First Aid and Materials
SCHEME OF WORK WITH LESSON NOTES
JSS 2 (BASIC 8)
The pupils have previous knowledge of
First Aid and Materials
By the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to
- define first aid
- explain the meaning of a first aid box
- mention the items that can be found in a first aid box
- Wall charts
- Related Online Video
- Flash Cards
Methods of Teaching:
- Class Discussion
- Group Discussion
- Asking Questions
- Role Modelling
- Role Delegation
- Scheme of Work
- Online Information
- 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
First aid is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, and/or promote recovery. It includes initial intervention in a serious condition prior to professional medical help being available, such as performing CPR while awaiting an ambulance, as well as the complete treatment of minor conditions, such as applying a plaster to a cut. It is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, and/or promote recovery.
It includes initial intervention in a serious condition prior to professional medical help being available, such as performing CPR whilst awaiting an ambulance, as well as the complete treatment of minor conditions, such as applying a plaster to a cut.
First aid is generally performed by the layperson, with many people trained in providing basic levels of first aid, and others willing to do so from acquired knowledge. Mental health first aid is an extension of the concept of first aid to cover mental health.
First Aid Box/Kit
It is a collection of supplies and equipment for use in giving first aid, and can be put together for the purpose by an individual or organization or purchased complete.
There is a wide variation in the contents of first aid kits based on the knowledge and experience of those putting it together, the differing first aid requirements of the area where it may be used and variations in legislation or regulation in a given area.
First aid kits are necessary for every household no matter the age of who lives in the home. Injuries can happen anytime and anywhere. When you have a first aid kit within easy access of wherever you are you will ensure the safety of everyone. First aid can reduce infections from open wounds and injuries. It can also reduce the severity of an injury. You cannot always keep your family from getting hurt but you can protect them when they get injured with a first aid kit.
Materials Of First Aid Box
A basic first aid kit may contain:
- plasters in a variety of different sizes and shapes
- small, medium and large sterile gauze dressings
- at least two sterile eye dressings
- triangular bandages
- crêpe rolled bandages
- safety pins
- disposable sterile gloves
- alcohol-free cleansing wipes
- sticky tape
- thermometer (preferably digital)
- skin rash cream, such as hydrocortisone or calendula
- cream or spray to relieve insect bites and stings
- antiseptic cream
- painkillers such as paracetamol (or infant paracetamol for children), aspirin (not to be given to children under 16), or ibuprofen
- cough medicine
- antihistamine tablets
- distilled water for cleaning wounds
- eye wash and eye bath
It may also be useful to keep a basic first aid manual or instruction booklet with your first aid kit.
Medicines should be checked regularly to make sure they are within their use-by dates.
Application of simple first aid
As individuals, this is the basic first aid knowledge we need to have about different injuries or emergency situations
First aid knowledge and skills promote safety awareness in home, at work, at play, on streets and highways. Through studying first aid, a person is prepared to assist others wisely. He is able to distinguish between what to do and what not to do. Below are some basic steps for treating bleeding and burns examples.
- Position the injured person properly and keep the injured limb elevated (except for fracture victims).
- Inspect the wound, flush with distilled water, exert direct pressure by hand over a dressing, and bandage the wound.
- Do not bandage the wound too tightly that obstructs normal blood circulation to the injured limb.
- Leave the impaled objects and protruding bones in place and protect the injured from further movement. Exert direct pressure on the edge of the wound to stop bleeding.
- Recheck blood circulation of the injured limb after bandaging.
Bleeding From the Nose
- Sit the injured down with his head leaning forward.
- Ask the injured person to breathe with his mouth, forcefully pinch the soft part below his nasal bone and apply a cold dressing to the forehead.
- Ask the injured not to swallow the blood lodged in his throat.
- Loosen his tight clothing.
- If bleeding continues after pinching the nose for 10 minutes, continue to do so for another 10 minutes.
- If bleeding still continues, send the injured to the hospital at once.
General Treatment to different kinds of Burns
- Move the injured away from the heat source.
- Check the breathing and pulse of the injured.
- Check the extent and depth of his burns.
- Flush the burned area with water to alleviate pain.
- Cover the wound with a sterilized dressing.
- For facial burns, use sheet or triangular bandage to cover the burnt area. Provide openings on the sheet or triangular bandage for eyes, nose and mouth for the injured.
To avoid heatstroke, you should halt strenuous activity in hot and humid weather. If you are still determined to go outdoors, you should:
- Wear light loose-fitting clothing.
- rest in a cool place as often as possible.
- replenish your bodily fluids by regularly drinking electrolyte drinks or fruit juice.
You should also avoid alcoholic beverages under such circumstances.
If one of your companions falls unconscious or you come across someone else who is already unconscious, you should:
- Stay calm and immediately call the emergency hotline at 999 for an ambulance.
- roll the person on his or her side to drain any saliva or vomit from the mouth.
- loosen any constricting clothing around the neck, chest and waist.
- keep the person warm and covered with a blanket or clothing.
- stay with the person until the ambulance personnel arrive.
You should not:
- place anything such as pillow under the person’s head.
- sit him or her up.
- Feed him or her anything, no matter if it is solid food or liquid.
Presentation: The topic is presented step by step
The class teacher revises the previous topics
He introduces the new topic
The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise
- What is First Aid?
- What is a First Aid box/kit?
- List 8 materials that is contained in the First Aid box
- What is the first aid treatment given to someone who suffered a burn?
- What are the things you should not do for an unconscious person?
The class teacher wraps up or concludes the lesson by giving out a short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.
The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.
He or she makes the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.