Track events (sprint race) starting, take-off, running, arm action and Finishing Meaning, Types and stages in sprint races Physical and Health Education Primary 4 First Term Lesson Notes Week 5 

Lesson Plan Presentation

Class: Lagos State Primary 4

Subject: Physical and Health Education

Topic: Track Events (Sprint Race) Starting, Take-off, Running, Arm Action, and Finishing: Meaning, Types, and Stages in Sprint Races

Duration: 45 minutes

Learning Objectives: By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define key terms related to sprint races.
  • Identify the different types of sprint races.
  • Explain the stages involved in a sprint race.
  • Demonstrate proper techniques for starting, take-off, running, arm action, and finishing in sprint races.

Embedded Core Skills:

  • Motor skills development
  • Communication skills
  • Critical thinking

Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards
  • Whistle
  • Starting fun
  • Stop watch.
  • Flags (red and white)
  • Field



Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks

Previous Lesson (Track Events and Types of Baton Exchange): In the previous lesson, we learned about track events and the different types of baton exchanges in relay races. We discussed how relay races involve teamwork and passing the baton smoothly.

Set Induction: (5 minutes)

  • Begin by asking students if they have ever watched or participated in sprint races.
  • Show a short video clip or images of sprint races to capture their interest.
  • Ask questions like, “What do you know about sprint races?” and “Have you ever wondered how sprinters run so fast?”

Content :


Sprinting is running over a short distance in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running, typically as a way of quickly reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent.

Examples of sprint race

  • 100 metres race
  • 200 metres race
  • 400 metres race



Techniques, Knowledge or Skills That Are Needed To Perfect Sprint Race .

  1. Take off :Take off is the first stage in the sprint race.This is done by bending down your body and right leg will be at the back, both hands at the ground , after the whistle is blown the runner take off .
  2. Speed : You will also need skills like throws, rapid accelerations, the ability to maintain your track while running , the ability to ride fast in the sprinters lane without deviating from the lane
  3. Running: It involves fast move and speed to win the game . Arm action are coordinated and swing as the athlete moves very fast on the track. Run with the hands moving form the hips (pockets of pants) to the chin,eliminating side-to-side motion.
  4. Strength : Strength is needed  to complete in the event and be competitive. You also need a sense of timing, or pacing, so you expend your energy effectively. The ability to sprint or drastically increase your speed when needed helps immensely.
  5. Endurance during challenging times, a desire to be the best, perseverance is a willingness to work hard far beyond one’s comfort zone and a maturing athlete who takes conscious action for their own training , drilling and development and understands the sacrifices required to be the very best are characteristics of elite 100m sprinters
  6. Pull the knees straight up, and do not allow them to angle towards the midline of the body. Run by striking the ground directly below the hips, particularly when accelerating. Run on the balls of the feet. Don’t be flat footed and noisy.
  7. Finish: Just as it is good to start right , it is also important to finish well . Finish this is the last stage in the sprint race, it is the end of the race when the winner is known. The first person to cross the finishing line or touch the finishing line or chest the finishing line is declared as the winner




1. To begin a sprint race, the first stage is called the __________.
a) finish
b) start
c) end
d) middle

2. During take-off, the runner should bend down the body and have the __________ leg at the back.
a) left
b) right
c) both
d) front

3. After the whistle is blown, the runner __________.
a) stops
b) walks
c) takes off
d) sits down

4. Sprinters require skills like throws, rapid accelerations, and maintaining their track position while __________.
a) swimming
b) jumping
c) running
d) cycling

5. Sprinters must run on the balls of their feet and avoid being __________.
a) quiet
b) noisy
c) sleepy
d) tall

6. Proper __________ is essential for maintaining balance and speed while sprinting.
a) arm action
b) leg action
c) head movement
d) finger placement

7. Elite sprinters possess characteristics such as a strong desire to excel, __________, and a willingness to work hard beyond their comfort zone.
a) laziness
b) perseverance
c) indifference
d) fear

8. Sprinters should pull their knees straight up and avoid angling them toward the __________ of the body.
a) head
b) midline
c) side
d) back

9. The final stage of a sprint race is called __________.
a) start
b) take-off
c) run
d) finish

10. Sprinters aim to cross the finishing line or __________ it to win the race.
a) jump over
b) touch
c) dance near
d) skip

11. Maintaining a __________ line while running is crucial for sprinters.
a) wavy
b) straight
c) zigzag
d) circular

12. Sprinters must have the ability to __________ when needed to gain an advantage.
a) slow down
b) stop abruptly
c) sprint
d) rest

13. During a sprint race, it’s important to __________ speed and form to the finish line.
a) maintain
b) decrease
c) forget about
d) lose

14. Sprinters must be physically __________ to compete effectively.
a) weak
b) strong
c) tired
d) slow

15. Sprint races require __________, endurance, and mental attributes for success.
a) laziness
b) speed
c) hard work
d) fear


Types of start in Sprint Race

  • On your mark
  • Get set
  • Go



Types of Starting Techniques 

  1. Bunch Start: In this start, the toes of the rear foot are about even with the heel of the front foot, and both feet are positioned well behind the starting line. It’s a technique that allows for a powerful push-off.
  2. Medium Start: During a medium start, the knee of the rear leg is aligned with a point in the front half of the front foot. This position offers a balance between power and quick acceleration.
  3. Elongated Start: In the elongated start, the knee of the rear leg is level with or slightly behind the heel of the front foot. This position emphasizes a longer stride and is often used by athletes who want to maximize their stride length.

These different starting techniques can be adopted by sprinters depending on their preferences and the specific race they are competing in. Each technique has its advantages and may be chosen to suit the athlete’s style and race strategy.



1. In a bunch start, the toes of the rear foot are approximately level with the __________ of the front foot.
a) head
b) elbow
c) heel
d) knee

2. The medium start involves placing the knee of the rear leg opposite a point in the __________ of the front foot.
a) back
b) middle
c) top
d) side

3. In an elongated start, the knee of the rear leg is level with or slightly behind the __________ of the front foot.
a) head
b) elbow
c) heel
d) knee

4. Sprinters use different starting techniques to optimize their __________ and acceleration.
a) strength
b) balance
c) speed
d) flexibility

5. The bunch start allows for a __________ push-off from the starting position.
a) slow
b) powerful
c) noisy
d) balanced

6. Sprinters choose their starting technique based on their __________ and race strategy.
a) shoe size
b) favorite color
c) preferences
d) hairstyle

7. The medium start provides a balance between power and __________.
a) endurance
b) flexibility
c) quick acceleration
d) noise

8. The elongated start emphasizes a longer __________ for sprinters.
a) haircut
b) stride
c) meal
d) jump

9. Sprinters may adopt different starting techniques depending on the __________ of the race.
a) weather
b) time
c) distance
d) temperature

10. The bunch start involves positioning both feet well __________ from the starting line.
a) in front
b) behind
c) beside
d) under

11. The medium start aligns the knee of the rear leg with a point in the __________ of the front foot.
a) back
b) middle
c) top
d) side

12. The elongated start focuses on maximizing __________ length.
a) stride
b) arm
c) neck
d) hair

13. Sprinters use starting techniques to optimize their __________ at the beginning of a race.
a) hair color
b) shoe size
c) performance
d) snack choice

14. The medium start balances the need for __________ and acceleration.
a) speed
b) noise
c) rest
d) color

15. Different starting techniques in sprint races help athletes make the most of their __________ and abilities.
a) weaknesses
b) haircuts
c) strengths
d) favorite songs



Step-by-Step Presentation:

Step 1: Understanding Sprint Races (5 minutes)

  • Explain that sprint races are short-distance running competitions, usually 100 meters, 200 meters, or 400 meters long.
  • Define “take-off,” “running technique,” and “finishing.”
  • Mention that sprint races are all about speed and explosive power

Step 2: Types of Sprint Races (10 minutes)

  • Discuss the different types of sprint races: 100 meters, 200 meters, and 400 meters.
  • Explain that each type has its own start line and distance.
  • Show images or diagrams of sprint tracks with markings for each type of race.

Step 3: Stages in Sprint Races (15 minutes)

  • Describe the stages in a sprint race:
    1. Starting: Explain the crouched position, hands on the starting line, and the “set, go” commands.
    2. Take-off: Discuss the powerful push-off from the starting blocks.
    3. Running: Explain the importance of maintaining a straight line and pumping arms.
    4. Arm Action: Show proper arm movement to maintain balance and speed.
    5. Finishing: Describe the final burst of speed across the finish line.
  • Evaluation

1. Sprint races involve several __________ stages.

a) long

b) different

c) short

d) colorful


2. The first stage in a sprint race is called __________.

a) start

b) run

c) finish

d) jump


3. Sprinters begin in a __________ position.

a) standing

b) crouched

c) lying

d) seated


4. They place their hands __________ the starting line.

a) behind

b) above

c) under

d) on


5. The “set, go” commands help them __________.

a) sleep

b) start

c) sit

d) stop


6. During the take-off stage, sprinters make a __________ push from the starting blocks.

a) gentle

b) slow

c) powerful

d) colorful


7. Sprinters focus on maintaining a __________ line while running.

a) wavy

b) straight

c) zigzag

d) circular


8. Proper __________ movement helps sprinters keep balance and speed.

a) leg

b) arm

c) head

d) finger


9. The final stage of a sprint race is called __________.

a) start

b) take-off

c) run

d) finish


10. Sprinters give a __________ burst of speed when crossing the finish line.

a) slow

b) steady

c) final

d) colorful


11. Sprint races involve __________ movements and techniques.

a) random

b) unrelated

c) specific

d) quiet


12. Sprinters use their __________ to maintain balance.

a) ears

b) eyes

c) arms

d) toes


13. The “set, go” commands signal the __________ of the race.

a) middle

b) end

c) beginning

d) stop


14. Sprinters start from a __________ position.

a) seated

b) standing

c) lying

d) crouched


15. In sprint races, the finish line marks the __________ of the race.

a) end

b) middle

c) start

d) jump



Teacher’s Activities:

  • Use visual aids to illustrate key points.
  • Demonstrate sprinting techniques.
  • Encourage questions and participation.

Learners’ Activities:

  • Listen actively and take notes.
  • Practice the starting and arm action techniques.
  • Ask questions for clarification.

Evaluation and Assessment: (5 minutes)

  • Organize a mini sprint race within the class to assess students’ understanding of the stages.
  • Use a stopwatch to time students during the race.
  • Evaluate their starting, take-off, running, arm action, and finishing techniques.



1. what is sprint race?


2. list three examples of sprint races.


3. explains two techniques involved in sprint races.

4. explains the following:
i. the bunch start.

ii. the elongated start.


5. Who is a sprinter


6. Mention any two world sprinter that you know


7 , Where does sprint race take place


8. How does a sprinter starts a race


9 What are the instructions that are given out before the sprinters start to run


10. Mention two Nigerian Sprinters



Conclusion: (5 minutes)

  • Recap the key points of the lesson.
  • Emphasize the importance of proper techniques in sprint races for speed and safety.
  • Encourage students to practice and stay active.




  • Research a famous sprinter and write a short paragraph about their achievements.
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