Agriculture and Health








Subject : Agricultural Science

Class : Basic 9 JSS 3

Term : Second Term





CONTENT: Effects of HIV/AIDS and Malaria in Agricultural production.

HIV/AIDS and Malaria

These are two major diseases that are so important which major national and international programmes are working on various ways to deal with how they affect human survival and development.

HIV/AIDS and Malaria are two diseases very common and wide spread in tropical countries including Nigeria. They are most notable diseases responsible for the death of several people in Africa.

According to the record, HIV/AIDS, alone has killed more people in Africa than all the civil wars put together .About 1million people are known to die of malaria every year and 90% of these deaths occur in Africa including children who should grow into young adults and practice agriculture.HIV/AIDS cannot be cure but malaria can be cured with preventive and curative medicines.




Current Total of Reported AIDS Cases in the World


Number of people living with HIV in 2007
Total 33,200,000
Adults 30,800,000
Women 15,400,000
Children (<15 years) 2,500,000
People newly infected with HIV in 2007
Total 2,500,000
Adults 2,100,000
Children (<15 years) 420,000
AIDS deaths in 2007
Total 2,100,000
Adults 1,700,000
Children (<15 years) 330,000
All figures are estimates.
Source: World Health Organization;
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)


Campaign against HIV/AIDS in schools

HIV/AIDS means Human Immune-deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a viral disease commonly transmitted through sexual intercourse.HIV/AIDS belongs to the group of diseases commonly referred to as STD, meaning sexually transmitted diseases.

It is also through the communal use of needles used for infected person for another person who was not infected etc. Over 70% of the 33 million people infected with HIV/AIDS in the world, were in Africa. Since 1985, HIV/AIDS has killed about 7 million agricultural workers in the 25 most affected countries especially Africa. Scientists now believed that by the year2020, it could kill about 16 million agricultural workers.

The United Nations has established UNAIDS to work with national programmes on the HIV /AIDS problem all over the world.

All countries in Africa have established national HIV/AIDS programmes. In Nigeria HIV/AIDS programme is coordinated by the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA)

The work of NACA includes:

  1. i) .Public awareness activities to inform people about this disease and
  2. ii) How to protect themselves from becoming infected,
  3. ii) How to treat people living with HIV/AIDS and

iv).How to support and look after people who are infected with this disease.

EVALUATION: Mention some of the activities of National Agency for the control of AIDS (NACA) in Nigeria.

Sub-Topic 2: MALARIA

Malaria is a tropical disease caused by a blood parasite, plasmodium, which is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria affects infants and adults. Children less than 5 years and pregnant women are especially at risk of this disease.

     Anopheles Mosquito; carrier of Malaria parasites


– Keep the surroundings of your home clean,

-Remove all kind of stagnant water bodies where mosquitoes can breed.

-Sleep in beds cover by mosquito nets or in rooms which have windows and doors covered with mosquito nets.

– Take preventive medicines which are prescribed by doctors.

– Take a full course of treatment medicines prescribed by a qualified doctor


All countries affected by malaria have developed national programmes to control malaria  e .g Nigeria has established a National Malaria Control Programme, NMCP, Also World Health Organization (WHO) has a major malaria programme called the “Roll Back Malaria Initiative” which is  supported  by eight world’s richest countries, called G8.

How HIV/AIDS and Malaria Affect Agricultural Production.

  1. i) Reduction in the number of farm workers
  2. ii) It increases death rate

iii) Delay in performing farming activities.

Iv).It increases the number of indigents (orphans and widows)

v).Abandonment of farm business

vi).Economic loss

vii).It leads to reduction in the amount of raw materials available to industries


  1. List five ways in which HIV/AIDS and malaria affected agricultural production.
  2. Mention ways to manage malaria.



Objective Test:

1.HIV/AIDS and Malaria are…………..and …………… in the tropical countries.  A. very rare and known   B. very common and widespread   C. very common but limited.   D. not common and known.E. not known and seen.

  1. The United Nation has established……………….. to work with national programmes of different countries on the HIV/AIDS problem.
  3. Plasmodium is a blood parasite that causes……….A. malaria B. sleeping sicknessdisease C. HIV/AIDS D. toothache E. backache.
  4. The Roll back Malaria Initiative is a programme of the:
  5. Food and Agriculture Organization B. Economic Community of West African State, ECOWAS C. Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs D. World Health Organization E. International LabourOrganization.
  6. Malaria is different fromHIV/AIDS because it is caused by ————- A. a fungus B. a bacterium   C. a blood parasite   D. a weed   E.  a roundworm

Essay Test: Explain ways by which HIV/AIDS and malaria has affected agricultural production.


  1. School Farm: Meaning and importance of school farm, (school, students, community) principles of sitting school farm, problems of sitting school farm.
  2. Farm Record: Importance of farm records, Types of farm records. e.g Farm Diary, Farm Inventory, Farm Account, etc.
  3. Current Issues in African Agriculture: Food crisis in Africa; Hunger and poverty in Africa; Meeting the challenges of African food crisis, hunger and poverty; New Programmes in African Agriculture.
  4. Agriculture and Health: Effects of HIV/AIDS and Malaria on Agricultural production.
  5. Revision
  6. Examination