DESCRIPTION OF THE DAMAGE DONE BY PESTS

 

 

Subject :Agricultural science

 

Topic :

DESCRIPTION OF THE DAMAGE DONE BY PESTS

 

Class :

Basic 7 / JSS 1

 

Term :

Third Term

 

Week :

Week 7

 

Instructional Materials :

  • pictures of weeds
  • samples of weeds

 

 

Reference Materials

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum

Previous Knowledge :

The pupils have previous knowledge of

 

MEANING, TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF PESTS

 

 

Behavioural Objectives :  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • say the meaning of dissemination
  • list methods of weed dissemination
  • write out the advantages of weed dissemination
  • say the disadvantages of weed dissemination

 

 

CONTENT

  1. Description of the Damage Done by Pests
  2. Table Showing the Description of Damage Done by Crop Pests

 

Description of the Damage Done by Pests

Crop pests do a lot of damage to crops either on the farm or in the store. The damages done by pests include:

(i) Some insect pests are carriers of diseases which they transmit to healthy plants.

Examples of diseases transmitted by insect are: ground nut rosette, cassava mosaic, swollen shoot of cocoa, etc.

(ii) Mammals (rodents) e.g. rats, grass-cutter eat up the tubers of yam, cassava and potato.

(iii) The birds destroy rice, sorghum, beans, maize and fruits at various stages of their growth on the farm.

 

Table Showing the Description of Damage Done by Crop Pests

S/n Crop Pest Crop(s) Damaged Nature of Damage Caused/Effects on Crops
1 Grasshoppers/locust Cassava, yam,
cowpea
(i) They eat vegetative parts of
plants such as leaves,
stems, fruits and flowers
(ii) They reduce the rate of
photosynthesis
(iii) They reduce growth and yield.
2. Aphids Cowpea, soya beans,
cocoa, kola,
rubber, groundnut, lettuce,
etc.
(i) They pierce plant parts and
suck sap and juice.
(ii) They transmit virus diseases.
(iii) They produce honey dew
which spreads on the leaf and
as such disturbs
photosynthetic ability.
3. Weevils Maize, rice, cowpea,
kola, potato, etc.
(i) They bore holes into seeds or
fruits causing physical
damage.
(ii) They eat up the seeds content
and as such reduce its market
value.
(iii) They reduce the viability of
planting materials.
4. Stem borer Maize, sorghum,
rice, sugar cane
(i) They destroy stems of young
crop plant by boring holes into
them.
(ii) They cause wilting and
tillering.
(iii) They cause stunted growth.
5. Mealy bugs Cassava, cocoa, kola,
rubber, pawpaw,
pineapple.
(i) They cause swelling and
shortening of the internodes
(ii) They suck sap and transmit
viral diseases e.g. swollen
shoot of cocoa.

 

Description of the Damage Done by Pests

Crop pests do a lot of damage to crops either on the farm or in the store. The damages done by pests include:

(i) Some insect pests are carriers of diseases which they transmit to healthy plants.

Examples of diseases transmitted by insect are: ground nut rosette, cassava mosaic, swollen shoot of cocoa, etc.

(ii) Mammals (rodents) e.g. rats, grass-cutter eat up the tubers of yam, cassava and potato.

(iii) The birds destroy rice, sorghum, beans, maize and fruits at various stages of their growth on the farm.

 

Table Showing the Description of Damage Done by Crop Pests

EVALUATION

  1. State two effects of the following pests of crops: (i) Mealy bugs (ii) Grasshoppers (iii) Weevils
  2. Name three crops that can be attacked by grasshoppers.

 EFFECTS OF CROP PESTS ON YIELD

CONTENT

  1. Effects of Crop Pests on Yield
  2. Economic Importance of Pests

 

Effects of Crop Pests on Yield

Crop pests have the following effects on crop yield:

  1. Heavy attack by pests may result in total crop failure.
  2. Infected seeds, crops, and vegetables have low market value.
  3. Pests reduce the quality of crops.
  4. Pests eat up leaves of crops, thereby reducing the photosynthetic activity of the plant.
  5. They cause injury which may predisposes crop to diseases attack.
  6. Infected seeds usually have low viability (germination) capacity.
  7. Some insects like aphids transmit diseases to crops.
  8. Pests reduce the quantity of crops.

Economic Importance of Pests

The following are the economic importance of pests:

  1. Reduction of quality of products
  2. Control of pests leads to increase of production.
  3. Reduction in the profit of farmers.
  4. Pests e.g monkeys and birds cause nuisance to farmers by their noisy habits.
  5. Pests can also cause diseases to crop farmers.
  6. All the points under effects of crop pests on yield above.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation

The topic is presented step by step

 

Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics

 

Step 2.

He introduces the new topic

 

Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise

 

:

 

EVALUATION

  1. State five effects of pests on crop yield.

 

 

Conclusion :

 

The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.

 

Assignment :

Prepare for the next lesson by reading about

 

 FACTORS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

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