Disease Prevention Through Availability Of Clean Water



Subject :


Topic :

Disease Prevention Through Availability Of Clean Water

Class :



Term :



Week :

Week 1


Instructional Materials 

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Online Resource
  • Textbooks

Methods of Teaching 

  • Role modelling
  • Questions and Answers
  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Recitation
  • Imitation



Previous Knowledge :

The pupils have been taught

Sources of Water Supply

in their previous lesson

Behavioural Objectives :  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • mention water borne diseases
  • say sources of good water
  • list different water treatment processes
  • explain IMMUNIZATION
  • highlight the benefits of IMMUNIZATION


Content :


-Water borne diseases; cholera, diarrhea, typhoid.

-Sources of clean water

-Water treatment processes

-Immunization against human diseases

Sub-topic 1

Water borne diseases

Diseases caused by unclean (dirty) water are called water borne diseases. The following are some of the water borne diseases.

  1. CHOLERA: It is caused by harmful bacteria that inflame the intestine and cause extreme diarrhea. Cholera is the most common diseases that can be contacted by drinking unclean water.

The symptom of cholera is frequent stooling with vomiting which lead to dehydration. Cholera can be prevented by boiling water before drinking.

2. DYSENTRY: It can be caused by a one-celled animal called

Amoeba or by certain bacteria.

3. DIARRHOEA: the symptom of diarrhea is frequent stooling which leads to dehydration, abdominal pains, bloating of the belly, feverish conditions and cramps. To prevent diarrhea, the food we eat and our drinking water should be hygienic.

4. TYPHOID: It is caused by bacteria called salmolena typhi. Symptoms of typhoid fever manifest within three weeks of infection.

Symptoms include feeling cold, serious headache, running stomach,

Constipation, enlarged liver and spleen and high fever. Typhoid fever could be prevented by boiling water before drinking, hygienic handling of food and being immunized against the diseases.

Sources of clean water.

1 Pipe-borne water

2 Spring water.

3 Rain water

4 Deep well water


Mention three borne diseases.

List the sources of clean water.

Sub-topic: 2: Water treatment processes

FILTERATION: – This is the process of removing impurities i.e. mud, soil, leaves from water. Filter paper is used in the laboratory while filter beds are used at water co-operations.

CHLORINATION: – Chlorine gas is added to water to kill bacteria. It is harmless to human beings. It is also used to purify the water in swimming pools.

DISTILLATION: – This is a process of obtaining pure water from impure water by using an apparatus called Lie Bib Condenser.

DESALINATION: – This is the process of taking away salt from sea water.

FLOCCULATION: This is the dissolution and stirring of alum in water to make tiny solid particles suspended in water to stick together (flocculate).

Advantages of using pipe-borne water

  1. It is clean and colourless.
  2. It is odourless.
  3. it is tasteless.
  4. It is conveniently available in the home.
  5. It is treated to kill disease-causing living organisms.
  6. Suspended matter has been removed.

Sub-Topic 3


Immunization is a method of stimulating resistance against specific diseasesin the human body using microorganisms (bacteria or viruses) that have been modified or killed. It is also called vaccination or inoculation. The system in the body that keeps disease-causing organisms from entering our body is called Immune system. Immunization of the child begins during pregnancy. The deadly diseases that require immunization are Polio, chickenpox, Pneumonia, measles, whooping cough, hepatitis, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, tetanus diphtheria etc.

NO Type of vaccine To prevent Age given No. of time given Minimum interval between age
1 Oral polio Polio At birth,

6 weeks,

10 weeks,

14 weeks

4 4 weeks
2 Measles Measles 9 months 1 ——
3 BCG Tuberculosis At birth,

0-11 months

1 ——
4 DPT Diphthera, whooping cough, tetanus 6 weeks

10 weeks

14 weeks

3 4 weeks
5 Tetanus Tetanus TT1-Early pregnancy

TT2[4 weeks]

TT3[6 weeks]


TT5[4 years]



4 weeks


Where to get immunization is a reputable hospital e. g government hospital around you.




The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise


Evaluation :


  • mention five water borne diseases
  • say three sources of good water
  • list four different water treatment processes
  • explain IMMUNIZATION
  • highlight five benefits of IMMUNIZATION




Conclusion :

The class teacher does the necessary corrections and he or she goes round to mark .



Assignment :


The class teacher should stimulate the pupils’ interest  on

Prevention of STI’s, HIV\AIDS.

and make them to read or learn about it as they prepare for the next lesson .