Subject :

Computer Studies / Information Communication Technology ICT 

Topic :


Class :

SS 1

Term :


Week :

Week 4

Reference Materials :  .


Instructional Materials :..

  • Computer Studies
  • Online Resources


Previous Knowledge :

The pupils have previous knowledge of


that was taught as a topic in their previous lesson

Behavioural Objectives :  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • Mention different generations of computer
  • Explain the meaning of AI
  • Explain second generation of computers


Content :





Computers have been around for centuries, with early machines dating back to the 1600s. However, it wasn’t until the early 1800s that they began to be used for more practical purposes. In 1876, Charles Babbage designed a machine called the Analytical Engine, which could be programmed to perform certain tasks. However, the machine was never completed. In 1937, John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry developed the first electronic computer, called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer. However, this machine was not actually built until 1973. In 1941, Konrad Zuse designed and built the first programmable computer. The first computers were large, expensive, and required a lot of power to operate. As technology progressed, computers became smaller, cheaper, and more powerful. Today, computers are an essential part of daily life, with applications in business, science, medicine, education, and entertainment.

Consider the table below: 


Of computers

Year of 





Characteristics Software




First 1951-1958  Vacuum tube Very big and slow in operation Machine language Small internal storage
Second 1959-1964 Transistor Less heat generation High level &


Core storage
Third 1965-1975 100-1000


Introduction of integrated circuit Multiprogramming


Fourth 1975-1982 1000 above VLSIC Introduction of Non-procedural language Flexible internal & external storage
Fifth 1982 and above 106chips AI and Expert


Introduction of object oriented programming language Small but powerful network


Explain second generation of computers.

1. The second generation of computers was marked by the use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. Transistors are smaller, more reliable, and require less power than vacuum tubes. This made computers smaller, faster, and more energy-efficient. The first transistorized computer was the IBM 7090, which was released in 1959.


2. The second generation of computers also saw the development of new programming languages, such as FORTRAN and COBOL. These languages made it easier for programmers to write code that could be run on different types of computers.


3. The second generation of computers was also marked by the development of new computer architectures, such as the minicomputer and the microcomputer. These architectures made it possible for computers to be used in a wider variety of applications.


4. The second generation of computers saw the development of new storage devices, such as magnetic disk drives and tape drives. These storage devices allowed for larger amounts of data to be stored on a single device.


5. The second generation of computers also saw the development of new input/output devices, such as keyboards and printers. These devices allowed for a more user-friendly interface between humans and computers


Artificial intelligence (AI) is the process of programming a computer to make decisions for itself. This can be done in a number of ways, but the most common is through the use of algorithms. An algorithm is a set of rules that can be followed to solve a problem.


What is artificial intelligence?


In the case of AI, these algorithms are designed to help the computer make better decisions. This can be done by teaching the computer how to recognize patterns, how to make predictions, and how to find solutions to problems. The goal of AI is to make the computer smarter and more efficient at completing tasks.




There are many different applications for artificial intelligence. Some of these include:




-Autonomous vehicles


-Fraud detection


-Speech recognition


-Predicting consumer behavior


-Personalized recommendations


-Detecting cyber attacks




Artificial intelligence is a rapidly growing field with many potential applications. As the technology continues to develop, it is likely that even more uses for AI will be found.


  1. Differentiate between the first and second generation of computers.
  2. Which of the generation of computer uses microchips?
  3. Which of the generation of computers used VLSIC?
  4. What is non-procedural programming?
  5. What are the origins of computing and how did it evolve?
  6. What are some of the key inventions in computing history?
  7. How did computers become more powerful over time?
  8. What impact have computers had on society?
  9. How will computing continue to evolve in the future?



  1. AI means………….A. artefact intelligence B. artificial intellect C. artificial intelligence D. attitude intelligence.
  2. Which of the generation of computer was between 1975 and 1982? A. First B. Second C. Fifth D. Fourth
  3. Which of the generation of computer used vacuum tube? A. First B. Second C. Fifth D. Fourth
  4. Which of the generation of computers used VLSIC? A. First B. Second C. Fifth D. Fourth
  5. Which of the generation of computers begins Non Procedural programming? A. First B. Second C. Fifth D. Fourth
  6. What was the capacity of first computer? A. 1 bit B. 4 bit C. 8 Kilobyte D. 64 Kilobyte


  7. Which company developed the first commercial computer? A. Zuse B. Apple C. IBM D. Microsoft


  8. First generation computers used which type of memory? A. ROM B. RAM C. Cache D. All of the above


  9. Which language was developed by John Backus? A. ALGOL B. BASIC C. COBOL D. Ada


  10. The first computers were called _____________ because they used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory storage A. analog computers B. digital computers C. large-scale computers D. mainframe computers


  11. What is the full form of CPU? A. Central Processing Unit B. Control Processing Unit C. Complex Processing Unit D. Central Programmable Unit


  12. The term “algorithm” comes from which language? A. English B. Arabic C. Urdu D. Persian


  13. In binary language, which of the following is not a numeral? A. 0 B. 1 C. D D. 8


  14. Which of the following is an ordered pair? A. (2, 4) B. {2, 4} C. 2+4 D. 2-4


  15. In digital system, which of the following represents HIGH state? A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3


  16. Which of the following is not an output device? A. Printer B. Plotter C. Monitor D. Keyboard


  17. Magnetic disk was first used in ___________ computer A. First generation B. Second generation C. Fifth generation D. Fourth generation

    The speed of modern computers is measured in



  1. What is artificial intelligence?
  2. Explain second generation of computers.
  3.  What is artificial intelligence, and what are its key components?
  4. How has artificial intelligence been developed over the years?
  5. What are some of the current applications of artificial intelligence?
  6. What are some of the ethical concerns surrounding artificial intelligence?
  7. What is the future of artificial intelligence?



The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise






Conclusion :


The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written. He or she does the necessary corrections when the need arises.