List and explain any five (5) basic guidance services in educational institutions

The basic guidance A. Orientation services in educational institutions are; E. Follow-up, research and evaluation B. Appraisal C. Information services F. Referral Orientation: This service is designed to assist students to adjust better when in new G. Counseling. environments. At the commencement of each school year, many new students often need orientation in our primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. Inability to make adequate adjustment may have serious negative consequences on the part of students. Through orientation service, such new-students are introduced to physical- plant facilities in their new school environment, rules and regulations, administrative set-up, school clubs and societies, norms governing use of school facilities and how to benefit optimally from the educational services of the school especially that of school guidance. Through orientation, new students are made to adjust emotionally. mentally, socially, and physically to their new environment. Activities that constitute orientation service include group-lectures, film-show, discussions on school rules and regulations and services, interactive sessions with key functionaries of the new school, field-trips and visits to major sections of the new school, etc. D. Planning Appraisal Service: This is a service that is used to collect information on the individual so as to help in the process of guidance and counseling. In appraisal service you evaluate or assess the individual to know what he or she has or does not have. This service is important if the counselor would attempt an accurate diagnosis and therefore design an effective counseling treatment plan for clients. A variety of methods of evaluation can be used such as the use of psychological tests or even observation or interviews. The counselor makes a choice of the type of method to use in appraisal depending on the nature of the problems presented. At times, clients’ educational and emotional maturity, the expertise of the counselor, resources available and other situational variables determine the method of appraisal to use. This service provides a framework of assisting the client to acquire and organize useful information about himself/herself and thus be in a position to use this information in making vital life decisions and choices. Information Service: This is the collection of data for the client. This service is designed to enhance and broaden the opportunity and awareness of students. This is so because it provides students with knowledge of educational, vocational and social opportunities so that they would be able to make informed and enlightened decisions and choices. There is perhaps a world of difference between a decision made on the basis of naked ignorance and that made from the premise of sound-information. The basic goal of information service is to ensure that all vital decisions and choices by students are made on the basis of valid and reliable data. Placement Service: The goal of this service is to assist students to secure appropriate placement in a programme of study, work world, a treatment programme and a work-study programme. Placement services must be based on good understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of clients or students seeking placement. A placement service means putting individuals in a position that best suits his or her interest, ability, personality and even age. To be able to do proper placement, a lot of information or appraisal services must be carried out on individual. Placement can be in the school, that is, into classes, clubs and societies, halls of residence and even games and sports. Placement can also be done in the place of work, for example, who to be a head teacher, manager or who can best be employed as a typist. Follow-Up, Research and Evaluation Services: This service seeks to determine the effectiveness of school guidance programme. Here, attempts are made to evaluate the outcomes of school-guidance services. Some of the expected outcomes of school guidance services are enhanced academic performances of students, better problem-solving and decision-making skills, decrease in truancy and improved school attendance, improved teacher-pupil relationship, and drop in school discipline problems, adaptive adjustment on the part of pupils and a host of other positive outcomes. The main focus of follow-up service is to ensure that school- guidance is achieving the goals that it has set out to achieve.


2. (a) Explain educational statistics (b) Is statistics really needed in education? Discuss

In conclusion,


Orientation Service: This service assists new students in adjusting to their unfamiliar surroundings. At the beginning of each academic year, students, particularly those new to the institution, receive orientation to the physical facilities, school rules, administrative structure, clubs, and societies. This helps them to emotionally, mentally, socially, and physically adapt to their new environment. Activities such as group lectures, discussions, interactive sessions, field trips, and film shows are commonly used during orientation.


Appraisal Service: In this service, information about individuals is gathered to aid in the guidance and counseling process. It involves assessing a person’s characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses, often through methods like psychological tests, interviews, and observations. The information obtained is crucial for counselors to diagnose accurately and design effective counseling treatment plans, ensuring that clients can make informed life decisions.


Information Service: This service focuses on providing students with valuable data about educational, vocational, and social opportunities. Having access to well-informed decisions based on reliable information can make a significant difference. The aim is to broaden students’ awareness and enhance their decision-making abilities by presenting them with a comprehensive understanding of available options.


Placement Service: The goal of this service is to assist students in finding suitable placements in academic programs, work settings, or treatment programs. This requires a solid understanding of students’ strengths, weaknesses, personalities, and interests. Placement can involve assigning students to classes, clubs, halls of residence, or even specific job roles in the professional world, aligning their qualities with the most appropriate positions.



Follow-Up, Research, and Evaluation Services: This service involves assessing the effectiveness of the school’s guidance program. It aims to evaluate the outcomes of the guidance services offered. Expected outcomes could include improved academic performance, better decision-making skills, reduced truancy, enhanced teacher-student relationships, improved discipline, and more. Follow-up services ensure that the guidance program is achieving its intended goals and making a positive impact.


Remember, these guidance services play a critical role in assisting students in various aspects of their educational journey and personal development. Feel free to ask any questions you may have about these services.





Of course, here are 15 fill-in-the-blank questions for you:

1. Orientation services in educational institutions aim to help students adjust to ___________ environments.
a) Familiar
b) Challenging
c) New

2. The purpose of appraisal services is to collect information about individuals for effective ___________ and counseling.
a) Teaching
b) Guidance
c) Communication

3. Information services provide students with knowledge about ___________ opportunities.
a) Entertainment
b) Vocational
c) Travel

4. Placement services assist students in finding suitable ___________ in academic programs or work settings.
a) Hobbies
b) Placements
c) Positions

5. Follow-up, research, and evaluation services assess the ___________ of school guidance programs.
a) Outcome
b) Start
c) Initiation

6. Orientation helps new students adjust emotionally, mentally, socially, and physically to their ___________ environment.
a) Familiar
b) Home
c) New

7. Appraisal services involve evaluating individuals to determine their strengths and ___________.
a) Weaknesses
b) Hobbies
c) Friends

8. Information services broaden students’ awareness of educational, vocational, and ___________ opportunities.
a) Recreational
b) Social
c) Athletic

9. Placement services match individuals with positions that align with their interests, abilities, and ___________.
a) Age
b) Nationality
c) Gender

10. Follow-up services evaluate the effectiveness of guidance programs, including academic performance and improved ___________.
a) Social skills
b) Discipline
c) Clothing choices

11. Orientation introduces new students to school ___________ and administrative set-up.
a) Clubs
b) Sports
c) Cafeteria

12. Appraisal involves using methods like psychological tests, interviews, and ___________ to gather information.
a) Surveys
b) Guesswork
c) Magic

13. Information services ensure that students make decisions based on valid and reliable ___________.
a) Guesses
b) Data
c) Emotions

14. Placement services aim to find suitable positions for students in academic programs, work settings, or ___________ programs.
a) Sports
b) Treatment
c) Art

15. Follow-up services assess outcomes such as enhanced academic performance and improved teacher-___________ relationship.
a) Student
b) Parent
c) Principal






1. (a) What is educational statistics? (b) Explain any five (5) purposes for its use in Nigeria’s educational system.