Types of tractor, tractor coupled implements, methods of maintaining farm machines

CLASS : JSS 2

 

SUBJECT : AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

 

TERM : FIRST  TERM E-NOTE

 

 

 

WEEK 8:

TOPIC: FARM MACHINES (CONTD)

Content — Tractor coupled implements

Sprayers and maintenance of farm machines

Sub-topic 1

TRACTOR COUPLED IMPLEMENTS: These are farm implements that are attached to the tractor while using them to work. They include plough, ridgers, harrows, planters, harvesters, sprayers, cultivator.

PLOUGHS : They are primary tillage implements used for cutting the soil and turning it over during land preparation. The two types of ploughs are the mould board and the disc ploughs.

MOULD BOARD PLOUGH: They are used where the farm land is free of obstacles like stones and stumps. They suitably used in grassland areas.

DISC PLOUGH: They are used in areas where there are stones or tree stumps that could damage the mould board ploughs.

HARROWS: They are secondary tillage implements. They are generally used to brake down soil lumps and to level the surface before planting. The types of harrows includes (i) disc harrow, (ii) spike-toothed harrow (iii) spring-toothed harrow (iv) Tandem disc harrow

RIDGERS: Ridgers are used for making ridges. They are pulled by the tractor while working. The types of ridgers includes (i) disc ridger and (ii) mould board ridger

PLANTERS: They are used for planting seeds. They can also be used spread fertilizers on the soil. Seed drill is a planting machine that drills and plant specific numbers of seeds per hole

Planters are also pulled by the tractor while planting.

HARVESTERS: They are generally used for harvesting grain crops and forage crops.

The types of harvesters includes:

(a) Mowers

(b) Balers

(c) Forage harvesters

(d) Combined harvesters

(e) Root crop harvesters

(f) Corn pickers

(g) Cotton scrippers

Sub-topic 2

SPRAYERS: They are machines used for spraying chemicals(herbicides or pesticides) as well as fertilizers on the crops. They can also be used for sprinkling water on crops.

Types of sprayers includes

  1. Low volume sprayers. It uses battery. It holds little litres of chemicals and it is used for a small area of land.
  2. High volume sprayers. They hold large litres of chemicals and they used for large area of

land. Among these include :

(i) The simple knapsack sprayer

(ii) The tractor mounted sprayer: the sprayer is operated by the tractor

Power Take- off (P.T.O.)

(iii) The knapsack engine operated sprayer

CULTIVATOR: It is a tractor coupled implement used for tilling the soil.

MAINTENANCE OF FARM MACHINES

Farm machines can be maintained in the following ways.

1. Check and gage the fuel and oil levels of the machines

2. Store machines in the appropriate places.

3. Wash and clean machines after being used

4. Apply oil or grease on the metal parts of the machines to avoid rusting

5. Keep farm machines under shed for protection from sun and rain

6. Sharpen blunt edges of implements after being used

7. Tighten loosed bolts and nuts of the machines

8. Regular and periodic servicing of the machines

9. Lubricant or grease should be applied to wheels and bearings

10. Worn-out parts of the machines should be replaced

EVALUATION:

1. Name 2 types of ploughs and 3 types of harrows

2. Mention 4 types of harvesters

3. What is the meaning of P.T.O in the use of tractors

4. State 6 ways by which farm machines can be maintained.

 

Maintenance of Farm Machinery

  1. Lubrication of parts of engine with oil or grease to reduce friction
  2. Tightening of Bolts and Nuts
  3. Sharpening of Blunt tools especially cutting edges to avoid bluntness
  4. Cleaning and Storage after use

Practice Questions

Tractor, Sprayer, Planter, Sheller, Seed drill, Rice huller, Milking machine , Harvester, Plough, Dryer, Harvester, Flail mower

Use the option above to answer Questions 1 – 8 below

  1. A _____ is used for drying harvested farm produce
  2. A _____ is a sowing device that precisely positions seeds in the soil and then covers them
  3. The ____ is used harvest mature and ripe crops especially grains
  4. A _____ is a type of powered garden/agricultural equipment, which is used to deal with heavier grass/scrub which a normal lawn mower could not cope with.
  5. A ___ is used to remove grains from cobs in maize, chaff from rice, millet
  6. A ___ is a piece of equipment that is used to apply herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers, agro-chemicals and water in irrigation farming on agricultural crops.
  7. A ____ is an agricultural farm implement towed behind a tractor, used for sowing crops through a field
  8. A ____ is used for pulling tillage like plough, barrow ridger,  sprayer