SECOND TERM E NOTES PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION BASIC FOUR

SECOND TERM E NOTES

SUBJECT: PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

CLASS: BASIC FOUR

WEEK TOPIC

  1. Community health
  2. Environmental health
  3. Environmental health cont.
  4. Physical fitness and body conditioning
  5. Importance of physical fitness
  6. Gymnastic
  7. Basic gymnastic movement
  8. Food/ nutrient
  9. Food and nutrition cont.
  10. Revision

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Physical and Health Education

Week:- 1

Topic: Community Health

Behavioral objective:- At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:-

1. explain the meaning of community

2. List examples of community efforts for health promotion

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Basic Physical and Health Education UBE edition for primary school book 4

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with the meaning of health.

Content

COMMUNITY HEALTH

Community efforts for health promotion

A community is a group of group of living together. Such people have common interests. Usually, they work toghethr for good of the community. When people come together in such groups or communities, they can do a lot of work. That is why their efforts are very impotant for heal;th promotion

Examples of community efforts for health promotion

  1. Community mobilization for pipe borne water supply
  2. Community mobilization for rural electrification
  3. Community leaders persuading mothers to take their children for immunization.
  4. Building a community centre.

SOME HEALTH SERVICES IN THE COMMUNITY

  1. Community health centre
  2. A pharmacy
  3. General hospital
  4. Community health counseling meetings

EVALUATION:-

  1. List three efforts for health promotion in your country
  2. What is the importance of community efforts in health promotion?
  3. Mention three health services in the country
  4. __________________________________________
  5. ________________________________________
  6. ___________________________________________

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Physical and Health Education

Week:- 2 and 3

Topic: Environmental Health

Behavioral objective:- At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:-

1. explain the meaning of environmemt

2. List examples of waste disposal

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Basic Physical and Health Education UBE edition for primary school book 4

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with the meaning of health.

Content

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

The environment is where we live and its entire surroundings. Environmental health is about keeping our surroundings clean, controlling diseases and removing health problems. Waste matrerials are produced in the process of living. They come from schools, offices, markets etc.

The meaning of waste and Waste disposal

Waste is anything that is not wanted. It is worthless and cannot nbeused again. There are two main types of waste disposal:

  1. Sewage disposal and
  2. refuse disposal.
  3. Sewage disposal: sewage is a semi-liquid waste(usually smelling). Examples are faces and urine. Methods of sewage disposal include: pit latrine, bucket latrine, trench latrine, water closet.
  4. Refuse: refuse is anything that is not needed. Refuse disposal is the removal and carrying away of refuse. Methods of refuse disposal are: incineration, landfill, use of dumpsites and waste bin.

Importance of waste disposal

Waste disposal is very important for environmental health for the following reasons:

  1. It prevents the breeding of insects and germs
  2. It prevents bad odour
  3. It prevents the spread of diseases
  4. It also prevents environmental pollution

Evaluation:-

  1. What is the meaning of waste?
  2. Explain the meaning of waste disposal
  3. State any two important advantages of waste disposal
  4. ____________________________________
  5. ____________________________________

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Physical and Health Education

Week:- 4 and 5

Topic: Physical fitness and body conditioning

Behavioral objective:- At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:-

1. define physical fitness and body conditioning

2. List examples of physical fitness exercise

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Basic Physical and Health Education UBE edition for primary school book 4

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students have engaged in various physical fitness exercise before.

Content

Physical Fitness And Body Conditioning

Physical fitness is the ability tilive a full and balanced life. It is the ability to carry out one’s duty and tasks without undue fatigue and still have enough strength to cops with emergencey situations and to engage in leisure activities.

BODY CONDITIONING

Body conditioning is the process of preparing the bodywith exercise in readiness for activities aemanding much effort. It is a procees of promoting the body fitness to participate in given sports.

FITNES EXERCISES

  1. Pushing
  2. Squatting
  3. Bent knee
  4. Sit –up
  5. Sit and reach
  6. Dodging

IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL FITNESS

  1. Physical fitness makes us well and enjoy life.
  2. It prevents overweight
  3. It helps us to meet emergencies in daily life
  4. It helps us to take parts fully in sports
  5. It makes the body grow and develop properly
  6. It gives us resistance against diseases
  7. It makes us look fine and healthy
  8. It improves endurance

Evaluation:-

  1. Explain the meaning of physical fitness
  2. List at least four physical fitness exercises
  3. Mention five importance of physical exercises

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Physical and Health Education

Week:- 6 and 7

Topic: Gymnastics

Behavioral objective:- At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:-

1. explain the meaning of gymnastics

2. List examples of ground and apparatus activities

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Basic Physical and Health Education UBE edition for primary school book 4

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with the various ground activities

Content

GYMNASTICS

Gymnastics refers to physical exercise and movem,ents that need skill, strength and control. They are often performed in competitions. This exercises could be in two forms namely:Gymnastics is a sport that includes physical exercises requiring balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance. The movements involved in gymnastics contribute to the development of the arms, legs, shoulders, back, chest, and abdominal muscle groups.

1. floor or ground activities,

2. Apparatus activities

  1. Floor or ground activities: this activities are done on the graound namely:
  2. Walking
  3. Running
  4. Hopping
  5. Jumping
  6. Twisting
  7. Stretching
  8. Hopping
  9. Curling
  10. Apparatus activities
  11. Swinging: this is a movement involving bending forward or backward and from side to side.
  12. Vaulting: vaulting is a jump in which the hands assist the performer to clear obstacles.
  13. Skipping: this is jumping or springing u[ and down lightly on toes with a pause between the movement. We skip with a rope

The term gymnastics, derived from a Greek word meaning “to exercise naked,” applied in ancient Greece to all exercises practiced in the gymnasium, the place where male athletes did indeed exercise unclothed. Many of these exercises came to be included in the Olympic Games, until the abandonment of the Games in ad 393.

Evalution :-

  1. What are gymnastic activities?
  2. List four floor activities
  3. Name four activities performed with an apparatus

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Physical and Health Education

Week:- 8 and 9

Topic: Food

Behavioral objective:- At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:-

1. explain the meaning of food

2. List the six classes of food and their example

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Basic Physical and Health Education UBE edition for primary school book 4

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with food and know a lot about food

Content

FOOD

MEANING OF FOOD

Food may be defined as edble substance taken into the body through the mouth to nourish our body and give us energy to work. Common examples of food are rice, plantain, ototo, mango, banana, yam, egg.The effective management of food intake and nutrition are both key to good health. Smart nutrition and food choices can help prevent disease. Eating the right foods can help your body cope more successfully with an ongoing illness. Understanding good nutrition and paying attention to what you eat can help you maintain or improve your health.

CLASSES OF FOOD

There are six classes of food namely:

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Protein
  3. Vitamin
  4. Fats and oils
  5. Mineral salt
  6. Water
  7. Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are energy giving foods such as rice, yam, bread, sweet pototo, etc. energy foods contain a lot of starch. Our body uses the starch to make energy for itself.

2. Protein

Proteins are body building food. These foods come mainly from animals. Examples of proteins are: meat, beans, egg, milk, fish chicken.

  1. Vitamins

Vatimins are also known as health foods. Health foods are mostly fruits and vegetables. They keep yur body heatlthy and against illness. Examples are: carrot, lime, orange, lettuce, cabbage, mango.

  1. Fats and oils

Our body also getes energy from fats and oils. Examples are: palm oil, vegetable oi, peanut, coconut oil, butter and magarine. Fats are essential for:

1. lubricating joints

2. helping organs produce hormones

3. enabling the body to absorb certain vitamins

4. reducing inflammation

5. preserving brain health

6. Too much fat can lead to obesity, high cholesterol, liver disease, and other health problems.

  1. Mineral salts

Mineral salts are food supplements. They are needed in only small quantities. Examples are table salt, soda, pepsi etc.

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5. Water

The adult human body is up to 60% water, and it needs water for many processes. Water contains no calories, and it does not provide energy.

Many people recommend consuming 2 liters, or 8 glasses, of water a day, but it can also come from dietary sources, such as fruit and vegetables. Adequate hydration will result in pale yellow urine.

Requirements will also depend on an individual’s body size and age, environmental factors, activity levels, health status, and so on.

IMPORTANCE OF NUTRIENTS

Nutrients are very important to the body for the following reasons:

  1. They are useful in building the body
  2. They make the body grow and remain healthy
  3. They repair damaged and worn out cell in the body
  4. They provide energy to the body for work and play
  5. They help the body protect itself against diseases

Evaluation:-

  1. Explain the meaning of food
  2. List at least three ways in which nutrients are important to the body
  3. Mention four types of food
  4. Explain briefly what each type of food does in the body

 

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