Subject : Agricultural Science

Term : Second Term

Week : Week 5

Class : jss 3, Year 9


Average age :  12

Reference Book : Agricultural Science for JSS 3 by Are et al.

Behavior Objectives :  At the end of the lesson. Pupils should be able to

a) Explain the meaning of the word Employment

b) say the various employment opportunities that are there in in Agriculture

c)give two examples of self employed opportunities in agriculture

Instructional materials : Wall charts, textbooks, pictures on card boards, flash cards



CONTENT:1. Self-employment

  1. Paid employment


Employment is the paid work, job or occupation which somebody does for a living.

Any such employment in which somebody gets profitably involved for a reasonable length of time, especially during his or her adult life is called a career.

The employment opportunities in agriculture are grouped into two. They are:

  1. Self-employment
  2. Paid employment


Self employment

This is the method of getting money through the use of one’s skills without working for another person, organization or government.

Examples of self employment in agriculture are:


(b)Buying and selling farm produce

(c) Processing of farm produce

(1) Farming: private farmers establish and run their own farms to earn (money) a living. They can go into:

  1. Poultry production                                          v. Rabbitry
  2. Fishery                                                              vi. Pig production

iii. Apiculture                                                      vii. Horticulture

  1. Cattle, sheep and goat production                    viii. Crop production

 (2) Buying and selling farm produce

Employment opportunities exist for people in buying and selling of agricultural products. They buy in bulk from the producers and sell in small quantities to consumers or retailers. Examples of crops are: yams, tomatoes, palm oil, oranges, vegetables, etc.

(3) Processing of agricultural produce

In some localities, small industries have been established for processing of agricultural products. Money is charged by the owner of the industry for processing products. Examples are:

  1. Processing of cassava into garri.
  2. Processing of oil palm into palm oil.

iii. Milling of rice.

  1. Processing of groundnut into cake and oil.


  1. Define the term ”employment”.
  2. Give two examples of self-employment in agriculture.


The art of getting money through the use of one’s skills to work for another person, organization or government.

Examples of paid employment in agriculture are:

(a) Government ministries or establishments. Eg Ministries of Agriculture, Federal Prisons Service, etc.
(b) Agro-based industries. Eg Chemical industries, feeds industries, fertilizer industries, Textile industries,  etc.
(c) Educational institutions Eg universities, Polytechnics. Colleges of Education, secondary schools, etc.
(d) Banks All commercial banks.
(e) Research Institutes Eg

Cocoa Research of Nigeria (CRIN),

National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI),

International Institute forTropical Agriculture (IITA),

National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI)



Employment Opportunities for Senior Secondary and Post Secondary School leavers.

  1. School Certificatecertificate holders who credited agricultural science could be offered jobs in the State or Federal Ministries of Agriculture asAssistant Agricultural superintendent in Training.
  2. 2. Secondary school leavers with at least four credits at ‘O’ level are also offered admission to study for the Ordinary National Diploma and Higher National Diploma courses in Agriculture Science and related fields. Such courses take duration of five years. The first two years for OND, one year field work; while the last two years are for the HOD.

The OND holders fits into the Assistant Agricultural Superintendent or Assistant Technical Officer position, while the HOD holder gets on as Higher Agricultural Superintendent or Higher Technical Officer.

Employment opportunities for university graduates

School certificate holder with five credits at ‘O’  level in Chemistry, Biology, Agricultural Science, Mathematics and at least, a pass in Physics are offered courses in Agricultural related fields in various universities in Nigeria, such courses last for five years, and leads to the award of a Bachelors Degree in the field.  Agricultural Education courses last for four years, leading to B.Sc (Ed.) award.

Some courses of study in faculty of Agriculture and Education in Nigerian universities are:

  1. Soil Science
  2. Crop Science (Agronomy)
  3. Animal Science
  4. Agricultural Economics
  5. agricultural Extension
  6. Agricultural Engineering
  7. Forestry
  8. Fisheries
  9. Agricultural Education
  10. Veterinary medicine
  11. Horticulture

Agricultural science graduates can start a career in:

  1. Ministry of Agriculture asAgricultural Officers.
  2. In Research Institutes asResearch Officers.
  3. In the state Education system asTeachers.
  4. In universities and other tertiary institutions asgraduateor research assistants.


  1. List four examples of paid employment opportunities in agriculture.
  2. List five courses of study available in Nigerian universities.

Weekend Assignment

Objective Test:

  1. Employment is also called ——
  2. job       B. career     C.paid work    D. all of the above
  3. Agricultural school leavers in Nigeria are employed in the following establishments except
  4. banks     B. industry     C. ministry     D. military
  5. Which of the following is a self employed position for agricultural school leaver in Nigeria?
  6. Agricultural officer   B. Producer retailer    C. Research officer   D. School teacher
  7. Which of the following is not part of the agro-allied industries?
  8. oil mill     B. saw mills     C. cotton and wool ginneries    D. oil exploration firms
  9. A person who practices agriculture is called a  ——
  10. apiculturist   B. doctorC. horticulturist        D. farmer

Essay Test:

  1. List five  Agricultural Science courses of study available in Nigerian universities.
  2. Mention 2 employment positions available to Agricultural Science graduates.

Reference Texts

  1. New Intensive Agricultural Science for Junior Secondary Schools by E.U Okaro.
  2. Spectrum Agricultural Science for Junior Secondary Schools by B.A. Adelekanet’al.
  3. Essentials of Agricultural Science for Junior Secondary Schools /Colleges in West Africa by Earnest ChukwudiAnie.


Step one :The class teacher revises the previous topics

Step two : The class teacher introduces the new topic

Step three : He or she arouse the pupils interest by making the class alive, warm and interesting by making use of various instructional materials like pictures on books or cardboard or making online reference with phones, laptop or desktop computers


Conclusion : The class teacher gives out a summary of the note on the board and he goes round to mark ‘

He or she also does the necessary corrections

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