers demand perfect binding for their documents. This shows that every office has its own needs and requirements and if the proper office equipment is not available in order to carry out that operation, then the entire task will not be completed successfully. Every office requires furniture for their employees that they can use in order to finish their tasks and duties. However, these are just the general needs of any office. Office equipment is the main factor that every office needs for the successful finishing of any project or job and this may not be same for every office and varies with respect to the nature of the business and the requirement of the office.


Proper care of your office equipment will keep your business running smoothly. A good cleaning every few months will keep keyboard keys from sticking and equipment from overheating. Regular maintenance may reduce downtime and maintenance calls for your computers, printers and fax machines.

  • Open removable parts of the printer and wipe the insides with a dry, clean cloth.
  • Keep computers in a dry environment, away from sources of excessive heat or moisture.
  • Do not place a computer next to a heating source or drink your coffee while at the computer.
  • Wipe screen and keyboard regularly with a static-free cloth and cleaner designed for use on computers.
  • Use compressed air to clean debris from between the keys on the keyboard.
  • Keep ventilation holes on the computer clear of blockages from dust or other items on the desk to prevent overheating.



Office procedure or system can be defined as the sequence of steps or operations in which activities are performed or done. Every organization do produce office manual or procedure manual which contain in a summarized form, all the activities or- things in an organization.


  • An office procedure reduces the general cost of operation
  • An office procedure allows for easy training of new staff
  • An office procedure enhances performance of old staff
  • A good office procedure facilitates better flow of work in offices and departments.
  • An office procedure brings about better coordination


  • Write or type your company’s contact information on a sheet of paper, spreadsheet or other electronic record keeping system. Remember to include an email address and phone number where they can contact you with questions.
  • Create an original customer invoice number using letters, numbers or both. A customer invoice number can be as simple “Job-001” or more complex, such as “Smith-Job-001.” The second example is useful for repeat customers because it includes their last name along with a job number. Future invoices should have original, sequential job numbers, which make sorting the client’s job histories easier.
  • Date the invoice. The sooner you begin invoicing clients for work or services you provided, the sooner you can get paid.
  • Describe the work you performed. Use separate lines to itemize details about each service or product you provided. Include a description of the type and quantity of materials that were used. Service providers should offer clear details about the scope of the work performed and how many hours were spent on each segment of the work.
  • Add up the total quantities of each material, product and/or service you provided. This is called the subtotal.
  • Add up the total quantities of each material, product and/or service you provided. This is called the subtotal.
  • Tally the subtotal and sales tax to arrive at the final job cost. Include this figure at the bottom of the invoice. Always ensure the numbers are in legible, boldface type so customers know exactly how much to pay.
  • Indicate payment terms that describe when you want to get paid. Examples small business owners use include NET 15 or NET 30, which means payment is due in 15 or 30 days. If you want to be paid when the customer receives your invoice, write “Due on Receipt.”
  • Tell how you want to get paid. Whether you expect payment as cash on delivery (COD), cash, check or credit card, let customers know what methods of payment are accepted.


  1. Define office procedure
  2. Outline the steps for preparing invoice.


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