Subject : 

Cultural and Creative Art

Term :

First Term / 1st Term


Week 11

Class :

JSS 2 / Basic 8

Previous lesson: 

The pupils have previous knowledge of

Characteristics of Greek, Arabian, Egyptian, Roman and African Music

in their previous classes

Topic :


Behavioural objectives:

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • say the origin of music
  • List the origin of music
  • write out popular Nigerian music


Instructional Materials:

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures of different types of houses
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching:

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials:

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks





Introduction to the History of Music

History of music is the study of past music events and the present ones. It is based on the music literature or virtual information that has to be applied directly to the actual sound of music of any era musically.

Origin of Music

The origin of music can be traced back to ancient times. Different activities from man and nature produce music. Meanwhile, various cultures attribute the origin of their music to diverse sources.

There are eight (8) origins of music which are as follows:

  1. Speech communication.
  2. Play rhythms
  3. Bird sounds
  4. Mimicries
  5. Roaring of Waves or Oceans
  6. Singing
  7. Human Sounds and
  8. Rhythm produced through the use of working tools, clap play.


  1. Speech Communication: The act of communicating through the speech made by man serves as a source of music.
  2. Play Rhythms: As human activities, different sounds produced while engaging in them serve as a source of music.
  3. Bird Sounds: The tweeting, chirping and twittering of various birds produce sounds.
  4. Mimicries: This is another source of music that has to do with imitating the sound heard around.
  5. Roaring of Waves or Oceans: The continuous loud and deep noise generated by this circumstance also serves as a sound of music.
  6. Singing: This is the production of musical sound through voice.
  7. Human Sounds: Different activities of man in his environment as well as the emotions expressed at various times bring about music.
  8. Music can also be traced to the rhythm produced through the use of working tools such as anvil, hammer, etc.



  1. Explain at least three (3) origins of music.
  2. What is history of music?
  3. What do you understand by the origin of music?
  4. Name the origins of music you have been taught.


Meaning of Listening

Listening means a conscious effort to hear. That is, giving particular attention to hearing the wordings and messages of a particular music.

Popular Music

Popular music is the kind that takes place at night clubs and parties. The various kinds of popular music include;

  1. highlife,
  2. kirari,
  3. fuji,
  4. juju,
  5. makosa,
  6. afro beat,
  7. udje,
  8. R and B,
  9. gospel,
  10. rock,
  11. pop etc


Kinds of Popular Music


Highlife started in Nigeria particularly in the western region around late 1940s and early 1950s. It developed from Agidigbo music that was popular then. It represented the Yoruba example of folkloric bands.

  1. High life is primarily a vocal music, sung in the different vernaculars.
  2. The subjects of the songs are similar to those of traditional songs, such as love, praise, death and insult songs.
  3. The rhythm of the highlife is not as complicated as that of the traditional African music.
  4. Some highlife musicians are late Adeolu Akinsanya popularly called “Eto Baba Eto”, Late Kayode Fashola “The music maker”, Victor Olaiya,” The Cool Cat Ochestra”, Roy Chicago, Bobby Benson “Jam-session Orchestra”, Eddy Okonta”, The water man”,Victor Uwaifor and Late Rex Lawson.


Kirari is a Hausa word meaning hailing, so the music is of Hausa origin. It was used in the olden days by the Hausa during the various inter-tribal wars to toss praise or glorify their warriors. However, with the passage of time, values and ways of life have changed. There is no more war, so the Hausas now use kirari for royalty and wealthy people. Kirari can be likened to the activities of the yoruba praise singers or chanters.


Fuji music developed from islamic musical activity popularly called “were”, into a successful Nigeria popular music. “Were” is a kind of music adopted by the Muslims to wake themselves up during Ramadan fasting period. Fuji is the combination of all socio-stylistic tendencies of “sakara” (a kind of drum made from animal skin with clay rim),”waka” and apala. Fuji musicians employ the call and response vocal form in which the leader or soloist dominates the singing. Fuji came to limelight also in the 1960s. It is about the only music played by the young and old. Popular fuji musicians include:

  1. Alhaji Dr Sikiru Ayinde Barister (AlhajiAgba)
  2. Alhaji General Ayinla Kollington (Kebe’n Kwara)
  3. Alhaji Wasiu Ayinde (Oluaye Fuji)
  4. Alhaji Adewale Ayuba (Bonsue Fuji)
  5. Alhaji Abass Akande Obesere (Omorapala)
  6. Alhaji Wasiu Alabi (Pasuma)


The origin of juju has been traced to Lagos in the early 1930s when the music was played an ensemble consisting of rattle (sekere), a tambourine (juju) from which the music derived its name, and a lead singer. In the early 1970s, juju music witnessed an unprecedented development. The music gain more acceptance and patronage. It became the most commercially successful popular music in Nigeria. The two greatest exponents of this period (1970s -1980s) were King Sunny Ade and Ebenezer Obey Commander. The likes of Dele Abiodun, Emperor Pick Peters, Sir Shina Peters, Segun Adewale, etc. later joined the league.


Makosa or Mapouka originated from Cote d’ Ivoire in the late 1990s. The music spread across other neighbouring West African countries for being immoral and too sexually suggestive.


It was originated by Fela Anikulapo Kuti in the 1960s. The music was satirical in nature as it tended to criticize and correct the social vices of corruption and mismanagement resulting from the oil-boom which were the order of the day. Though a popular music in Nigeria, European musical instruments dominate afro beat’s performances. For example, saxophones, trumpets, electronic drum sets, etc. are used. It is more or less a family music. Apart from the originator, Fela Anikulapo Kuti, aka Abami Eda, two of his children (Femi and Seun) have taken into the music style. Another known afro beat musician is Olando Julius alias Ekemode, who was said to have made a tremedous impact in the 1970s. So also is Lagbaja who shot into prominence in the 1990s.


This type of music is popular among the Urhobo people of the riverine areas. The activities of this music can also be likened to kirari and Yoruba chanters. It is full of music, poetry and dance.



African Musical Styles

  1. African music is that class of music that is practiced in Africa before the continent came under European influence.
  2. African Melody: African melody makes use of the pentatonic scale system which is the 5-tone system.
  3. African Harmony: There are some song in which two or three parts may be heard simultaneously in the chorus response.
  4. African Rhythm: It is characterized by rhythmic complexities, e.g. Polyrhythm in which two or more separate beats are played simultaneously.

Western Musical Styles

  1. Melody: This refers to pitches sounded one after another in a logical series which form a satisfying musical unit.
  2. Counterpoint: This is the combination of two or melodic lines simultaneously.
  3. Harmony: This refer only to the simultaneous sounding of pitches .
  4. Timbre: The distinctive sound of a voice of musical instrument is called its timbre or tone colour.



  1. Define listening.
  2. What is popular music?
  3. Mention and explain five (5) kinds of popular music.
  4. Write short note on (a) King Sunny Ade (b) Victor Olaiya.
  5. Describe African and Western musical styles.






The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or concludes the lesson by giving out a short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.




  1. Define tie and dye.
  2. Name 4 methods of tie-dye.
  3. List 3 locations of tie-dye in Nigeria
  4. Define tie-dye materials and tools
  5. List various materials and tools used for tie dying and their uses
  6. Explain the following methods of tie and dye: (i) Marbling (ii) Clamping




Spread the word if you find this helpful! Click on any social media icon to share