Food handling practices and Food borne disease


WEEK : 9




CONTENT:   (i) Food handling practices and Food borne disease

(ii) Food sanitation laws e.g. N.A.F.D.A.C, SON (standard organization of Nigeria.)


Sanitation is the process of effecting healthful and hygienic conditions or measure.

Food handling practices

The following hygiene practices should be followed in other to prevent food contamination.

1) The food handler whoever it may be must make sure that food stuff purchased is wholesome and free from any trace of contamination.

2)   Fresh fruits and vegetables must be selected fresh wholesome

3)  Where storage facilities are not available, fresh fruit and vegetable should not be stored.

4) Meat and fish should be cooked thoroughly to destroy bacteria.

5) If cooked food must be stored, cool it very rapidly; do not leave it lying around in a warm kitchen.

6) Leftover food should not be reheating more than once and it should be reheated thoroughly.

7) Store food in a cool place in refrigerator do not store it too long

8) Do not purchase food that has change in their natural colour, dour, texture and physical properties.

9) Do not purchase canned food with dents or swollen container or expired one.

In 1974 federal government promulgated a decree known as food and drug decree in order to avoid procuring contaminated food.

The enforcement of the law is carried out by agency called: National Agency for foods and Drugs Administration (N.A.F.D.A.C) in the federal ministry of Health. The administration is headed by a Director _General. They also have inspection officers who visit markets, supermarkets, hotels, restaurants. They visit shops to make sure that wholesome food and drugs are offered to people.

Some of the food laws are

  • No person should sell any article or food which contains harmful substances.
  • Food that is unfit for human consumption should not be marketed.
  • Nobody should sell food that contain in whole or part any filth, disgusting rotten or diseased substances
  • Nobody should sell food or drug that is adulterated.
  • No person shall sell any article of food which was manufactured, prepared, preserved, packaged or stored under unsanitary conditions.

Food Sanitation Law

Food Sanitation Laws are brought by different governing authorities to prevent consumers from purchasing as well preventing contaminated foods.

They encourage agric practices to increase food production that will result in more equitable distribution for the world population thereby improving the nutritional status of rural population in developing countries.

UNICEF: Focus its attention on Nutritional needs of children

World food council (WFC)- Their work is directing world food reserves and money to needy (poor) nations to forestall food shortages and the threats of starvation.

O.F.N: Operation feed the nations.


Food borne disease: They are diseases that occur due to the consumption of contaminated foods.

They are divided into two types.

1) Food poisoning.

2) Food infection

Food poisoning: This can result from either chemical poison or the ingestion of toxicants. The toxicant may be food in certain plants or animals. Bacteria food intoxication is called food poisoning.

Examples of microorganism that causes food poisoning are staphylococcus aureus.clostridium botulinum. Examples of poisonous chemicals that can lead to food poisoning are lead, mercury, arsenic, uranium cobalt, etc. Food poisoning can be mild or severe.

Food infection: This refers to an illness caused by a pathogenic organism carried by the food eaten and transmitted to man. It is growth and metabolism of the pathogenic organism inside the body that causes illness. Examples of organism that causes infection is salmonella.



Symptoms of food borne diseases:

  1. Intestinal pains
  2. Stomach upset
  • Weakness
  1. Vomiting
  2. Nervous disorder
  3. Frequent stooling
  • Death

Prevention of food borne diseases:

  • Maintaining good personal hygiene.
  • Ensuring that leftover cooked food is reheated before consumption.
  • Proper cooking of food before consumption.
  • Avoid consumption of expired foods.
  • Avoid consuming foods from doubtful source.
  • Not leaving leftover canned food in the tins food future use.Etc.


  1. Adulterated food
  2. Misbranded food

I.C.P.C. means Independent Corrupt Practices Commission.

Duties of the commission are:

  1. To receive and investigate complaints from members of the public on allegations of corrupt practices and in appropriate cases, prosecute offenders
  2. To educate the public on and against bribery, corruption
  3. To enlist and foster public support in combating corruption

Adulterated Food: It is impure, unsafe or unwholesome food. Adulteration in food is normally present in its most crude form. They are food that prohibited substances are either added partly or wholly


An accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in term of weight, measure or numerical count

  1. Food may seem to be misbranded if the label, brand, tag or notice under which it is sold is false or misleading
  2. Food is misbranded if its label fail to contain the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer or distributor
  3. Food is misbranded if an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure is not clearly stated.
  4. If the label does not bear adequate directions for use including against use in certain pathological conditions or by children where its use may be dangerous.
  5. Food is misbranded when it does not comply with colour additives provision.


General Evaluation:

  1. Food borne diseases that are caused by either chemical poison or the ingestion of a toxicant is
  2. Food diseases
  3. Food infection
  4. Food ingestion
  5. Food poisoning
  6. Which agency in Nigeria is responsible for the enforcement of food and drug decree?
  7. A) N.A.F.D.A.C



  1. D) F.R.S.C
  2. World International Organisation dealing with Nutrition is…………
  3. A.O- Foodand Agriculture Organisation
  4. U N.I.C. E. F-United Nations International children’ emergency fund.

(C) D.A.C.


  1. Food item is adulterated if
  2. It is filthy, decompose
  3. It is produced under insanitary conditions
  4. It contains any substance dangerous to health.
  5. When it is not genuinely produced with original items.
  6. Food Sanitation laws are made by government authority with respect to
  7. Hygienic handling of food.
  8. To ensure sufficient food supply
  9. To prevent people from eating Junk
  10. To cover cooked food.
  11. Food borne disease can be prevented by
  12. Maintaining good personal hygiene.
  13. By eating balanced diet.
  14. By taking drugs that contain antibiotics.
  15. By consuming expired food.
  16. Which chemical in food does not lead into food poisoning
  17. Arsenic compound
  18. Mercury chloride
  19. Lead nitrate
  20. Sodium chloride


  1. Enumerate five food handling practices
  2. Mention three food laws promulgated by NAFDAC
  3. Define I.C.P.C
  4. Define misbranded food
  5. State two conditions that shows food is misbranded and adulterated

Weekend Assignment: Read Food and Nutrition for senior secondary schools book 1 by F.A.BAKARE,N.M.EZE,H.B.BALA,H.NJOKU.PG 107-110.