Revision Agricultural Science JSS 3 Mock Examination Second Term Lesson Notes

Q1: What are the main components of a plant’s shoot system?

A: The shoot system of a plant consists of leaves, branches, and fruits. These parts help the plant in photosynthesis, support, and reproduction. However, the root is not part of the shoot system; it belongs to the root system. 🌱

Q2: What cultural practice isn’t done after planting?

A: Harvesting is not a post-planting activity. It occurs after the crops have grown and matured. Other activities like seed rate calculation, mulching, and storage are carried out after planting to ensure proper growth and maintenance of crops. 🌾

Q3: What’s a farm record?

A: A farm record is a document used to track activities on a farm. It helps farmers keep records of expenses, sales, labor, and other farm-related activities. For example, a farmer may keep a record of how much fertilizer was applied to a specific crop field. 📝

Q4: How can erosion be controlled?

A: Erosion can be controlled in various ways, including planting cover crops, constructing terraces, using mulch, practicing no-till farming, and building check dams. These methods help prevent soil erosion and maintain soil fertility. 🌧️

Q5: Why do we practice bush fallowing?

A: Bush fallowing involves leaving a farmland uncultivated for a few years to allow the soil to regain its fertility. This practice helps prevent soil exhaustion and improves crop yield in subsequent planting seasons. 🌿

Q6: Which crop adds nitrogen to the soil?

A: Leguminous crops like groundnut and beans add nitrogen to the soil through a process called nitrogen fixation. This improves soil fertility and benefits other crops grown in rotation with legumes. 🌱

Q7: How do we increase soil fertility?

A: Soil fertility can be increased through practices like manuring, composting, and applying organic or inorganic fertilizers. These methods provide essential nutrients to the soil, promoting healthy plant growth and higher crop yields. 🌱

Q8: What is forestry?

A: Forestry is the science and practice of managing forests and tree resources. It involves activities such as tree planting, timber harvesting, forest conservation, and wildlife habitat preservation. Forestry plays a crucial role in environmental sustainability and biodiversity conservation. 🌳

Q9: What’s the difference between a wholesaler and a retailer?

A: A wholesaler buys goods in bulk from producers or manufacturers and sells them to retailers in smaller quantities. On the other hand, a retailer sells goods directly to consumers in small quantities for personal use. Both wholesalers and retailers are important in the distribution chain of agricultural products. 🛒

Q10: How do we control weeds on farmland?

A: Weeds can be controlled through mechanical methods like hand weeding or using tools like hoes, biological methods like introducing weed-eating insects, physiological methods like using herbicides, and chemical methods like applying herbicides. Proper weed control helps ensure healthy crop growth and higher yields. 🌾

Q11: What’s the purpose of mulching?

A: Mulching involves covering the soil with organic or synthetic materials like straw, leaves, or plastic to conserve moisture, suppress weed growth, regulate soil temperature, and improve soil fertility. It also helps prevent soil erosion and promotes healthy plant growth. 🌱

Q12: Why do we need to classify crops?

A: Classifying crops helps us understand their characteristics, growth patterns, and requirements better. It enables farmers to make informed decisions regarding crop selection, rotation, and management practices, leading to improved agricultural productivity and sustainability. 🌾

Q13: How are crops classified?

A: Crops are classified based on various factors such as their lifecycle (annual, biennial, perennial), growth habits (herbaceous, woody), botanical families, and economic importance. Understanding these classifications helps farmers plan their crop rotations and management strategies effectively. 📊

Q14: What are the uses of forests?

A: Forests provide numerous ecosystem services, including timber production, carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, soil erosion prevention, water regulation, and recreational opportunities. Additionally, forests support livelihoods, provide habitat for wildlife, and contribute to climate regulation. 🌳

Q15: Why are tractors important in agriculture?

A: Tractors are versatile farm machines used for various tasks such as plowing, planting, harvesting, and transportation. They save time and labor, increase efficiency, and enable farmers to cultivate larger areas of land. Tractors also facilitate mechanization, leading to higher agricultural productivity. 🚜

Q16: What’s the role of Operation Feed the Nation?

A: Operation Feed the Nation was a Nigerian government initiative aimed at promoting food self-sufficiency and agricultural development. It encouraged citizens to engage in farming activities and provided support in terms of access to inputs, training, and infrastructure. The program aimed to reduce dependency on food imports and boost the agricultural sector. 🌾

Q17: What’s the purpose of fishery?

A: Fishery is the practice of breeding, catching, and processing fish for food, livelihoods, and recreational purposes. It plays a vital role in providing protein-rich food, employment opportunities, and income generation for millions of people worldwide. Additionally, fishery contributes to economic development, trade, and cultural heritage preservation. 🐟

Q18: How do sprayers benefit agriculture?

A: Sprayers are agricultural tools used to apply pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and other agrochemicals to crops. They ensure uniform coverage of the chemicals, reduce wastage, and control pests, diseases, and weeds effectively. Sprayers also help improve crop yields and quality, leading to increased profitability for farmers. 💦

Q19: Why are stock exchanges important in agriculture?

A: Stock exchanges provide platforms for buying and selling shares of agricultural companies, facilitating investment, capital raising, and risk management in the agricultural sector. They enable farmers, investors, and agribusinesses to access funding, expand operations, and participate in economic growth. Stock exchanges also promote transparency, liquidity, and governance in agricultural markets. 📈

Q20: What’s the process of photosynthesis?

A: Photosynthesis is the biochemical process by which green plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose (a sugar) and oxygen. It occurs in chloroplasts within plant cells and is essential for plant growth, as glucose serves as the primary source of energy for cellular activities. 🌞

Q21: Why is it essential to classify plants?

A: Classifying plants helps scientists and farmers organize and understand the vast diversity of plant species based on shared characteristics and evolutionary relationships. It provides valuable information for plant identification, taxonomy, breeding, conservation, and utilization in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, medicine, and environmental management. 🌿

Q22: What are the differences between monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants?

A: Monocotyledon plants have seeds with a single cotyledon (seed leaf), parallel leaf venation, fibrous root systems, and floral parts in multiples of three. Dicotyledon plants have seeds with two cotyledons, reticulate leaf venation, taproot systems, and floral parts in multiples of four or five. These differences in seed structure, leaf venation, root systems, and floral arrangements help classify and differentiate between monocots and dicots in the plant kingdom. 🌱

Agricultural Science JSS 3 Mock Examination Second Term Lesson Notes

Q23: Why do we need forest resources?

A: Forests provide a wide range of resources essential for human survival and well-being, including timber for construction and furniture, fuelwood for cooking and heating, medicinal plants for healthcare, food and habitat for wildlife, watersheds for freshwater supply, and recreational spaces for outdoor activities. Forest resources contribute to economic development, environmental sustainability, and cultural heritage preservation. 🌳

Q24: How does the photosynthesis process work?

A: During photosynthesis, plants use chlorophyll and other pigments to capture sunlight energy, which is then used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose (sugar) and oxygen. This process occurs in chloroplasts within plant cells and is essential for producing food (glucose) and releasing oxygen into the atmosphere. Photosynthesis sustains life on Earth by providing oxygen for respiration and food for organisms in the food chain. 🌿

Q25: What’s the importance of agricultural machinery?

A: Agricultural machinery, such as tractors, harvesters, plows, and sprayers, plays a crucial role in modern farming by increasing efficiency, productivity, and profitability. These machines automate labor-intensive tasks, reduce production costs, and enable farmers to cultivate larger areas of land, leading to higher crop yields and food production. Agricultural machinery also facilitates timely operations, improves crop quality, and conserves natural resources. 🚜

Q26: Why do we practice crop rotation?

A: Crop rotation is a farming practice where different crops are grown sequentially on the same piece of land over several seasons. It helps improve soil fertility, control pests and diseases, reduce weed pressure, and increase crop yields. By rotating crops with different nutrient requirements and growth habits, farmers can maintain soil health, prevent soil erosion, and sustain agricultural productivity over time. 🔄

Q27: How does fish farming contribute to food security?

A: Fish farming, also known as aquaculture, contributes to food security by providing a sustainable source of protein-rich food (fish and seafood) to meet the nutritional needs of a growing population. Aquaculture diversifies the food supply, reduces pressure on wild fish stocks, creates employment opportunities, and generates income for fish farmers. Additionally, fish farming promotes environmental sustainability, ecosystem conservation, and socioeconomic development in coastal and inland communities. 🐟

Q28: What’s the role of fertilizers in agriculture?

A: Fertilizers are essential agricultural inputs used to replenish essential nutrients in the soil, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, which are depleted by crop cultivation. They help enhance soil fertility, promote healthy plant growth, and increase crop yields. By supplying plants with the necessary nutrients, fertilizers improve nutrient uptake, root development, and overall plant health, leading to improved agricultural productivity and food production. 💧

Q29: How does irrigation benefit agriculture?

A: Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil to supplement rainfall and provide moisture to crops during dry periods. It helps ensure consistent crop growth, yield stability, and quality production in areas with inadequate rainfall or seasonal droughts. Irrigation also enables farmers to cultivate crops year-round, increase cropping intensity, and diversify crop choices, leading to higher agricultural productivity and income generation. 💦

Q30: Why is it important to protect farmland from erosion?

A: Soil erosion is a serious threat to agricultural sustainability as it leads to the loss of fertile topsoil, reduced crop productivity, and environmental degradation. By implementing erosion control measures such as terracing, contour farming, cover cropping, and vegetative barriers, farmers can protect farmland from erosion, preserve soil fertility, and sustain agricultural productivity for future generations. Soil conservation practices also promote environmental sustainability, watershed protection, and ecosystem resilience. 🌱

Q31: How does pollination contribute to crop production?

A: Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organs (anthers) to the female reproductive organs (stigmas) of flowers, leading to fertilization and seed formation. It is essential for the reproduction of flowering plants, including many crop species. Pollination by bees, butterflies, birds, and other pollinators facilitates the production of fruits, seeds, and nuts, contributing to crop yield, quality, and genetic diversity. Pollinators also support ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, and food security. 🌼

Q32: What are the benefits of agroforestry?

A: Agroforestry is a sustainable land-use system that integrates trees, crops, and livestock on the same piece of land. It offers multiple benefits, including increased crop yields, improved soil fertility, enhanced biodiversity, climate change mitigation, and resilience to environmental stresses. Agroforestry practices such as alley cropping, windbreaks, and silvopasture promote ecological balance, carbon sequestration, and economic diversification for farmers. Agroforestry systems contribute to food security, poverty alleviation, and sustainable development in rural communities. 🌳

Q33: How does livestock farming support agriculture?

A: Livestock farming, also known as animal husbandry, plays a vital role in agriculture by providing various products and services essential for human survival and well-being. Livestock animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry supply meat, milk, eggs, wool, leather, and other valuable products for food, clothing, and shelter. Livestock also provide draught power for agricultural operations, manure for soil fertility, and cultural significance for rural communities. Livestock farming contributes to food security, income generation, and sustainable livelihoods worldwide. 🐄

Q34: How do we prevent post-harvest losses in agriculture?

A: Post-harvest losses occur due to inadequate storage, handling, and processing of agricultural products after harvesting. To prevent post-harvest losses, farmers can use proper storage facilities such as silos, warehouses, and cold storage units to protect crops from pests, moisture, and spoilage. They can also employ appropriate harvesting techniques, packaging materials, and transportation methods to maintain product quality and freshness. Additionally, value-added processing, marketing strategies, and technology innovations can help reduce post-harvest losses and increase the shelf life of agricultural products, ensuring food security and income generation for farmers. 🌾

Q35: What are the challenges of sustainable agriculture?

A: Sustainable agriculture faces various challenges, including soil degradation, water scarcity, climate change, biodiversity loss, pest and disease outbreaks, market volatility, and socio-economic inequalities. Addressing these challenges requires integrated approaches that promote soil conservation, water management, agroecological practices, biodiversity conservation, climate-smart technologies, and inclusive policies. Sustainable agriculture also requires collaboration among stakeholders, including farmers, policymakers, researchers, civil society, and consumers, to achieve food security, environmental sustainability, and social equity. 🌱🌍

Q36: How does globalization impact agriculture?

A: Globalization affects agriculture in various ways, including increased trade, market liberalization, technological innovation, and cultural exchange. It provides opportunities for farmers to access new markets, technologies, and information, facilitating agricultural productivity, economic growth, and food security. However, globalization also poses challenges such as market volatility, price fluctuations, and competition from multinational corporations, which can affect small-scale farmers’ livelihoods and rural communities. Additionally, globalization may lead to environmental degradation, resource depletion, and social inequalities if not managed sustainably. Therefore, policymakers need to promote fair trade, environmental stewardship, and social justice in the global agricultural system to ensure equitable benefits for all stakeholders. 🌍🌾


Q37: What are the benefits of agricultural education?

A: Agricultural education provides students with knowledge, skills, and values essential for understanding and engaging in sustainable agriculture and rural development. It fosters critical thinking, problem-solving, and innovation in addressing complex agricultural challenges such as food insecurity, climate change, and natural resource management. Agricultural education also promotes entrepreneurship, leadership, and career opportunities in diverse fields such as farming, agribusiness, research, and policymaking. By investing in agricultural education, societies can empower future generations to contribute to food security, environmental sustainability, and economic prosperity. 📚🌱

Q38: How does agricultural research contribute to innovation?

A: Agricultural research plays a crucial role in generating new knowledge, technologies, and practices to improve agricultural productivity, sustainability, and resilience. It informs evidence-based decision-making and innovation in areas such as crop breeding, pest management, soil conservation, water efficiency, and climate adaptation. Agricultural research also fosters collaboration among scientists, farmers, policymakers, and industry stakeholders to address pressing agricultural challenges and capitalize on emerging opportunities. By investing in agricultural research and development, societies can drive innovation, economic growth, and social progress in the agricultural sector. 🌱🔬

Q39: What is the role of women in agriculture?

A: Women play a significant role in agriculture worldwide, contributing to crop production, livestock management, agro-processing, marketing, and natural resource management. They are often involved in various agricultural activities such as planting, weeding, harvesting, and post-harvest handling, which are critical for food security and rural livelihoods. However, women farmers face gender-based constraints such as limited access to land, credit, inputs, extension services, and decision-making power, which hinder their full potential in agriculture. Empowering women in agriculture through education, training, access to resources, and gender-responsive policies can enhance agricultural productivity, poverty alleviation, and social equity. 💪👩‍🌾

Q40: How does climate change affect agriculture?

A: Climate change poses significant challenges to agriculture by altering temperature and precipitation patterns, increasing the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, and disrupting ecosystem services essential for agricultural productivity. It leads to shifts in crop suitability, phenology, pest and disease dynamics, water availability, and soil fertility, affecting crop yields, quality, and marketability. Climate change also exacerbates existing vulnerabilities in agriculture, such as water scarcity, land degradation, biodiversity loss, and food insecurity, particularly in vulnerable regions and marginalized communities. Adaptation and mitigation strategies, such as climate-smart agriculture, resilient crop varieties, water-saving technologies, and carbon sequestration practices, are essential for building climate resilience and sustainability in agriculture. 🌍🌱

Q41: How can youth involvement benefit agriculture?

A: Youth involvement in agriculture offers opportunities to harness the energy, creativity, and innovation of young people in addressing pressing agricultural challenges and unlocking the sector’s potential for sustainable development. Engaging youth in agriculture can rejuvenate rural economies, create employment opportunities, promote technological innovation, and revitalize traditional farming practices. It also fosters entrepreneurship, leadership, and social empowerment among young farmers, agripreneurs, researchers, and policymakers, driving positive change in the agricultural sector. By investing in youth education, training, and entrepreneurship programs, societies can harness the demographic dividend and transform agriculture into a dynamic, inclusive, and resilient sector for the future. 🌱👩‍🌾

Q42: How does agroecology promote sustainable agriculture?

A: Agroecology is a holistic approach to agriculture that integrates ecological principles, traditional knowledge, and modern science to design resilient and regenerative farming systems that enhance biodiversity, ecosystem services, and social well-being. It emphasizes ecological diversity, soil health, water conservation, and community participation in agricultural decision-making and management. Agroecological practices such as organic farming, polyculture, agroforestry, and conservation agriculture promote soil fertility, pest and disease control, water efficiency, and carbon sequestration, reducing reliance on external inputs and mitigating environmental impacts. By adopting agroecological principles and practices, farmers can achieve sustainable agriculture, resilient food systems, and equitable rural development. 🌱🌾

Q43: What are the benefits of urban agriculture?

A: Urban agriculture refers to the practice of growing food and raising livestock within cities and urban areas, contributing to food security, environmental sustainability, and community development. It provides fresh, nutritious food, reduces food miles and carbon emissions associated with transportation, and promotes local food production and consumption. Urban agriculture also enhances urban green spaces, biodiversity, and ecosystem services, mitigating urban heat islands, air pollution, and stormwater runoff. Additionally, urban agriculture creates employment opportunities, educates communities about food production and nutrition, and fosters social cohesion and resilience in urban neighborhoods. By integrating urban agriculture into urban planning and policy frameworks, cities can promote healthy, sustainable, and equitable food systems for all residents. 🌆🥕

Q44: How does organic farming contribute to environmental sustainability?

A: Organic farming is an agricultural production system that emphasizes soil health, biodiversity conservation, and ecological balance by avoiding synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It promotes natural resource management, soil fertility enhancement, and biodiversity preservation through practices such as crop rotation, cover cropping, composting, and biological pest control. Organic farming reduces environmental pollution, soil erosion, and water contamination associated with chemical-intensive agriculture, safeguarding ecosystems, and human health. It also fosters climate resilience, carbon sequestration, and adaptive capacity in agricultural landscapes, contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation. By supporting organic farming practices and markets, societies can promote environmental sustainability, public health, and rural livelihoods. 🌱🌍

Q45: What are the key components of sustainable agriculture?

A: Sustainable agriculture integrates ecological, economic, and social principles to achieve long-term viability, resilience, and equity in food production systems. Key components include soil conservation, water management, biodiversity conservation, climate resilience, resource efficiency, social equity, and economic viability. Sustainable agriculture practices aim to enhance soil health, conserve water resources, minimize chemical inputs, promote agroecological diversity, empower small-scale farmers, and ensure equitable access to food and resources. By adopting holistic approaches to farming, societies can achieve sustainable agriculture that meets the needs of present and future generations while preserving natural ecosystems and supporting rural livelihoods. 🌱🌍

Q46: How does precision agriculture improve efficiency in farming?

A: Precision agriculture, also known as smart farming or digital farming, utilizes technology such as GPS, sensors, drones, and data analytics to optimize farm management practices and resource use, leading to increased efficiency, productivity, and sustainability. It enables farmers to collect and analyze real-time data on soil conditions, crop health, weather patterns, and equipment performance, allowing for targeted interventions such as precise irrigation, fertilization, pest management, and harvesting. Precision agriculture minimizes input waste, maximizes yield potential, reduces environmental impact, and enhances profitability for farmers. By harnessing digital tools and analytics, precision agriculture revolutionizes farming practices and contributes to more efficient and sustainable food production systems. 🚜🌾

Q47: What are the environmental benefits of organic farming?

A: Organic farming offers numerous environmental benefits compared to conventional agriculture practices. It promotes soil health and fertility through practices such as crop rotation, cover cropping, and organic matter addition, leading to improved soil structure, water retention, and nutrient cycling. Organic farming reduces soil erosion, water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, and intensive tillage, mitigating climate change and environmental degradation. It also enhances biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and wildlife habitat conservation by creating diverse agroecosystems that support native plants, pollinators, and beneficial organisms. By prioritizing ecological stewardship and sustainability, organic farming contributes to environmental conservation and planetary health. 🌱🌍

Q48: How does sustainable agriculture contribute to food security?

A: Sustainable agriculture plays a crucial role in achieving food security by ensuring the availability, access, and stability of food supplies for all people, especially in vulnerable communities. It promotes diversified farming systems, resilient crop varieties, and integrated pest management practices that enhance productivity, reduce risks, and improve nutrition. Sustainable agriculture also fosters inclusive approaches that empower small-scale farmers, women, youth, and marginalized groups to participate in food production and decision-making processes. By promoting ecological resilience, social equity, and economic viability, sustainable agriculture builds resilient food systems that can withstand shocks, mitigate hunger, and nourish communities sustainably. 🌱🍽️

Q49: How does agroforestry benefit farmers and the environment?

A: Agroforestry integrates trees, crops, and livestock on the same piece of land to achieve multiple benefits for farmers, ecosystems, and society. It enhances soil fertility, water retention, and nutrient cycling by incorporating trees with deep root systems that access nutrients from deeper soil layers and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Agroforestry provides shade, shelter, and windbreaks for crops and livestock, reducing heat stress, wind erosion, and pest pressure. It also diversifies farm income, improves food security, and enhances ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and watershed protection. By adopting agroforestry practices, farmers can achieve economic resilience, environmental sustainability, and social well-being in agricultural landscapes. 🌳🌱

Q50: How does sustainable livestock management promote environmental conservation?

A: Sustainable livestock management practices aim to minimize the environmental footprint of livestock production while maximizing productivity, animal welfare, and ecosystem health. They include rotational grazing, silvopasture, and integrated crop-livestock systems that optimize land use, soil fertility, and biodiversity conservation. Sustainable livestock management reduces greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, and habitat degradation associated with intensive confinement, overgrazing, and feedlot operations. It promotes natural resource stewardship, wildlife habitat restoration, and carbon sequestration, contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation. By adopting sustainable livestock management practices, farmers can achieve environmental sustainability, economic viability, and social responsibility in livestock production systems. 🐄🌱

Q51: What are the economic benefits of sustainable agriculture?

A: Sustainable agriculture offers various economic benefits for farmers, communities, and society as a whole. It enhances farm profitability by reducing input costs, improving resource efficiency, and increasing crop yields over the long term. Sustainable agriculture also creates employment opportunities, stimulates rural economies, and supports local businesses involved in agricultural production, processing, and marketing. Additionally, sustainable agriculture enhances market access, consumer demand, and product premiums for sustainably produced goods, generating value-added income for farmers and enhancing their competitiveness in domestic and international markets. By adopting sustainable agricultural practices, farmers can achieve economic resilience, market differentiation, and long-term profitability while contributing to sustainable development goals. 🌱💰

Q52: How does sustainable agriculture contribute to climate change mitigation?

A: Sustainable agriculture plays a crucial role in mitigating climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, enhancing carbon sequestration, and promoting climate-resilient farming practices. It reduces emissions from deforestation, land conversion, and synthetic fertilizer use, which are significant sources of greenhouse gases in agriculture. Sustainable agriculture practices such as conservation tillage, cover cropping, and agroforestry enhance soil carbon storage, mitigating atmospheric CO2 levels and global warming. Additionally, sustainable agriculture increases agricultural resilience to climate change impacts such as droughts, floods, and extreme weather events by diversifying cropping systems, improving water management, and conserving natural resources. By adopting climate-smart agricultural practices, farmers can contribute to climate change mitigation efforts while building resilience to climate-related risks. 🌱🌍

Q53: How does sustainable agriculture promote social equity?

A: Sustainable agriculture promotes social equity by ensuring equitable access to resources, opportunities, and benefits for all stakeholders, especially marginalized and vulnerable groups. It empowers small-scale farmers, women, indigenous communities, and youth to participate in decision-making processes, access markets, and control productive resources such as land, water, and seeds. Sustainable agriculture also fosters inclusive value chains, fair trade practices, and social entrepreneurship that create economic opportunities and reduce disparities in income and wealth distribution. Additionally, sustainable agriculture promotes cultural diversity, traditional knowledge, and social cohesion in rural communities, enhancing social capital and resilience to external shocks. By prioritizing social equity and justice, sustainable agriculture contributes to poverty reduction, food security, and human well-being. 🌱👩‍🌾

Q54: How does sustainable agriculture address food waste and loss?

A: Sustainable agriculture addresses food waste and loss by optimizing production, post-harvest handling, and consumption practices to minimize inefficiencies and maximize resource utilization. It promotes on-farm practices such as crop diversification, intercropping, and integrated pest management that enhance yield stability and reduce crop losses due to pests, diseases, and adverse weather conditions. Sustainable agriculture also encourages efficient harvesting, storage, and transportation methods to prevent spoilage, contamination, and degradation of agricultural products during handling and distribution. Additionally, sustainable agriculture fosters consumer education, awareness, and behavior change initiatives to reduce food waste at the household level through proper storage, meal planning, and portion control. By adopting holistic approaches to food production and consumption, sustainable agriculture can contribute to food security, environmental sustainability, and economic efficiency. 🌱🍽️

Q55: How does sustainable agriculture promote biodiversity conservation?

A: Sustainable agriculture promotes biodiversity conservation by preserving and enhancing natural habitats, ecosystems, and genetic diversity within agricultural landscapes. It integrates ecological principles such as crop rotation, agroforestry, and habitat restoration to create diverse agroecosystems that support native plants, pollinators, and beneficial organisms. Sustainable agriculture practices minimize habitat destruction, fragmentation, and chemical contamination associated with conventional agriculture, preserving biodiversity hotspots, wildlife corridors, and ecosystem services. Additionally, sustainable agriculture protects endangered species, genetic resources, and traditional knowledge systems that are essential for resilient and adaptive farming systems. By prioritizing biodiversity conservation, sustainable agriculture promotes ecosystem resilience, ecological balance, and long-term sustainability in agricultural production systems. 🌱🌿

Q56: How does sustainable agriculture contribute to water conservation?

A: Sustainable agriculture contributes to water conservation by promoting efficient water use, soil moisture retention, and watershed management practices that minimize water waste and enhance water quality. It includes techniques such as drip irrigation, mulching, cover cropping, and contour farming that reduce evaporation, runoff, and soil erosion, thus conserving water resources and protecting aquatic ecosystems. Sustainable agriculture also emphasizes water recycling, rainwater harvesting, and wetland restoration to recharge aquifers, maintain hydrological cycles, and replenish groundwater supplies. Additionally, sustainable agriculture mitigates water pollution from agricultural runoff, nutrient leaching, and chemical contamination, preserving water quality for drinking, irrigation, and aquatic habitat. By adopting water-saving practices, sustainable agriculture promotes water security, ecosystem health, and sustainable livelihoods in agricultural communities

Examination Social Studies Jss 3 Second Term Lesson Notes

Q57: What are the benefits of crop rotation in sustainable agriculture?

A: Crop rotation is a key practice in sustainable agriculture that involves alternating the types of crops grown on a piece of land over time. It offers several benefits, including improved soil fertility, pest and disease management, weed control, and yield stability. By rotating crops with different nutrient needs and growth habits, farmers can prevent soil depletion, balance nutrient levels, and reduce the buildup of pests and diseases specific to particular crops. Crop rotation also disrupts the life cycles of weeds, pathogens, and pests, reducing reliance on chemical inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. Additionally, crop rotation enhances soil structure, water retention, and microbial activity, leading to healthier and more resilient agroecosystems. Overall, crop rotation is a sustainable farming practice that contributes to long-term soil health, crop productivity, and environmental sustainability. 🌱🔄

Q58: What role does agrobiodiversity play in sustainable agriculture?

A: Agrobiodiversity, also known as agricultural biodiversity, refers to the variety and variability of plants, animals, and microorganisms used in agriculture. It plays a crucial role in sustainable agriculture by providing resilience, adaptation, and innovation in farming systems. Agrobiodiversity includes traditional crop varieties, landraces, wild relatives, and locally adapted breeds that possess unique traits such as drought tolerance, pest resistance, and nutritional value. By conserving and utilizing agrobiodiversity, farmers can enhance genetic diversity, ecosystem resilience, and food security in the face of environmental stresses and climate change. Agrobiodiversity also supports ecosystem services such as pollination, soil fertility, and biological control, contributing to sustainable agriculture and biodiversity conservation. Overall, agrobiodiversity is essential for maintaining healthy, productive, and resilient agricultural landscapes that can sustainably meet the needs of present and future generations. 🌱🐝

Q59: How does agroecological intensification improve agricultural sustainability?

A: Agroecological intensification is an approach to agriculture that seeks to enhance productivity, profitability, and sustainability by harnessing ecological principles and processes. It integrates agroecological practices such as polyculture, agroforestry, and integrated pest management to optimize resource use efficiency, minimize environmental impact, and increase resilience to external stresses. Agroecological intensification emphasizes synergies between crop-livestock systems, biodiversity conservation, and ecosystem services to enhance productivity while preserving natural resources and ecosystem health. By adopting agroecological intensification strategies, farmers can achieve higher yields, lower input costs, and improved livelihoods while safeguarding environmental sustainability and biodiversity conservation. Overall, agroecological intensification offers a pathway to sustainable agriculture that balances production goals with ecological integrity and social well-being. 🌱💡

Q60: What are the key principles of regenerative agriculture?

A: Regenerative agriculture is an approach to farming that aims to restore and enhance ecosystem health, resilience, and productivity by mimicking natural processes and cycles. It emphasizes principles such as soil health, biodiversity, water management, and community engagement to regenerate degraded landscapes, sequester carbon, and promote sustainable food production systems. Key principles of regenerative agriculture include building soil organic matter through cover cropping, composting, and reduced tillage; enhancing biodiversity through crop diversity, agroforestry, and habitat restoration; conserving water through rainwater harvesting, soil conservation, and efficient irrigation; and fostering community partnerships, knowledge sharing, and equitable access to resources. By embracing regenerative agriculture principles, farmers can contribute to climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable development while producing healthy and nutritious food for current and future generations. 🌱🌍

Q61: How does sustainable agriculture contribute to rural development?

A: Sustainable agriculture plays a vital role in rural development by generating employment, income, and opportunities for rural communities while preserving natural resources and enhancing resilience to environmental challenges. It provides livelihoods for millions of people engaged in farming, agribusiness, and related industries, contributing to poverty reduction and economic growth in rural areas. Sustainable agriculture also fosters social inclusion, gender equality, and community empowerment by prioritizing the needs and priorities of small-scale farmers, women, youth, and indigenous communities. Additionally, sustainable agriculture promotes infrastructure development, market access, and value chain integration, improving rural connectivity and access to essential services such as education, healthcare, and sanitation. By investing in sustainable agriculture, policymakers can promote rural development, food security, and inclusive growth in agricultural communities. 🌱🏞️

Erosion: a. Erosion is the process of wearing away or removal of soil and rock materials from the Earth’s surface by natural forces like water, wind, or ice. 🌊💨

Types of Erosion: b. – Water Erosion: Caused by rainfall or flowing water, leading to gullies, stream bank erosion, or sheet erosion.

  • Wind Erosion: Occurs when wind blows soil particles away, causing desertification or sand dune formation.
  • Soil Erosion: Happens due to gravity, resulting in landslides, rockfalls, or slope failures.

Ways to Control Erosion: c. – Planting Cover Crops: Like grasses or legumes, to protect soil from erosion and improve its structure.

  • Terracing: Creating steps or flat areas on steep slopes to reduce runoff and soil loss.
  • Mulching: Applying organic materials like straw or leaves on soil surface to prevent erosion by wind or water.
  • Contour Plowing: Cultivating crops along the contour lines of slopes to reduce water runoff and erosion.
  • Building Retaining Walls: Constructing barriers to hold soil in place and prevent erosion on steep slopes or riverbanks.

Farm Records: a. A farm record is a written or electronic document that records important information about farm activities, expenses, and production outcomes over time. 📝💻

Types of Farm Records: b. – Production Records: Documenting crop yields, livestock births, or milk production to track farm productivity.

  • Financial Records: Recording income, expenses, and profits to manage farm finances effectively.
  • Inventory Records: Keeping track of farm inputs like seeds, fertilizers, or equipment to ensure proper management.
  • Weather Records: Noting weather conditions such as rainfall, temperature, or humidity to plan farm operations accordingly.


  • Branding: Creating a unique identity or image for a farm or its products to distinguish them from competitors. For example, a farm may use a logo or slogan to brand its organic produce.
  • Advertisement: Promoting farm products or services through various media channels like newspapers, radio, or social media to attract customers and increase sales.
  • Packaging: Designing and enclosing farm products in containers or materials for protection, preservation, and presentation to consumers. For instance, fruits may be packaged in boxes or plastic wraps for transportation and display in markets.

Crop Definition: a. A crop is a plant or agricultural product cultivated for food, fiber, fuel, or other economic purposes. 🌾🌱

Ways Crops are Classified: b. – Based on Lifecycle: Annual crops complete their life cycle within one year (e.g., maize), biennial crops take two years (e.g., carrots), and perennial crops live for more than two years (e.g., fruit trees).

  • According to Growth Habit: Crops can be classified as trees, shrubs, vines, or herbaceous plants.
  • By Botanical Families: Crops are grouped based on their genetic similarities and taxonomic classification.


  • Annual Crops: Plants that complete their life cycle from seed germination to seed production within one year, like rice or wheat.
  • Biennial Crops: Plants that require two years to complete their life cycle, usually producing seeds in the second year, such as carrots or onions.
  • Perennial Crops: Plants that live for more than two years, producing crops seasonally or continuously, like fruit trees or perennial grasses.

Monocotyledon vs. Dicotyledon Plants: a. – Monocotyledon Plants: Have seeds with a single cotyledon, parallel leaf veins, and fibrous root systems, like grasses or corn.

  • Dicotyledon Plants: Have seeds with two cotyledons, netted leaf veins, and taproot systems, like beans or tomatoes.

Uses of Forest and its Resources: b. – Timber Production: Harvesting trees for lumber, furniture, paper, or construction materials.

  • Wildlife Habitat: Providing shelter, food, and nesting sites for diverse plant and animal species.
  • Soil Conservation: Preventing erosion, regulating water flow, and maintaining soil fertility.
  • Recreation and Tourism: Offering opportunities for hiking, camping, birdwatching, or eco-tourism.
  • Carbon Sequestration: Absorbing and storing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, mitigating climate change effects.

Definition: c. – Forest: A large area covered with trees, vegetation, and wildlife, forming an ecosystem that supports diverse life forms.

  • Forestry: The science, art, and practice of managing forests sustainably for economic, environmental, and social benefits.

Disadvantages of Using a Bulldozer: a. – Soil Compaction: Heavy machinery like bulldozers can compact soil, reducing its porosity and affecting root growth and water infiltration.

  • Soil Disturbance: Bulldozers may disrupt soil structure, microorganisms, and organic matter, leading to erosion and nutrient loss.

Uses of a Tractor in Agriculture: b. – Plowing and Tillage: Preparing soil for planting crops by breaking up soil clumps and incorporating organic matter.

  • Planting and Seeding: Sowing seeds or transplanting seedlings into prepared seedbeds for crop establishment.
  • Irrigation and Water Management: Pumping water, operating sprinklers, or moving irrigation equipment to deliver water to crops.
  • Harvesting and Threshing: Gathering mature crops from fields and separating grains or fruits from stems or pods.
  • Transport and Haulage: Moving farm inputs, harvested crops, or equipment within the farm or to market destinations.

Functions of Sprayers in Agriculture: c. – Pest Control: Applying pesticides or insecticides to crops to prevent or manage pest infestations and diseases.

  • Fertilizer Application: Spraying liquid fertilizers or nutrient solutions onto crops to supply essential nutrients for growth.
  • Herbicide Application: Spraying herbicides or weed killers to control unwanted vegetation and maintain weed-free fields.

Importance of Stock Exchanges in Agriculture: a. – Capital Formation: Stock exchanges facilitate investment in agricultural enterprises, providing funds for expansion, innovation, and modernization.

  • Risk Management: Agricultural producers can use futures contracts or commodity options traded on stock exchanges to hedge against price fluctuations and market uncertainties.
  • Market Transparency: Stock exchanges provide price discovery mechanisms and market information, enabling efficient price negotiation and fair competition among buyers and sellers.

Definition of Fishery: b. Fishery refers to the industry or activity of catching, processing, and selling fish or other aquatic organisms for food, recreation, or commercial purposes.

Functions of Operation Feed the Nation: c. – Increased Food Production: Operation Feed the Nation aimed to boost agricultural productivity and food self-sufficiency through improved farming practices and government support.

  • Rural Development: The program sought to promote rural development, alleviate poverty, and create employment opportunities in rural areas by revitalizing agricultural production.
  • Agricultural Extension: Operation Feed the Nation provided agricultural extension services, training, and technical assistance to farmers to enhance their knowledge, skills, and productivity.

Examples of Farm Implements: d. – Plow: A farm implement used for turning over soil, breaking up clods, and preparing seedbed for planting crops.


Harrow: Implements used to break up and smooth soil after plowing, incorporating amendments, or preparing seedbeds.

These explanations provide a comprehensive understanding of the concepts and practices in agricultural science, helping JSS 3 students grasp the fundamentals effectively. 🌾📚






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