Water: Meaning, Clean Qualities, Contaminants, Risks Basic Science Primary 3 Second Term Lesson Notes Week 5

Subject: Basic Science
Class: Primary 3
Term: Second Term
Week: 5
Topic: Understanding Water: Meaning, Qualities, Contamination, and Dangers
Duration: 40 minutes
Entry Behaviour: Students should be able to identify what water is and why it is important for life.
Key Words: Water, Clean, Contamination, Contaminants, Dangers
Behavioural Objectives: By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

  1. Define water and explain its importance.
  2. Identify the qualities of clean or pure water.
  3. Recognize common contaminants that can make water unsafe.
  4. Understand the dangers associated with drinking contaminated water.
    Embedded Core Skills: Observation, Critical Thinking, Communication
    Learning Materials: Whiteboard, markers, pictures of clean and contaminated water sources, examples of contaminants (e.g., dirt, chemicals), Basic Science textbook 3, reference materials from Lagos State Scheme of Work

What is water?

  1. Water is a liquid: It is a substance that flows and takes the shape of its container.
  2. Water is transparent: This means you can see through it like glass.
  3. Water is colorless: It doesn’t have any color of its own.
  4. Water is tasteless: It doesn’t have a particular taste, but it can taste different depending on what’s dissolved in it.
  5. Water is odorless: It doesn’t have any smell.
  6. Water is essential for life: Plants, animals, and humans need water to survive.
  7. Water is found in rivers and lakes: These are large bodies of water that flow or sit still.
  8. Water is also in oceans and seas: These are even larger bodies of water, covering most of the Earth’s surface.
  9. Water falls from the sky as rain: When clouds get heavy, they release water droplets.
  10. Water can be stored in containers: People keep water in bottles, jerry cans, and tanks for use when needed.

Qualities of clean or pure water

  1. Clear: Clean water looks transparent and doesn’t have any particles floating in it.
  2. Colorless: It doesn’t have any color; it looks like the water you see in a glass.
  3. Odorless: Clean water doesn’t have any smell; it doesn’t smell like anything.
  4. Tasteless: Pure water doesn’t have a specific taste; it doesn’t taste like anything.
  5. Safe to drink: It doesn’t make you sick when you drink it; it won’t cause any harm to your body.
  6. Doesn’t have dirt or mud: Clean water doesn’t have any soil or dirt mixed in it.
  7. Free from germs: It doesn’t have any bacteria or other microorganisms that can make you sick.
  8. Doesn’t have chemicals: There are no harmful substances like bleach or pesticides in clean water.
  9. Good for plants: Clean water helps plants grow healthy and strong when you give it to them.
  10. Good for animals: Animals can drink clean water without getting sick; it’s safe for them too.

Contamination or contaminant of water or what makes good water bad

  1. Dirt and soil: When soil gets into water, it makes it dirty and unsafe to drink.
  2. Trash: If people throw garbage like plastic bags or bottles into water, it can make the water unsafe.
  3. Chemicals: Sometimes, chemicals from factories or farms can get into water, making it harmful.
  4. Bacteria: Tiny germs called bacteria can also get into water and make it bad for drinking.
  5. Animal waste: If animals like cows or birds go into the water, their waste can contaminate it.
  6. Human waste: When people throw sewage or use water for washing clothes or dishes, it can make the water dirty.
  7. Oil spills: Sometimes, oil from ships or factories can leak into the water, making it unsafe for animals and people.
  8. Pesticides: Farmers sometimes use chemicals called pesticides to protect their crops, but if these chemicals get into water, they can make it harmful.
  9. Algae: Too much algae can grow in water if there’s too many nutrients, and this can make the water bad.
  10. Trash or litter: When people throw litter like plastic bags or bottles into the water, it can contaminate it and harm the environment

Dangers of drinking bad water

  1. Sickness: Drinking bad water can make us sick and give us diseases like diarrhea or stomachaches.
  2. Weakness: Bad water can make us feel weak and tired because it has germs and contaminants.
  3. Dehydration: Drinking bad water can cause dehydration, which means our bodies don’t have enough water to work properly.
  4. Skin problems: Sometimes, bad water can cause skin problems like rashes or infections.
  5. Headaches: Drinking bad water can give us headaches and make us feel unwell.
  6. Fever: If water is contaminated, it can cause us to have a fever, which is when our bodies get hot and we feel sick.
  7. Nausea: Bad water can make us feel like we want to vomit or throw up.
  8. Long-term illness: Drinking bad water over a long time can lead to serious health problems like kidney disease or liver damage.
  9. Death: In extreme cases, drinking really bad water can even lead to death, especially if it’s contaminated with harmful chemicals or bacteria.
  10. Reduced growth: Bad water can also affect our growth and development, making us smaller and weaker than we should be.


  1. Water is a ___________ substance that we need to drink to stay healthy. a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) None of the above
  2. Clean water should be ___________ and have no smell or taste. a) Dirty b) Clear c) Bubbly d) Sweet
  3. Water can become contaminated if it has ___________ or dirt in it. a) Bubbles b) Rocks c) Germs d) Leaves
  4. Bad water can make us sick and give us ___________ like diarrhea. a) Headaches b) Coughs c) Stomachaches d) Sneezes
  5. Drinking contaminated water can cause ___________ because it has germs in it. a) Happiness b) Dehydration c) Excitement d) Sleepiness
  6. Clean water is important for our ___________ and overall health. a) Sleep b) Growth c) Games d) TV watching
  7. One of the qualities of clean water is that it should be ___________ and clear. a) Dirty b) Cloudy c) Clear d) Smelly
  8. Water can be contaminated by ___________ chemicals and bacteria. a) Happy b) Harmful c) Colorful d) Noisy
  9. Drinking bad water can cause ___________ like nausea and vomiting. a) Happiness b) Laughter c) Sickness d) Joy
  10. Clean water is important for ___________ because it helps our bodies work properly. a) Growth b) Shrinking c) Sleeping d) Jumping
  11. Water can become dirty if it is ___________ with things like oil or chemicals. a) Mixed b) Separated c) Contaminated d) Cleaned
  12. Contaminated water can make us feel ___________ and weak. a) Strong b) Happy c) Tired d) Excited
  13. Drinking bad water over a long time can lead to serious ___________ problems. a) Eating b) Health c) Sleeping d) Walking
  14. Water that smells ___________ or has a strange taste may not be safe to drink. a) Sweet b) Clear c) Clean d) Bad
  15. We should always try to drink ___________ water to stay healthy and avoid getting sick. a) Dirty b) Clean c) Smelly d) Bubbly


  1. Step 1: (Revision)
  • Briefly review the previous lesson on the meaning and importance of water.
  • Ask students to recall why water is essential for life and what they have learned about its properties.
    Step 2: (Introduction to New Topic)
  • Introduce the new topic: Understanding Water.
  • Explain that today, we will learn about the qualities of clean water, what can make water dirty, and why it’s important to avoid drinking contaminated water.
    Step 3: (Teacher’s Activities)
  • Present pictures or examples of clean water sources (e.g., tap water, bottled water, clean rivers) and discuss their characteristics (clear, odorless, tasteless).
  • Show examples of contaminated water sources (e.g., polluted rivers, stagnant ponds, dirty wells) and discuss the visible contaminants (dirt, debris, oil slicks).
  • Explain common contaminants that can make water unsafe, such as bacteria, chemicals, and waste products.
  • Discuss the dangers of drinking contaminated water, including illnesses like diarrhea, cholera, and typhoid fever.
  • Emphasize the importance of always drinking clean, safe water to stay healthy.
    Learners Activities:
  • Observe and discuss the qualities of clean and contaminated water sources.
  • Participate in class discussions about the dangers of drinking bad water.
  • Ask questions and share personal experiences related to water safety.
  • Ask students to identify the qualities of clean water and list at least three common contaminants.
  • Conduct a class discussion to assess students’ understanding of the dangers associated with drinking contaminated water.
  • Review students’ responses to evaluation questions related to the topic.
    Ten Evaluation Questions:
  1. What is water, and why is it important for life?
  2. Name three qualities of clean or pure water.
  3. What are contaminants, and how can they make water unsafe to drink?
  4. Give two examples of contaminants that can be found in water sources.
  5. What are some dangers of drinking contaminated water?
  6. How can you tell if water is clean or dirty?
  7. Why is it important to avoid drinking water from polluted sources?
  8. What illnesses can you get from drinking bad water?
  9. How can we ensure that the water we drink is safe?
  10. What should you do if you suspect that water is contaminated?
  • Summarize the key points discussed during the lesson.
  • Encourage students to always drink clean, safe water and avoid sources that may be contaminated.
  • Provide feedback on students’ participation and understanding of the topic.

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