Subject : Agricultural Science


Term : Second Term


Class : JSS 2


Week 1





  1. Meaning of Feeds
  2. Type of Feeds or Feed-stuff


Meaning of Feeds

Feeds are the food given to animals for growth and reproduction. Animals need feed on daily basis for them to grow and reproduce. The feed given to poultry birds are called mash. Thus, there is growers mash for young fowls, finisher mash for adult fowls while layers mash is for fowls that lay eggs.

Type of Feeds or Feed-stuff

Feeds or feed stuff can generally be classified into the following:

  1. Energy-yielding feeds
  2. Protein-yielding feeds
  3. Mineral-yielding feeds
  4. Vitamin-yielding feeds
  5. Forages
  6. Silage
  7. Hay
  8. Fodder
  9. Chaff
  10. Pasture
  1. Energy-yielding Feeds

These are feeds that are rich in energy and are highly digestible by farm animals. They have low crude fibre content. Examples of the energy-yielding feed stuff are:

(i) The cereal grains: e.g. rice, maize, millet, wheat, guinea corn, barley, etc.

(ii) Roots and tubers: e.g. cassava, yam, cocoyam, sweet potato, etc.

(iii) Agro-industrial by-products: e.g. rice offal, brewers dried grain, wheat bran, maize bran, cassava peels, yam peels, etc.

(iv) Fats and oils: e.g. palm oil, groundnut oil, cotton seed oil, etc.

  1. Protein-yielding Feeds

These are feeds that are made up of amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. They are usually high in protein and are required by all farm animals for body building. Protein-yielding feeds can be from plants or animal origin.

Examples of plant protein sources are: soyabean cake, groundnut cake, cottonseed cake, beniseed meal, cashew nut meal, palm kernel cake, etc.

Examples of protein feedstuff of animal origin include fish meal, meat meal, blood meal, oyster shell, limestone, common salt, egg shell, lime, etc.

  1. Mineral-yielding Feeds

These are feeds that are required for the general maintenance and development of animals, particularly the skeletal tissues and reproductive system. Examples of feedstuff rich in minerals are bone meal, oyster shell, limestone, common salt, egg shell, lime, etc.

  1. Vitamin-yielding Feeds

These are organic compounds not synthesized or produced in the body, but must be present in small amounts in the diet of farm animals. They function as co-enzymes or as a regulator of metabolism. Their deficiency can lead to ill-health. Vitamin can be grouped into water soluble vitamins e.g. (vitamin C and B-complex) and fat soluble vitamins e.g. Vitamins A, D, E, and K

Example of feedstuff rich in vitamins are fish meal, yellow maize, fruit, vegetables, grasses and legumes.

  1. Forages

Forage crops are legumes, grasses or browse plants used for feeding farm animals or game animals. The grass forages are good sources of energy while leguminous plants are good sources of protein for ruminant animals (sheep, goat, cattle).

Examples of forage crops are guinea grass, elephant grass, carpet grass, stylo, groundnut leaves, sweet potato vines, etc.

  1. Silage

These are forage crops which are stored for future feeding of livestock especially during the dry season. Silage is made by cutting forage crops (either grasses or legumes) when they are not fully mature, partially cured and packed in silos. Tread the grass well by trampling on it layer by layer. When the silo is full, the silo must be sealed completely to prevent air and water from getting in. Silage supplies energy and protein especially to cattle, sheep and goats.

  1. Hay

Hay is dried grass or legume forage that is to be used for feeding livestock especially during the dry season.  It contains a lot of fibre and therefore can only be used to feed ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats).

  1. Fodder

These are dried plant materials preserved for future use. They can be in the forms of hay, straw and chaff.

They are usually cut before the seeds are formed when they are still green.

  1. Chaff

These refer to husks, shells and other by-products obtained in the processing of grains and grain legumes. Examples of chaffs rice, maize, cowpea, soya-beans, etc.

  1. Pasture

A pasture can be referred to as the field where animals graze.Every pasture contains good and poor grasses as well as other unwanted plants or weeds. A pasture can be improved upon by encouraging the good grass to grow and increase in number.





Definition of feed: Feeds are the food given to animals for growth and reproduction. Animals need feed on daily basis for them to grow and reproduce. The feed given to poultry birds are called mash. Thus, there are growers mash for young fowl finisher mash for adult fowl.Layers mash is for fowl that lay eggs. Type of Feeds or Feed-stuff Feeds or feed stuff can generally be classified into the following:

1. Basal or Energy feeds: They are low in fibre and protein content but high in carbohydrates which are highly digestible by animals. Examples include rice, maize, millet, guinea corn, yam and cassava tubers.

2. Concentrates: These are high energy giving feed with low fibre content. They are easily digested. They may be high in energy or proteins. They are normally fed to growing animals and those for reproduction.

Examples of concentrates includes maize , rice, millets, wheat and sorghum. Others are palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake, groundnut cake, bone meal, blood meal, fish meal and oyster shell

3. Succulents: They are feeds that contain much water. Examples are roots and tubers, silage, vegetables such as water leaf and shokor,

4. Roughages: These feed are high in fibre content and relatively less digestible. They add bulk to the ration given to animals. The nutrient content is low.

Examples of roughages includes silage(fresh grasses and legumes), hay(dry grasses and legumes), straw, chaff. They are fed mostly to ruminants like goat, sheep, and cattle.

5. Supplements: feed supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which are lacking in the main feed. Examples includes Eggshell meal, oyster shell meal, soya bean meal, salt licks, limestone, vitamins

6. Additives: Feed additives include Antibiotics, Amino acids and Hormones.

FEED NUTRIENTS: Many nutrient elements combined in varying forms to make up the various feed nutrients.


Carbohydrates: They supply energy. (II) (III) Fat and oil: They supply energy and keeps the body warm. Proteins: They are needed for growth and repairs of worn-out tissues.


Sub-Topic 2:

RATION: This is the sum total of feed required by an animal for a day. Animals take different amount of food per day depending on the purpose for which the animals are kept. Hence , there are different type of ration.


1. Maintenance Ration: The amount of food taken by an animal to keep it alive and it weight constant.

2. Production Ration: It is the amount of feed given to an animal for the purpose of production. The ration is usually higher and richer than production ration. For instance, it is production ration that enables animals to produce meat, milk, eggs or wool.

3. Balanced Ration: It is the ration which contains all the essential nutrients in adequate amount and in the right proportion. A balanced ration should contain carbohydrates, proteins, fat and oil, vitamins, and minerals in adequate amount and in the right proportion .

MALNUTRITION: This refers to improper feeding of animals which leads to mal-nutritional diseases. Examples of mal-nutritional diseases in animals includes Rickets, Ketosis, and Marasmus


About 21 chemical nutrient elements are needed in the body of animals. They are shown in the table below:

Name of element 1 Carbon

2 Hydrogen 3 Oxygen 4 Nitrogen

5 Phosphorus 6 Potassium

7 Sulphur 8 Calcium

Chemical symbol C



Minerals: They help to carry out vital body functions. Vitamins: They help to keep the body healthy Water: It is needed in the body fluid

9 Iodine 10 Iron

I Fe

11 Magnesium 12 Sodium

13 Chlorine 14 Cobalt

15 Copper 16 Fluorine

17 Manganese 18 Zinc

19 Molybdenum 20 Selenium

21 Chromium

Mg Na


Co Cu F

Mn Zn

Mo Se Cr

FEED EQUIPMENT: The different equipment used for feeding farm animals are listed below: I.

Feed troughs: Feeds for animals are placed in the troughs for them to eat. Troughs could be wooden, iron or aluminum. Troughs should be cleansed on daily basis.




Water troughs: Water for the animals is fetched in this equipment. The trough should as well be cleaned regularly

Hay racks: Forage feeds like hay or silage are placed for ruminant animals.

Shade: Ruminant animals are kept and fed under shade especially during dry season.

Trays: Feeds like chick and grower mash are place in the trays for young birds. Trays should be cleansed at all times.










  1. Define feeds.
  2. Give four types of feeds with three examples for each mentioned.
  3. List four protein and four protein-yielding feedstuffs
  4. Name the 5 major feed nutrients
  5. the 3 types of ration and explain one of them.