Subject : Agricultural Science


Term : Second Term


Class : JSS 2


Week 1





  1. Meaning of Feeds
  2. Type of Feeds or Feed-stuff


Meaning of Feeds

Feeds are the food given to animals for growth and reproduction. Animals need feed on daily basis for them to grow and reproduce. The feed given to poultry birds are called mash. Thus, there is growers mash for young fowls, finisher mash for adult fowls while layers mash is for fowls that lay eggs.

Type of Feeds or Feed-stuff

Feeds or feed stuff can generally be classified into the following:

  1. Energy-yielding feeds
  2. Protein-yielding feeds
  3. Mineral-yielding feeds
  4. Vitamin-yielding feeds
  5. Forages
  6. Silage
  7. Hay
  8. Fodder
  9. Chaff
  10. Pasture
  1. Energy-yielding Feeds

These are feeds that are rich in energy and are highly digestible by farm animals. They have low crude fibre content. Examples of the energy-yielding feed stuff are:

(i) The cereal grains: e.g. rice, maize, millet, wheat, guinea corn, barley, etc.

(ii) Roots and tubers: e.g. cassava, yam, cocoyam, sweet potato, etc.

(iii) Agro-industrial by-products: e.g. rice offal, brewers dried grain, wheat bran, maize bran, cassava peels, yam peels, etc.

(iv) Fats and oils: e.g. palm oil, groundnut oil, cotton seed oil, etc.

  1. Protein-yielding Feeds

These are feeds that are made up of amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. They are usually high in protein and are required by all farm animals for body building. Protein-yielding feeds can be from plants or animal origin.

Examples of plant protein sources are: soyabean cake, groundnut cake, cottonseed cake, beniseed meal, cashew nut meal, palm kernel cake, etc.

Examples of protein feedstuff of animal origin include fish meal, meat meal, blood meal, oyster shell, limestone, common salt, egg shell, lime, etc.

  1. Mineral-yielding Feeds

These are feeds that are required for the general maintenance and development of animals, particularly the skeletal tissues and reproductive system. Examples of feedstuff rich in minerals are bone meal, oyster shell, limestone, common salt, egg shell, lime, etc.

  1. Vitamin-yielding Feeds

These are organic compounds not synthesized or produced in the body, but must be present in small amounts in the diet of farm animals. They function as co-enzymes or as a regulator of metabolism. Their deficiency can lead to ill-health. Vitamin can be grouped into water soluble vitamins e.g. (vitamin C and B-complex) and fat soluble vitamins e.g. Vitamins A, D, E, and K

Example of feedstuff rich in vitamins are fish meal, yellow maize, fruit, vegetables, grasses and legumes.

  1. Forages

Forage crops are legumes, grasses or browse plants used for feeding farm animals or game animals. The grass forages are good sources of energy while leguminous plants are good sources of protein for ruminant animals (sheep, goat, cattle).

Examples of forage crops are guinea grass, elephant grass, carpet grass, stylo, groundnut leaves, sweet potato vines, etc.

  1. Silage

These are forage crops which are stored for future feeding of livestock especially during the dry season. Silage is made by cutting forage crops (either grasses or legumes) when they are not fully mature, partially cured and packed in silos. Tread the grass well by trampling on it layer by layer. When the silo is full, the silo must be sealed completely to prevent air and water from getting in. Silage supplies energy and protein especially to cattle, sheep and goats.

  1. Hay

Hay is dried grass or legume forage that is to be used for feeding livestock especially during the dry season.  It contains a lot of fibre and therefore can only be used to feed ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats).

  1. Fodder

These are dried plant materials preserved for future use. They can be in the forms of hay, straw and chaff.

They are usually cut before the seeds are formed when they are still green.

  1. Chaff

These refer to husks, shells and other by-products obtained in the processing of grains and grain legumes. Examples of chaffs rice, maize, cowpea, soya-beans, etc.

  1. Pasture

A pasture can be referred to as the field where animals graze.Every pasture contains good and poor grasses as well as other unwanted plants or weeds. A pasture can be improved upon by encouraging the good grass to grow and increase in number.



  1. Define feeds.
  2. Give four types of feeds with three examples for each mentioned.
  3. List four protein and four protein-yielding feedstuffs


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