MODES OF TRANSMISSION AND SYMPTOMS OF FARM ANIMAL DISEASES

 

 

Subject : Agricultural Science

 

Term : Second Term

 

Class : JSS 2

 

Week 4

 

Topic :

MODES OF TRANSMISSION AND SYMPTOMS OF FARM ANIMAL DISEASES

 

CONTENT

  1. Mode of Transmission of Disease Causing Organisms
  2. Types of Diseases based on Mode of Transmission
  3. Farm Animal Diseases/Symptoms of Farm Animal Diseases/Mode of Transmission (Tabulated)

 

Mode of Transmission of Disease Causing Organisms

The following are the mode of transmission of farm animals diseases from one animal to the other.

  1. Airborne
  2. Animal carriers e.g visitors, attendants etc.
  3. Direct contact with infected animals
  4. Insect vectors – tsetse flies, etc.
  5. Contact with Droppings of infected animals
  6. Contaminated feeds and water
  7. Contact with infected animals
  8. Vectors e.g. tick, tse-tseflies.
  9. Contaminated Feeding or water troughs.
  10. Through nasal and oral discharges of the sick animals

Types of Diseases based on Mode of Transmission

Diseases of livestock could be any of the following:

  1. Infectious disease
  2. Contagious disease
  3. Diseases Transmitted from Animals to Humans

Infectious Disease

Infectious disease affects animals without physical contact with the infected animals. It can be transmitted to healthy animals through water, air, or feeds. eg Anthrax, Coccidiosis, and Fowl typhoid.

Contagious Disease

Contagious disease affect animals when there is physical contact with the infected animals.eg Contagious abortion (brucellosis), Foot and mouth, and Mastitis.

Diseases Transmitted from Animals to Humans

Diseases that are transmitted from animals to humans are termed zoonotic diseases, e.g. Bird flu and Swine fever. It could cause death if not treated properly.  [the_ad id=”40090″]

Farm Animal Diseases/Symptoms of Farm Animal Diseases/Mode of Transmission

The table below shows the name of disease, the causative organism, the animals affected, symptoms, mode of spread and control measures.

S/nName of
Disease
Causative
organisms
Animals
Affected
SymptomsMode of spreadControl measures
1.MastitisBacteriaCattle,
sheep,
goat,
pig
The udder
becomes swollen,
reddened and
painful
Water, food,
injuries on the
udder, milking,
marching
Good hygiene, get
rid of flies, disinfect
milking marching
2.Contagious
abortion
Cattle,
sheep,
goats,
pigs
Irritation,
catarrhal
condition in the
womb
Servicing by
infected
bull, flies,
contaminated
pasture
Vaccination, contact
vet. Doctor.
3.AnthraxCattle,
sheep,
goats
– Blood stained
discharges from
mouth or nostril
– death
– swelling in the
neck
Contact with
infected
animals & their
products
Vaccination,
disinfect pens, burn
or burry dead
animals.
4.TuberculosisCattle,
sheep,
goats,
poultry,
pigs
Persistent cough,
emaciation, death
Contact with
discharge or
sputum of
infected
animals
No treatment. Kill
and burry infected
animals.
Vaccination
5.Fowl typhoidPoultry-Dullness,
-yellowish
discharges
Contact with
infected birds
Vaccination, proper
sanitation
6.Foot & mouthVirusCattle,
sheep,
goats
Sores on the feet,
lips, foaming,
lameness
Contact with
infected
animals
Vaccination &
isolation
7.Rinderpest
(cattle
plague)
Cattle,
sheep,
goats
Blood stained
diarrhea, grind of
teeth, difficult
breathing
Contact with
infected
animals and
food
No treatment, kill
and burry infected
animals. Vaccination
8.New castle
disease
PoultryNeck twisting,
difficulty in
breathing,
greenish
droppings, soft
egg shell
Contact with
droppings,
and nasal
discharge
Good sanitation,
vaccination with
NDC vaccine
9.Fowl PoxPoultryBlisters on comb
and wattle
Contact with
infected animal,
by biting insects
Vaccination,
Cull infected
birds.
10.Swine FeverPigsFeverEntire bodyVaccination
11.Chronic
Respiratory
Disease (CRD)
Virus/
Bacteria
PoultryDifficulty in
breathing, nasal
discharge, loss in
weight
Contact with
infected
nasal discharge
Good sanitation,
avoid the use
of sawdust.
12.Ring wormFungusAll
animals
& birds
Lesions or scab
on the skin,
falling off of hair,
grey patches on
wattle and combs
of birds
Contact with
infected birds
Treat with iodine,
good sanitation,
isolate infected
birds
13.ScabiesCattle,
goats,
sheep
Itchy little lumps
in the body, sores
with pus, fever
Contact with
infected
animals and
beddings
Good sanitation,
dip animals into
lindane solution
14.TrypanosomiasisProtozoaCattle,
sheep,
goats,
and
pigs
Weakness, hair
on tail pull off,
loss of condition
Blood stained
watery
droppings,
ruffled feathers,
loss of weight,
death.
Through tsetse
flies’ bite
Treat with
trypanosomide
drug, clear bushes
around pen, kill flies
with chemical
15.CoccidiosisProtozoaPoultry,
rabbits
Contact with
contaminated
feed and water
Good sanitation,
treat with
coccidiostats e.g.
Sulphamethazone

 

Nutritional Deficiency Diseases

S/nDiseasesLivestockCauseSymptomsControl
1.BloatCattle, sheep,
goats
Feeding on
succulent
pasture
Swollen stomach
Difficult
breathing
Avoid succulent
feed.
Puncture
the rumen
2.OsteomalaciaAll domestic
animals
Deficiency
of calcium
Weak bonesFeed with rich
calcium and
phosphorus
3.RicketsAll domestic
animals
Calcium
deficiency
Weak bonesAdd and
phosphorus to
feed
4.AnaemiaAll domestic
animals
Deficiency of
Iron (Fe)
Insufficient
blood
Addition of iron
complex to feed
5.Night
blindness
All domestic
animals
Lack of vit. AInability to see
clearly in dim
light
Feed with
yellow maize

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EVALUATION

  1. List four modes of transmission of disease causing organisms
  2. Differentiate between contagious disease and infectious disease and give two examples of each of them.
  3. What are zoonotic diseases?
  4. Name the pathogens that caused the following diseases: (i) Trypanosomiasis (ii) Ring worm (iii) Swine fever (iv) Tuberculosis
  5. Copy and complete the table below:
Name of
Disease
Causative
Organisms
Animals
Affected
SymptomsMode of SpreadControl Measures
Mastitis2The udder
becomes
swollen,
reddened
and painful
4Good hygiene,
get rid of flies,
disinfect
milking
marching
13Blisters on
comb and
wattle
Contact with
infected animal,
by biting
insects
5