FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

CLASS : JSS2

 

SUBJECT : AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

 

TERM : FIRST  TERM E-NOTE

 

WEEK : WEEK 5

WEEK: 5

DATE:

TOPIC: FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

CONTENT:

  • Definition of farm structures and buildings
  • Types of farm structures eg silo, cribs, rhombus, barns, fish ponds, etc.
  • Types of farm buildings such as poultry, houses, pens, stores, offices, utility buildings, security post, etc.

SUB-TOPIC: 1 DEFINITION OF FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

Farm structures are very simple buildings designed to serve specific purposes on the farm so that farm operations are more easily carried out eg barns, cribs, silos, etc, while farm buildings are buildings needed in the farm to carry out certain aspects of production. Eg buildings for storing fertilizers, farm tools, harvested crops, etc.

They are simple erections on the farm site which make farm operations easier and more efficient. Farm structures are common agricultural structures associated with an agricultural use such as growing and harvesting crops, and raising livestock.

These structures may include: · Barns · Cold storages for crops grown and raised on site · Riding arenas (riding academies) · Slaughterhouses · Hay or feed storage · Livestock shelter or shade structures · Feed or hay shelter structures · Loafing sheds · Poultry coop · Farm equipment storage

EVALUATION

Define the following terms and give three examples of each

  • Farm structures
  • Farm buildings

SUB-TOPIC: TYPES OF FARM STRUCTURES

Farm structures are classified into three, based on their uses

 

  • Production Structures  – These are structures which facilitate production processes in the farm. Example are poultry battery cages, fish pond, shelter, rabbit hutches.
  • Structures for Shelter – They are simple farm buildings erected at different points in the farm to provide shelter for rest during heavy rain or when the intensity of the sun is too high. The structures are occasionally used as temporary storage.
  • Processing Structures – These are structures designed and constructed to speed up the processing of farm produce. Examples are smoking houses, shelling and hulling barns erected to accommodate processing machines such as grinding machines, feed mills and rice mills
  • Storage Structures – These are structures used for storing produce before they are ready for sale or used as inputs in the next planting season e.g. silos, cribs, barns, rhumbus.
  • Utility Structures – These structures include well, canals, irrigations, pumping houses.
  • Maintenance Structures – This include workshops for maintenance of farm tools and machineries

 

 

Farm Buildings

Farm Buildings

These are bigger and more elaborate erections which are designed and constructed to serve different purposes.

Types of Farm Building and their Uses

  1. Living Houses for the Farmer and Workers – These are houses which provide accommodation for the farmer and his workers. no serious farmer is expected to live outside the farm.
  2. Production Houses – Buildings used for production. Examples – poultry house, hatcheries, pens.
  3. Storage Houses – These are buildings used for storing farm tools, feeds, chemicals and fertilizers
  4. Special Shelters – These building include milking parlour, sick bay, isolation sheds or quarantine houses, abattoir or slaughter houses

Maintenance of Farm Structures

Farmers need to regularly check on the condition of their buildings to maintain building stability and safety.

  • Repairs should be carried out regularly once wear and tear is noticed
  • Paints should be used for wooden and metal parts of farm structures that are constantly exposed to rain
  • Preservatives should be applied to wood to protect it against insects such as termites

SILO: is a tall circular or rectangular farm structure made of mud, concrete or stainless steel. Silos can used for storing harvested grains like maize, cowpea, sorghum, millet and even for storing grass to feed animals.

CRIBS: Is simple grain storage structures made of wood and wire gauze on the sides and floor with a thatch or zinc roof. Cribs are used for drying maize which are still on the cob

RHUMBUS: these are round structures made from mud with a grass or thatch roof. They are very common in the northern parts of Nigeria where they are used for storing grains such as millet, maize, cowpea, sorghum and ground nut.

FEED MILLS: In farms where livestock are kept, it is economical to manufacture their feeds on the farm. Therefore, feed mills are constructed to make animal feeds.

BARNS: A barn is temporary structure that can be constructed with sticks, muds and thatch. Barns are used for storing things like yam, cassava, grass or hay.

EVALUATION

  • Define the term farm structure
  • Name and describe four farm structures commonly used by farmers in your state.

Sub-topic 3: Types of farm buildings

Farm buildings are mainly of two types.

  • Temporary farm buildings
  • Permanent farm buildings

Temporary farm buildings

These are buildings constructed from cheap or locally available materials from the farm. They are abandoned soon after the farmer has completed using them. Temporary buildings include storage sheds for keeping machines, equipment and tools, nurseries, animal pens, construction sheds, etc.

Permanent farm buildings

These are solid buildings normally constructed to last for a very long time. The walls and floors are usually constructed from cement, sand, stones and gravel, wood, corrugated iron sheets or aluminum is used for the roof. Examples of permanent farm buildings are farm offices, workshops, living quarters for workers, stores for farm supplies and harvests, animal houses, generator houses and water storage tanks.

EVALUATION

List the major differences between temporary and permanent buildings.

Weekend Assignment

List five examples each of the following

  • Farm structures
  • Temporary farm buildings
  • Permanent farm buildings

Reading Assignment

  1. _____ are simple erections on the farm site which make farm operations easier and more efficient.
  2. Special shelters, storage houses and production houses are all examples of _____
  3. Give 2 examples of each type of structure
    Storage Structures
    Utility Structures
    Maintenance Structures
    Processing Structure

Answers

  1. Farm structure
  2. Farm Buildings
  3. Storage –  silos, cribs, barns, rhumbus.
    Utility – well, canals, irrigations, pumping houses.
    Maintenance – This include workshops for maintenance of farm tools and machineries
    Processing – smoking houses, shelling and hulling barns erected to accommodate processing machines such as grinding machines, feed mills and rice mills