Meaning of Ration



Subject : Agricultural Science


Term : Second Term


Class : JSS 2


Week 2


Topic :

Meaning of Ration




  1. Meaning of Ration
  2. Types of Ration
  3. Meaning, Causes and Symptoms of Malnutrition
  4. Factors that Affect Feed Requirements of Farm Animals
  5. Reasons for Feeding Farm Animals
  6. Equipment Used for Feeding Farm Animals


Meaning of Ration

Ration is the quantity or amount of feed given to farm animals daily or over a period of 24 hours. The type of ration given to a particular farm animal is largely dependent on the purpose of production.

A balanced ration is a ration containing all the nutrients in the right proportion for growth and development.

Types of Ration

  1. Maintenance ration
  2. Production ration

1. Maintenance Ration

This is the amount of feed given to an animal to prevent an increase or decrease in the life weight of the animal. It is given to maintain a particular weight, shape and size.

2. Production Ration

This ration is fed to animals for production purpose. It may be for the production of milk, eggs, meat, young ones or for work. The nutrient it contains are usually supplied in excess of maintenance requirement.

The following are examples of production ration:

(i) Grower ration: This is the feed given to growing animals. Ration with high protein content are particularly suited for rapid growth. Examples are broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.

(ii) Weaner’s ration: This is a ration fed to young animals whenever they are taken away from their mothers, i.e. (when weaned).

(iii) Fattener’s ration: This is meant for those animals that require very rapid increase in body weight before they are sent to the market.

(iv) Flushing: This is a special diet for female animals to be able to produce more fertile ova.

(v) Steaming up: This is a special diet for pregnant animals to prepare them for parturition. It is given few weeks before parturition.

(vi) Broiler mash

(vii) Layers mash

Meaning of Malnutrition

This is a condition in which an animal shows evidence of nutrient deficiency.

Causes of Malnutrition

  1. Unbalanced diet
  2. Low quality feeds
  3. Under feeding

Symptoms of Malnutrition

  1. Drop or low production (milk and egg)
  2. Susceptibility to diseases attack
  3. Emaciation and leanness
  4. Reduced growth
  5. High death rate

Factors that Affect Feed Requirements of Farm Animals

The level of nutrient or nutritional requirement of animals depend on the following factors:

  1. Age of the animal – young grower.
  2. Class of animal – egg producer, ruminant or non-ruminant, meat animal.
  3. Production level – growers, young layers and old layer dry sow.

Reasons for Feeding Farm Animals

Feeds are fed to farm animals for the following purposes.

  1. To provide necessary elements for repairing the wear and tear of the body to provide raw material for synthesis of body source in growth.
  2. To serve as a source of energy for vital processes in the body e.g growth, work, reproduction, respiration digestion etc. For generating heat necessary for maintaining body temperature. To serve as raw materials for the production of milk meat egg wool etc.

Equipment Used for Feeding Farm Animals

The different equipment used for feeding farm animals are listed below:

  1. Feed troughs: Feeds for animals are placed in the troughs for them to eat. Troughs could be wooden, iron or aluminum. Troughs should be cleansed on daily basis.
  2. Water troughs: Water for the animals is fetched in this equipment. The trough should as well be cleaned regularly
  3. Hay racks: They are used for feeding animals with hay and silage.
  4. Bowl: It is used to pack feedstuff into feeding troughs or containers.
  5. Trays: Feeds for chick and grower mash are place in the trays for young birds. Trays should be cleansed at all times.
  6. Spade and shovel: Spade and shovel are used to mix feed ingredients together.



  1. (a) Define ration

(b) List and explains the types of ration.

  1. (a) What is malnutrition?

(b) Enumerate three causes of malnutrition.

(c) State five symptoms of malnutrition.

  1. (a) Why are animals fed?

(b) List five equipment used in feeding animals.