Subject : 

Cultural and Creative Art

Term :

First Term / 1st Term


Week 2

Class :

JSS 2 / Basic 8

Previous lesson: 

The pupils have previous knowledge of


in their previous classes

Topic :


Behavioural objectives:

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • define principles of art
  • mention any two principles of art
  • define rhythm
  • say the application of the principles of art and design


Instructional Materials:

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures of different types of houses
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching:

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials:

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks





Meaning/Definition of Principles of Art

Principles of art are rules guiding the use and arrangement of elements of art to achieve order and unity in artwork. The combination of the principles of art is essential in a work of art because it helps the artist to achieve harmony.

Examples of the principles are variety, balance, rhythm, proportion, dominance, repetition, graduation, overlapping and harmony.


This is the agreement of all elements in an art composition. It suggests satisfaction in design.


It is the art of using different elements or varying the sizes of the elements of design. The objects in a design are not always of the same colour or size but are varied.


It is the equal distribution of elements like colour, shape, line, value etc to achieve a balance in design. This is the most fundamental of the principles of art.


It is a continuous repetition of elements in design which reflect a specific flow pattern.


It is the principle of art which refers to the use of an element like colour or shape more constantly in one design than the other. It is the centre of interest or emphasis in a design.



This is the relationship between the various components of an art work, it involves the proper distribution of elements in such a way that one part will not be too crowded while there is an empty space on the other side.


It is the repeated use of a number of elements in a design. It is simply the use of an element as many times as possible in a design to form a pattern.


It is the art of producing tonal value in colour applied to a design.


This is the overlaying of one element on another in a design.








The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or concludes the lesson by giving out a short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.





  1. Which of the following principles of design is mostly used by textile designers? _________(a)Registration (b) emphasis (c) proportion (d) repetition
  2. What principle of art and design makes pattern making a domineering presence over other colours ?_________ (a) balance (b) Proportion (c) rhythm (d) Repetiton
  3. When some art elements are given equal weight in a work of
    art,……………is achieved.(a) balance (b) proportion (c)rhythm (d)
  4. The use of opposing, contrasting or diversifying elements in a
    composition thereby adding individualism and interest to such
    work is called.
    (a) balance (b) repetition (c) variety (d) harmony
  5. The use of closely related line, colour and shape in pattern
    making creates a sense of
    (a) harmony (b) repetition (c)balance (d) proportion


  1. Define principles of art.
  2. Mention any two (2) principles of art
  3. What is Rhythm
  4. What is repetition
  5. Define craft.
  6. Name 2 types of craft.
  7. List five examples of fabric crafts.
  8. Mention three examples of paper crafts.
  9. What is craft
  10. Mention 5 types of craft






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