Water : Meaning, Composition, Sources and Uses of Water Science Primary 3 Second Term Lesson Notes Week 4

Subject: Basic Science
Class: Primary 3
Term: Second Term
Week: 4
Topic: Water: Meaning, Composition, Sources, and Uses in Nigeria 🇳🇬
Duration: 45 minutes

Entry Behaviour: Students should be able to identify the different states of water and its importance in everyday life.

Key Words: Water, meaning, composition, sources, uses, Nigeria

Behavioural Objectives: By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

  1. Define water and its composition.
  2. Identify various sources of water in Nigeria.
  3. Explain the importance of water in Nigeria.

Embedded Core Skills: Reading comprehension, critical thinking, observation, communication

Learning Materials:

  1. Basic Science textbook for Primary 3.
  2. Visual aids (pictures of water sources, water cycle, etc.).
  3. Charts or diagrams showing the composition of water.
  4. Samples of water from different sources (optional).

Reference Materials: Lagos State Scheme of Work, Basic Science Textbook for Primary 3.


Sources of Water 

  1. Rivers: Nigeria is home to several major rivers, including the Niger River, Benue River, and Kaduna River. These rivers provide water for drinking, irrigation, transportation, and hydroelectric power generation.
  2. Lakes: Nigeria has several lakes, with Lake Chad being the most prominent. Lake Chad is an essential source of water for fishing, agriculture, and livestock grazing for communities in northeastern Nigeria and neighboring countries.
  3. Ponds: Ponds are common in rural areas of Nigeria and are often used for farming, fishing, and domestic water supply. They provide water for irrigation and support local biodiversity.
  4. Streams: Streams are found throughout Nigeria, especially in hilly and mountainous regions. They provide water for agriculture, livestock, and domestic use in rural communities.
  5. Oceans: Nigeria has a coastline along the Gulf of Guinea, providing access to the Atlantic Ocean. The ocean supports fishing activities, transportation, and trade through seaports like Lagos and Port Harcourt.
  6. Wells: Wells are prevalent in both rural and urban areas of Nigeria, providing access to groundwater for drinking, agriculture, and domestic use. They are often dug or drilled manually and supplemented by hand pumps or motorized pumps.
  7. Rainwater: Rainwater harvesting is common in Nigeria, especially in regions with erratic rainfall patterns. Rainwater is collected from rooftops and stored in tanks or reservoirs for drinking, gardening, and other household activities.
  8. Springs: Natural springs can be found in various parts of Nigeria, providing clean, freshwater for drinking and supporting local ecosystems. They are often considered sacred and are sources of cultural significance.
  9. Reservoirs: Nigeria has several reservoirs created by damming rivers, such as the Kainji Dam on the Niger River and the Shiroro Dam on the Kaduna River. These reservoirs provide water for irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, and domestic use.
  10. Underground aquifers: Nigeria has significant underground aquifers that store groundwater. They are accessed through wells and boreholes and provide water for drinking, agriculture, and industrial activities. However, over-extraction and contamination are significant concerns for aquifer management in Nigeria.

Uses of Water

  1. Drinking: Water is essential for quenching thirst and maintaining hydration for humans and animals.
  2. Cooking: Water is used for cooking various dishes, such as rice, soups, and stews, in households, restaurants, and food processing industries.
  3. Bathing and personal hygiene: Water is used for bathing, washing hands, brushing teeth, and maintaining personal hygiene, promoting good health and cleanliness.
  4. Agriculture: Water is crucial for irrigation, providing moisture for crops to grow and ensuring agricultural productivity, especially in regions with seasonal rainfall patterns.
  5. Livestock watering: Water is necessary for watering livestock, such as cattle, goats, and poultry, to keep them hydrated and healthy.
  6. Industrial processes: Water is used in various industrial processes, such as manufacturing, cooling, cleaning, and waste disposal, in factories and industrial facilities.
  7. Domestic cleaning: Water is used for cleaning household items, floors, dishes, and clothes, maintaining cleanliness and sanitation in homes.
  8. Recreation and leisure: Water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, and beaches, provide opportunities for recreational activities like swimming, fishing, boating, and picnicking.
  9. Power generation: Water is used to generate hydroelectric power in dams and reservoirs, contributing to Nigeria’s energy production and electricity supply.
  10. Transportation: Water transportation is essential for moving goods and people across rivers, lakes, and coastal areas, supporting trade, commerce, and travel within Nigeria and to other countries.

The components of water in Nigeria include:

  1. Hydrogen: Water is composed of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom, forming the chemical compound H2O.
  2. Oxygen: One of the components of water is oxygen, which is essential for supporting life and respiration.
  3. Minerals: Water may contain dissolved minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium, which are essential for various bodily functions and health.
  4. Microorganisms: Water can harbor microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, which may be harmful if present in large quantities and cause waterborne diseases.
  5. Dissolved gases: Water can also contain dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen, which play important roles in aquatic ecosystems and biochemical processes.


  1. Water is a clear _______. a) liquid b) solid c) gas d) powder
  2. Water is made up of _______ and _______. a) hydrogen, oxygen b) carbon, nitrogen c) helium, nitrogen d) oxygen, carbon dioxide
  3. The main source of water on Earth is _______. a) air b) soil c) oceans d) rocks
  4. Rivers, lakes, and _______ are sources of water. a) deserts b) mountains c) oceans d) forests
  5. Water is used for drinking, ________, and cooking. a) flying b) swimming c) singing d) dancing
  6. Bathing and washing clothes are other uses of _______. a) food b) water c) air d) fire
  7. Water helps plants to _______ and grow. a) shrink b) die c) breathe d) survive
  8. Ice cream and _______ are made with water. a) pizza b) bread c) cookies d) soup
  9. We need to drink water every day to stay _______ and healthy. a) hungry b) thirsty c) alive d) sad
  10. Water helps to clean our _______ and keep them healthy. a) toys b) clothes c) books d) pencils
  11. When water is heated, it turns into _______. a) ice b) steam c) clouds d) sand
  12. The process of water turning into vapor is called _______. a) melting b) freezing c) evaporation d) condensation
  13. Rainwater is collected in _______ to be used later. a) buckets b) glasses c) plates d) shoes
  14. Water is also used to put out _______. a) fire b) candles c) flowers d) birds
  15. Boats float on _______. a) air b) land c) water d) fire


  1. Revision: The teacher revises the previous topic on states of matter and their characteristics.
  2. Introduction of New Topic: The teacher introduces the new topic, “Water: Meaning, Composition, Sources, and Uses in Nigeria.”
  3. Teacher’s Activities:
    • Define water and discuss its importance.
    • Explain the composition of water (made up of hydrogen and oxygen).
    • Identify various sources of water in Nigeria (rivers, lakes, boreholes, etc.).
    • Discuss the uses of water in Nigeria (drinking, cooking, bathing, agriculture, etc.).
    • Show visual aids and samples of water to illustrate key points.
  4. Learners’ Activities:
    • Students participate in discussions and ask questions.
    • Students observe the visual aids and samples of water.
    • Students share their experiences with water at home and in their communities.
  5. Assessment: The teacher assesses students’ understanding through class discussions, questions, and observation.
  6. Ten Evaluation Questions:
    1. What is water?
    2. What are the two main components of water?
    3. Name three sources of water in Nigeria.
    4. List three uses of water in Nigeria.
    5. How does water help farmers in Nigeria?
    6. Describe the water cycle.
    7. Why is it important to conserve water?
    8. How do you obtain water at home?
    9. What happens to water when it freezes?
    10. How can we ensure that water remains clean and safe for use?
  7. Conclusion: The teacher goes round to mark and provide feedback on students’ participation and understanding of the topic
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