# PRIMARY 3 THIRD TERM LESSON NOTE MATHEMATICS

MATHEMATICS PLAN LESSON NOTE WEEKLY NOTES

WEEK 1
Topic: Time
Behavioural Objectives: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

1. Give date in day and month

2. Mention the importance of time in our daily life.

CONTENT.

A clock is used to measure time. It has two hands: the hour hand and the minutes hand.

Exercise

TELLING THE TIME ACCURATELY
There are 60 minutes in 1 hour. There are twelve spaces from 12 to 12. When the minutes hand of the clock moves from 12 to 1, it covers one space and that space is worth 5 minutes. Since there are twelve spaces and one space is 5minutes. There are:
12×5=60 minutes in an hour.
When the minutes hand moves from 12 to 3 ,it covers three spaces. This is 15 minutes or one quarter of 60.
When the minutes hand moves from 12 to 6 spaces. This is 30 minutes or half of 60.

CALENDAR
We use calendar to show the days of the week,months of the year and time of events within the year.
The diagram below shows the calendar for 2019 and 2017.

Exercise

Exercise 1
Answer these questions using the calendar above.

1. What was the date of the last Friday of January?
2. On which day was Christmas celebrated?
3. Locate 27th of May in the calendar and write down what we celebrate
on that day.
4. Write the date for each of the last Saturdays of January to March.
5. Which month of the year has the least number of days?
6. How many months of the year have 31 days?
7. Write out two months of the year that have 30 days.
8. Find what the date was on the last Sunday of June.
9. How many days are there in the year 2015?
10. Was 2015 a leap year?

Exercise 2
1. What is the first day of the week?
2. What is the last day of the week?
3. Which is the last month of the year?
4. In which month do we celebrate Children’s Day?
5. Which month ends the first half of the year?
6. When is Nigerian Independence Day celebrated?
7. In which month do we celebrate New Year’s Day?
8. In which month is your birthday?
9. How many days are there in a leap year?
10. In which month is Democracy Day celebrated?

[mediator_tech]

1. The date of the last Friday of January varies from year to year. To determine the exact date, you would need to provide the year in question.

2. Christmas is celebrated on December 25th every year.

3. May 27th is located in the calendar as follows:
– If the year is provided, the specific events or celebrations on that day can be identified.
– Without the year, May 27th is a standalone date and does not correspond to any universally celebrated event.

4. The dates for the last Saturdays of January to March can vary depending on the year. To provide the specific dates, the year in question is needed.

5. The month of February has the least number of days with either 28 days (non-leap years) or 29 days (leap years).

6. Seven months of the year have 31 days: January, March, May, July, August, October, and December.

7. Two months of the year that have 30 days are April and June.

8. To determine the date of the last Sunday of June, you would need to provide the year in question.

9. The year 2015 had a total of 365 days.

10. No, 2015 was not a leap year. Leap years occur every four years, but years divisible by 100 are not leap years unless they are also divisible by 400. Since 2015 is not divisible by 4, it is not a leap year.

[mediator_tech]

Topic: Days, Months, and Celebrations

Primary 3 Mathematics Lesson:

Today, we will learn about the days of the week, months of the year, and some important celebrations. Let’s answer the following questions:

1. What is the first day of the week?
– The first day of the week is Sunday.

2. What is the last day of the week?
– The last day of the week is Saturday.

3. Which is the last month of the year?
– The last month of the year is December.

4. In which month do we celebrate Children’s Day?
– We celebrate Children’s Day in the month of May.

5. Which month ends the first half of the year?
– The month that ends the first half of the year is June.

6. When is Nigerian Independence Day celebrated?
– Nigerian Independence Day is celebrated on October 1st.

7. In which month do we celebrate New Year’s Day?
– We celebrate New Year’s Day in the month of January.

8. In which month is your birthday?
– As your teacher, my birthday is in the month of [insert teacher’s birth month].

9. How many days are there in a leap year?
– In a leap year, there are 366 days.

10. In which month is Democracy Day celebrated?
– Democracy Day in Nigeria is celebrated on June 12th.

Great job, everyone! Now we have a better understanding of the days of the week, months of the year, and some important celebrations. Keep practicing and learning, and soon you’ll become experts in this topic!

[mediator_tech]

Evaluation

Primary 3 Mathematics Lesson: Days, Months, and Celebrations

Fill in the blanks with the correct option (a, b, or c):

1. The first day of the week is _______.
a) Monday
b) Sunday
c) Saturday

2. The last day of the week is _______.
a) Friday
b) Saturday
c) Sunday

3. The last month of the year is _______.
a) November
b) October
c) December

4. Children’s Day is celebrated in _______.
a) April
b) May
c) June

5. The month that ends the first half of the year is _______.
a) July
b) June
c) May

6. Nigerian Independence Day is celebrated on _______.
a) October 1st
b) September 30th
c) November 15th

7. New Year’s Day is celebrated in _______.
a) December
b) January
c) February

8. In which month is your birthday?
a) [Insert specific teacher’s birth month]
b) March
c) August

9. In a leap year, there are _______ days.
a) 365
b) 366
c) 364

10. Democracy Day in Nigeria is celebrated on _______.
a) May 29th
b) June 12th
c) July 4th

11. The first day of the week is _______.
a) Monday
b) Sunday
c) Saturday

12. The last day of the week is _______.
a) Friday
b) Saturday
c) Sunday

13. The last month of the year is _______.
a) November
b) October
c) December

14. Children’s Day is celebrated in _______.
a) April
b) May
c) June

15. The month that ends the first half of the year is _______.
a) July
b) June
c) May

Great job, everyone! Take your time and choose the correct options for each question. Once you’re done, we’ll go through the answers together.

[mediator_tech]

WEEK 2&3

Topic: Weight
Behavioural Objectives: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:
Mention weight of objects in grams and kilograms
Make meaningful comparison of weight of objects like rocks,minerals.
CONTENT
COMPARING WEIGHT
A bottle of water weigh more than an empty bottle
A sister weighs less than a mug
A mathematics textbook weighs more than an exercise book.

Activity

A. Weigh the objects and record their weights in kilograms or grams.
1. 6 packets of whiteboard markers 2. 3 tins of Milo
3. 1 mathematics textbook 4. 1 bottle of water
5. 10 packets of pencils 6. 1 tin of milk
7. 1 bag of Semolina 8. 1 packet of biscuits
9. 2 big tins of Peak Milk
Standard units of weight
We need to use standard units to measure weight.
The kilogram (kg) is used as a unit when weighing heavy objects like
bags of rice, bags of cement, etc.
The gram (g) is used when weighing lighter objects like pencils, rulers, etc.
Measuring and estimating weight
These are different types of weighing scales

Primary 3 Mathematics Lesson: Comparing Weight

Activity:

A. Weigh the objects and record their weights in kilograms or grams. Use a weighing scale or balance to measure the weight of each object.

1. 6 packets of whiteboard markers:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

2. 3 tins of Milo:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

3. 1 mathematics textbook:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

4. 1 bottle of water:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

5. 10 packets of pencils:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

6. 1 tin of milk:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

7. 1 bag of Semolina:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

8. 1 packet of biscuits:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

9. 2 big tins of Peak Milk:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

Remember to use the appropriate units: kilograms (kg) for heavier objects and grams (g) for lighter objects.

Standard units of weight:
Discuss with the students that we use standard units to measure weight. The kilogram (kg) is used for heavier objects like bags of rice or cement, while the gram (g) is used for lighter objects like pencils or rulers.

Measuring and estimating weight:
Explain that we can measure weight using different types of weighing scales or balances. Encourage the students to explore and observe different types of weighing scales they might encounter in their daily lives.

Note: The weights provided above are intentionally left blank for the students to fill in during the activity. Ensure that proper weighing equipment and supervision are in place during the activity to ensure accuracy and safety.

Evaluation

Primary 3 Mathematics Lesson: Comparing Weight

Activity:

A. Weigh the objects and record their weights in kilograms or grams. Use a weighing scale or balance to measure the weight of each object.

1. 6 packets of whiteboard markers:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

2. 3 tins of Milo:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

3. 1 mathematics textbook:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

4. 1 bottle of water:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

5. 10 packets of pencils:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

6. 1 tin of milk:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

7. 1 bag of Semolina:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

8. 1 packet of biscuits:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

9. 2 big tins of Peak Milk:
Weight: __________ (kg/g)

Remember to use the appropriate units: kilograms (kg) for heavier objects and grams (g) for lighter objects.

Standard units of weight:
Discuss with the students that we use standard units to measure weight. The kilogram (kg) is used for heavier objects like bags of rice or cement, while the gram (g) is used for lighter objects like pencils or rulers.

Measuring and estimating weight:
Explain that we can measure weight using different types of weighing scales or balances. Encourage the students to explore and observe different types of weighing scales they might encounter in their daily lives.

Note: The weights provided above are intentionally left blank for the students to fill in during the activity. Ensure that proper weighing equipment and supervision are in place during the activity to ensure accuracy and safety.

[mediator_tech]

Exercise 2

Classify these objects according to their weight in grams and kilograms.
Name of objects Weight in grams (g) Weight in kilogram (kg)
1. Bottle of water
2. Pencil
3. Eraser
4. Bag of sugar
5. Jug
6. Ruler
7. Stone
8. Bottle of Fanta

Draw the objects

Weight in grams (g) Weight in kilogram (kg)
9. Toothbrush
10. Orange
11. Rock
12. Scissors
13. 5 tins of Milo
14. A bundle of nails
15. 2 notebooks
16. A baby boy
Grams and kilograms
1000 grams (g) = 1 kilogram (kg)

short form short form
We can convert weights in grams to kilograms and weights in kilograms to grams
Examples
2 kg = 1000 g + 1000 g = 2000 g
1/2kg = 1000 g ÷ 2 g = 500 g
2000 g = 2000 g ÷ 1000 g = 2 kg

Exercise 2
1. How many kilograms are there in these:
a) 3000 g =

b) 2500 g =

c) 4000 g =

2. What must I add to 700 g to make 1 kg?

3. How many grams are there in these:
a) 1/2kg = b) 1/4kg = c) 3/4kg =

4. Which is greater?
a) 2000 g or 11/2kg b) 1500 g or 1 kg c) 3500 g or 3 kg

1. Copy and complete the following. Use symbols > or <.

a) 200 g[] 1/4kg

b) 2/5kg[] 300 g

c) 100 g[] 1/5kg

d) 1 kg[] 700 g
e) 900 g[] 3/4kg

f) 400 g[] 1/2kg

g) 3/5kg[] 1/2kg

h) 3/4kg[] 1/2kg

i) 800 g []3/4kg

j) 2/5kg[] 1/4kg

2. Copy and complete the following. Use the number line to help you.
a) 1/2kg =[] g

b) 3/4kg =[] g

c) 1/5kg =[] g

d) 1/4kg =[] g

e) 2/5kg =[] g

f) 1/10 kg =[] g

g) 3/5kg =[] g

h) 4/5kg =[] g

3. Copy and complete the following. The first one is done for you.
a) 11/2kg =[] 1 kg +[] 12kg
= 1 kg + 500 g
= 1 kg 500 g
c) 31/4kg =[] kg +[] g
=[] kg +[] g

e) 1/15kg =[] 1 kg +[] kg
=[] kg[] g

b) 21/2kg =[] kg +[] 12kg=[] kg{} g

d) 23/5kg ={}| kg +{} g
={} kg {}g

f) 3 1/10 kg =() kg +() g
=() kg() g

Week 4

Topic: Capacity

The amount of liquid a container holds is called its capacity.
Liquids are things like: water, milk, kerosene, oil, petrol, juice, mineral water, etc.
The standard measure for liquids is the litre l and millilitre ml

Liquids in large containers are measured in litres.
Petrol and diesel are measured in litres.
Liquids in small containers are measured in millilitres.
Syrups, lotions and perfumes are measured in millilitres.

[mediator_tech]

Primary 3 Mathematics Lesson: Measuring Capacity

1. The amount of liquid a container holds is called its _______.
a) Weight
b) Length
c) Capacity

2. Liquids are things like _______.
a) Stones and rocks
b) Books and pencils
c) Water and milk

3. The standard measure for liquids is _______.
a) Kilogram (kg)
b) Centimeter (cm)
c) Litre (l) and millilitre (ml)

4. Liquids in large containers are measured in _______.
a) Grams (g)
b) Litres (l)
c) Meters (m)

5. Petrol and diesel are measured in _______.
a) Litres (l)
b) Kilograms (kg)
c) Centimeters (cm)

6. Liquids in small containers are measured in _______.
a) Kilograms (kg)
b) Litres (l)
c) Millilitres (ml)

7. Syrups, lotions, and perfumes are measured in _______.
a) Kilograms (kg)
b) Litres (l)
c) Millilitres (ml)

8. The standard unit for measuring liquids in large containers is _______.
a) Gram (g)
b) Litre (l)
c) Meter (m)

9. The standard unit for measuring liquids in small containers is _______.
a) Kilogram (kg)
b) Litre (l)
c) Millilitre (ml)

10. If we want to measure the capacity of a water bottle, we should use _______.
a) Kilograms (kg)
b) Litres (l)
c) Millilitres (ml)

11. Which unit would you use to measure the capacity of a perfume bottle?
a) Kilograms (kg)
b) Litres (l)
c) Millilitres (ml)

12. The capacity of a bucket is usually measured in _______.
a) Kilograms (kg)
b) Litres (l)
c) Millilitres (ml)

13. Which unit would you use to measure the capacity of a milk carton?
a) Kilograms (kg)
b) Litres (l)
c) Millilitres (ml)

14. The capacity of a fuel tank is usually measured in _______.
a) Kilograms (kg)
b) Litres (l)
c) Millilitres (ml)

15. When measuring the capacity of a shampoo bottle, we use _______.
a) Kilograms (kg)
b) Litres (l)
c) Millilitres (ml)

Great job! Take your time and choose the correct options for each question. Once you’re done, we’ll go through the answers together.

Exercise
1. Name five liquids measured in litres.
2. Name five liquids measured in millilitres.
Activity
Check the empty containers of liquids you used in your home. Bring in one that
has 1 litre written on it. Compare with your friends’ containers. Do they all have the
same shape?

Capacity of containers

Note
10 millilitres (ml) = 1 centilitre (cl)
10 centilitres (cl) = 1 decilitre (dl)
10 decilitres (􀁇􀆐) = 1 litre (l)
1000 litres = 1 kilolitre (kl)

[mediator_tech]

Primary 3 Mathematics Lesson: Measuring Capacity

Today, we will learn about measuring the capacity of different containers. Here are some important points to remember:

1. The amount of liquid a container holds is called its capacity. Capacity tells us how much a container can hold.

2. Liquids are things like water, milk, kerosene, oil, petrol, juice, and mineral water. These are the substances that can flow.

3. The standard measure for liquids is the litre (l) and millilitre (ml). We use litres and millilitres to measure the capacity of containers.

4. Liquids in large containers are measured in litres. For example:
– A big water tank may have a capacity of 500 litres.
– The fuel tank of a car can hold around 50 litres of petrol or diesel.

5. Petrol and diesel are specifically measured in litres because they are used as fuel for vehicles.

6. Liquids in small containers are measured in millilitres. For example:
– A small juice box may have a capacity of 200 millilitres.
– A small bottle of lotion might hold 100 millilitres.

7. Syrups, lotions, and perfumes are also measured in millilitres because they are usually packaged in small containers. For example:
– A bottle of cough syrup may have a capacity of 150 millilitres.
– A small bottle of perfume might have a capacity of 50 millilitres.

Remember, when measuring capacity, we use litres for large containers and millilitres for small containers. It helps us know how much liquid can fit inside each container.

Now, let’s practice measuring the capacity of different containers in our activity.

Exercise 1
A. How many litres or millilitres can each contain? Use a litre jug to measure.
Container Measurement in litres
1 Bucket
2 Cooking pot
3 Plastic basin
4. Big jerry can
5. Small jerry can
6. Jug
7. Mug
8. Water dispenser jar
9. Pure water sachet

25cl 50cl 1l

Examples
This shows us how many 1/2litres there are in 1 1/2litres.
Solution
11/2litres = 1 litre + 1/2litre
1 litre = 2 one-half litres
Therefore, 11/2litres = 3 one-half litres

This shows us how many 1/4litres there are in 3 litres.
Solution
3 litres = 1l + 1l + 1l
1 litre = 4 one-quarter litres
Therefore, 3 litres = 3 × 4 one-quarter litres = 12 one-quarter litres

Exercise 2
1. How many 1/2 litres are there in:
a) 3 litres b) 2 1/2litres c) 4 litres d) 6 litres?

2. How many 1/4litres are there in:
a) 11/2litres b) 4 litres c) 3 litres d) 21/4litres?
Examples
1 litre + 5 litre = 6 litres
1L + 5l = 6l
20 litres – 15 litres = 5 litres
40ml
+30ml
70 ml

150ml
– 130ml
20ml

Exercise
A. Add the following.
1. 170 ml + 250ml 2. 255ml + 175ml
3. 30 litres + 135 litres 4. 71 litres + 52 litres.

B. Subtract the following.
1. 6l – 4l 2. 13l – 5L 3. 270ml – 135 ml 4. 500ml – 125ml
C. Change to litres and millilitres.
1. 1200ml = 1 000 ml + 200mln = 1l 200ml
2. 1500ml = 3. 7500ml = 4. 4400 ml =
5. 3200ml = 6. 4750ml =
D. Change to millilitres only.
1. 1l 250ml = 1l + 250ml = 1000ml + 250ml = 1250ml
2. 8l 330ml = 3. 9l 200ml = 4. 5l 950 ml =
5. 8l 750ml = 6. 7l 305ml =

Primary 3 Mathematics Lesson: Measuring Capacity

Let’s test our understanding of measuring capacity with some multi-choice questions. Choose the correct option (a, b, c, or d) for each question.

1. The amount of liquid a container holds is called its _______.
a) Height
b) Volume
c) Capacity
d) Weight

2. Which of the following is a liquid?
a) Pencil
b) Book
c) Water
d) Chair

3. The standard measure for liquids is _______ and _______.
a) Litre (l), Kilogram (kg)
b) Centimeter (cm), Gram (g)
c) Litre (l), Millilitre (ml)
d) Meter (m), Second (s)

4. Liquids in large containers are measured in _______.
a) Millilitres (ml)
b) Kilograms (kg)
c) Litres (l)
d) Centimeters (cm)

5. Petrol and diesel are usually measured in _______.
a) Millilitres (ml)
b) Kilograms (kg)
c) Litres (l)
d) Centimeters (cm)

6. Liquids in small containers are measured in _______.
a) Millilitres (ml)
b) Kilograms (kg)
c) Litres (l)
d) Centimeters (cm)

7. Which of the following is typically measured in millilitres?
a) Bags of rice
b) Juice boxes
c) Fuel tanks
d) Water tanks

8. A bottle of cough syrup is likely to have its capacity measured in _______.
a) Kilograms (kg)
b) Litres (l)
c) Millilitres (ml)
d) Centimeters (cm)

9. What unit of measurement is commonly used for a big water tank?
a) Kilograms (kg)
b) Litres (l)
c) Millilitres (ml)
d) Centimeters (cm)

10. A small bottle of perfume would most likely have its capacity measured in _______.
a) Kilograms (kg)
b) Litres (l)
c) Millilitres (ml)
d) Centimeters (cm)

Great job! Take your time and choose the correct options for each question. Once you’re done, we’ll go through the answers together.

[mediator_tech]

Problems involving capacity
Exercise
Solve the problems. The first has been done for you.
1. Mr Salaam has 12 litres of fuel in his tank. He bought 25 litres. How many Litres of fuel are in the tank now?
Mr Salaam bought 12 litres
+ 25 litres
37 litres
and he bought
Altogether, he bought

WEEK 6 & 7
TOPIC: Angles
SUBTOPIC: properties of a square and rectangle
BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:
1. State the properties of a square
2. State the properties of a rectangle
3. Find the area of a rectangle using the formula
4. Calculate areas involving square meters and hectares.

5. Develop interest in finding shapes in their environment.
CONTENT

Properties of a square
1. The diagonals of a square bisect each other and meet at 90°
2. The diagonals of a square bisect its angles.
3. Opposite sides of a square are both parallel and equal in length.
4. All four angles of a square are equal. …
5. All four sides of a square are equal.
6. The diagonals of a square are equal.

Properties of a rectangle
1.Opposite sides are equal.

2.All angles in a rectangle is 90 degrees.

3.Diagonals are equal and they bisect each other.They are also congruent.

4.Perimeter of a rectangle is 2(l+b) where l is length and b is breadth.

5.Area of rectangle is l*b.

6.Square of length of diagonal is the sum of squares of length and breadth.

AREA OF RECTANGLE AND SQUARE

To find the area by counting squares could take a long time especially if you have to find the area of a large surface There is a formula to calculate the area of a rectangle or a square.

Example:

The formulary for calculating the area of a rectangle is A = L×B
Length = 8cm
Area= 8cm×6cm
= 48cm²

A= L× L
L= 8cm
B= 8cm
A= 8cm×8cm
A= 64cm2

Length= 3ft
Area: L xB
A= 3 x 5ft.
A= 15ft.

Length= 7mm
Area= LxB
A= 7mm x7mm
A=49mm.

1. The ___________ of a square bisect each other and meet at 90°.
a) sides
b) diagonals
c) angles

2. The diagonals of a square ___________ its angles.
a) bisect
b) double
c) divide

3. Opposite sides of a square are ___________ parallel and equal in length.
a) not
b) sometimes
c) both

4. All four angles of a square are ___________.
a) different
b) acute
c) equal

5. All four sides of a square are ___________.
a) unequal
b) parallel
c) equal

6. The diagonals of a square are ___________.
a) different
b) congruent
c) perpendicular

7. The ___________ of a square bisect each other and meet at 90°.
a) diagonals
b) vertices
c) sides

8. A square has ___________ right angles.
a) no
b) two
c) four

9. A square is a special type of ___________.
a) triangle
b) polygon
c) circle

10. A square has ___________ pairs of congruent sides.
a) two
b) three
c) four

11. The sum of the measures of all four angles in a square is ___________.
a) 180°
b) 270°
c) 360°

12. If one side of a square measures 5 cm, then the length of each diagonal is ___________ cm.
a) 2.5
b) 5
c) 7.07

13. The ___________ of a square is equal to the length of one of its sides squared.
a) perimeter
b) diagonal
c) area

14. A square is a regular ___________.
b) polygon
c) hexagon

15. If the area of a square is 36 cm², then the length of each side is ___________ cm.
a) 4
b) 6
c) 9

[mediator_tech]

Class work
A. Calculate the area of the following:
1. Rectangle 9cm by 3cm. 2. Rectangle 4cm by 7cm. 3. Rectangle 10cm by 2cm
4. Rectangle 9cm by 1cm. 5. Rectangle 2cm by 5cm. 6. Rectangle 9cm by 2cm
B. Calculate the area of the following:
1. Square side 5cm. 2. Square side 3cm. 3. Square side 6cm. 4. Square side 4cm.
5. Square side 8cm. 6. Square side 7cm

Examples
ding either the length or breadth of a rectangle, you simply divide the given area by
either the breadth or the length.
4 cm
Area = 12 cm2
Area = 12 cm2 Length = 4 cm
= 3 cm
Area = 21 cm2 3 cm
Area = 21 cm2 Breadth = 3 cm
Length = 21/3
= 7 cm
Exercise 3
Calculate the length or breadth required for each of the following rectangle where the units
for length and breadth are in centimetres.
1. Area = 48, Length = 6 2. Area = 12, Breadth = 2 3. Area = 36, Breadth = 6
4. Area = 20, Breadth = 4 5. Area = 100, Length = 10 6. Area = 11, Breadth 7. Area = 120, Length = 10 8. Area = 21, Length 4 9. Area = 72, Length 12
10. Area = 80, Breadth 8
To find the side of a square when only the area is given, simply work out the square
root of the area.
Side of a square = Area
Exercise 4
Calculate the sides of each of the squares.
1. Area = 100 cm2 2. Area = 49 cm2 3. Area = 64 cm2 4. Area = 144 cm2
5. Area = 36 m2 6. Area = 81 m2 7. Area = 25 m2 8. Area = 16 m2
9. Area = 169 m2 10. Area = 4 cm2
SQUARE OF A METER AND HECTARE
The square metre is too small to measure very large areas such as states, countries, etc.
The area of Nigeria in square metres is 923 768 000 000 m2
The number of digits are reduced when we use acre and it is reduced further when
we use hectare.
The acre is 4 000 m2 and it is more convenient for measuring fields but the most
common units are the hectare and square kilometre.
1 acre = 4 000 m2 1 hectare = 2 1/2acres = 10 000 m2
1 square kilometre = 1 000 000 m2 = 100 hectares

Exercise 1
A. Write down the area of Nigeria in
1. acres 2. hectares 3. square kilometres
Convert these to acres.
4. 7 hectares 5. 18 hectares 6. 53 hectares
7. 9.6 hectares 8. 14 hectares 9. 30.7 hectares
10. 82.1 hectares 11. 14.27 hectares 12. 35.84 hectares
B. Convert these to acres.
1. 12 000 m2 2. 8 000 m2 3. 16 000 m2 4. 24 000 m2 5. 36 000 m2 6. 60 000 m2 7. 14 000 m2 8. 10 000 m2 9. 6 000 m2 10. 7 500 m2
Remember 1 acre = 4 000 m2
Exercise 2
Convert these to hectares. Remember 1 hectare is 2 12
acres.
1. 600 acres 2. 200 acres 3. 450 acres 4. 129 acre 5. 285 acres 6. 2 036 acres 7. 1 963.2 acres 8. 3 001.8 acres 9. 20 000 m2 10. 80 000 m2 11. 36 000 m2 12. 49 000 m2 13. 24 600 m2 14. 51 200 m2 15. 17 650 m2 16. 90 160 m2 17. 74 380 m2 18. 66 210 m2
Exercise 3
1. Find the breadth of one hectare of farmland with
a) Length – 500 m b) Length – 1 000 m
2. Find the length of one acre of a poultry farm with
a) Breadth – 400 m b) Breadth – 200 m
3. A land speculator bought 10 hectares of land and mapped out 200 plots for sale. What
was the area of each plot?
4. Calculate the area of 10 of the plots in question 3
5. The area of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja is about 925 000 km2. Convert this to metre2.
Exercise 4
Word problems
1. The area of a town is 14 400 square metres. Find the width if the length is 300 metres.
2. Find the area of a rectangle 24 cm long and 9 cm wide.
3. A tray is 18 cm wide and 28 cm long. What is the area of the surface of the tray?
4. Kitchen tiles are 30 by 20 cm. What is the area of each tile.
5. How many kitchen tiles are needed to cover one side of my kitchen wall measuring
300 cm by 200 cm.
6. A floor is rectangular in shape and it measures 4.5 m by 4 m. What is the area?
225
7. A rectangle has length 25 cm and breadth 18 cm. If a diagonal is drawn to form
two triangles, find the area of one triangle.
8. How many squares of 2 cm side can be cut from a square 10 cm side.
9. Find the area of a plot of land 40 m long and 18 m wide.
10. An oil company is drilling oil in a rectangular plot measuring 28 kilometres by
37 kilometres. What is the area of the plot? Answer in km2.

[mediator_tech]

1. The area of a town is 14,400 square metres. Find the width if the length is 300 metres.
Length = 300 metres
Area = Length × Width
14,400 = 300 × Width
Width = 14,400 / 300
Width = 48 metres

2. Find the area of a rectangle 24 cm long and 9 cm wide.
Length = 24 cm
Width = 9 cm
Area = Length × Width
Area = 24 cm × 9 cm
Area = 216 square cm

3. A tray is 18 cm wide and 28 cm long. What is the area of the surface of the tray?
Width = 18 cm
Length = 28 cm
Area = Length × Width
Area = 28 cm × 18 cm
Area = 504 square cm

4. Kitchen tiles are 30 by 20 cm. What is the area of each tile?
Length = 30 cm
Width = 20 cm
Area = Length × Width
Area = 30 cm × 20 cm
Area = 600 square cm

5. How many kitchen tiles are needed to cover one side of my kitchen wall measuring 300 cm by 200 cm.
Area of the wall = Length × Width
Area of the wall = 300 cm × 200 cm
Area of the wall = 60,000 square cm
Number of tiles = Area of the wall / Area of each tile
Number of tiles = 60,000 square cm / 600 square cm
Number of tiles = 100 tiles

6. A floor is rectangular in shape and it measures 4.5 m by 4 m. What is the area?
Length = 4.5 m
Width = 4 m
Area = Length × Width
Area = 4.5 m × 4 m
Area = 18 square meters

7. A rectangle has length 25 cm and breadth 18 cm. If a diagonal is drawn to form two triangles, find the area of one triangle.
Length = 25 cm
Breadth = 18 cm
Area of one triangle = (Length × Breadth) / 2
Area of one triangle = (25 cm × 18 cm) / 2
Area of one triangle = 225 square cm

8. How many squares of 2 cm side can be cut from a square 10 cm side.
Length of one side of a square = 10 cm
Length of one side of a small square = 2 cm
Number of small squares = (Length of large square / Length of small square)^2
Number of small squares = (10 cm / 2 cm)^2
Number of small squares = 5^2
Number of small squares = 25 squares

9. Find the area of a plot of land 40 m long and 18 m wide.
Length = 40 m
Width = 18 m
Area = Length × Width
Area = 40 m × 18 m
Area = 720 square meters

10. An oil company is drilling oil in a rectangular plot measuring 28 kilometers by 37 kilometers. What is the area of the plot? Answer in km².
Length = 28 km
Width = 37 km
Area = Length × Width
Area = 28 km × 37 km
Area = 1036 km²

WEEK 5

TOPIC: Capacity
SUBTOPIC: Capacity addition and subtraction of liters
BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:
1. Recapitulate the standard measurements of some liquid
2. Convert liters to centiliters
3. Add liters correctly
4. Subtract liters correctly

CONTENT
CAPACITY ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION IN LITERS

Capacity is the measure of the amount of liquid in a container. The standard unit of
measuring capacity is the litre ( l
Small amount of liquid is measured in millilitre (ml) while large amount is measured in litres.
Table of capacity measure
10 milliliters ( ml) = 1 centiliter ( cl)

10 centilitres = 1 decilitre (dl)
10 deciliters = 1 litre (l)

10 litre = 1 decilitre (dl)
10 decilitres = hectolitre (hl) 10 hectolitres = 1 kilolitre (kl)
Note that
1 000ml = 1 litre ( l ) 100 cl = 1 litre 1 000 l = 1 kilolitre (kl)
When converting a smaller capacity measure to a higher one, note the following:
a) From ml to cl, divide by 10 b) From cl to l, divide by 100
c) From ml to l, divide by 1 000 d) From l to kl, divide by 1 000

[mediator_tech]

Topic: Capacity and Conversion

Explanation:

1. Capacity is the measure of the amount of liquid in a container. We use units such as milliliters (ml) and liters (l) to measure capacity.

2. The standard unit of measuring capacity is the liter (l). Smaller amounts of liquid are measured in milliliters (ml), while larger amounts are measured in liters (l).

3. Let’s look at the table of capacity measures:
– 10 milliliters (ml) = 1 centiliter (cl)
– 10 centiliters = 1 deciliter (dl)
– 10 deciliters = 1 liter (l)
– 10 liters = 1 decaliter (dal)
– 10 decaliters = 1 hectoliter (hl)
– 10 hectoliters = 1 kiloliter (kl)

4. It’s important to note some conversion factors:
– 1,000 ml = 1 liter (l)
– 100 cl = 1 liter (l)
– 1,000 liters = 1 kiloliter (kl)

5. When converting from a smaller capacity measure to a higher one, follow these rules:
a) From ml to cl, divide by 10.
b) From cl to l, divide by 100.
c) From ml to l, divide by 1,000.
d) From l to kl, divide by 1,000.

Now, let’s solve some examples to better understand capacity conversion:

Examples:

1. Convert 4,000 ml to liters:
We divide 4,000 by 1,000 (since there are 1,000 ml in 1 liter).
4,000 ml ÷ 1,000 = 4 liters

2. Convert 600 cl to liters:
We divide 600 by 100 (since there are 100 cl in 1 liter).
600 cl ÷ 100 = 6 liters

Remember, we divide when converting to a higher capacity measure.

3. Convert 100 liters to kiloliters:
We divide 100 by 1,000 (since there are 1,000 liters in 1 kiloliter).
100 l ÷ 1,000 = 0.1 kiloliters

In this example, we divided by 1,000 to convert from liters to kiloliters.

Capacity conversion involves dividing or multiplying by specific numbers depending on the units involved. With practice, you will become more familiar with the conversion process and be able to solve capacity-related problems more easily.

Evaluation

1. Capacity is the measure of the amount of _______ in a container.
a) solid
b) liquid
c) gas

2. The standard unit of measuring capacity is the _______.
a) kilogram (kg)
b) meter (m)
c) litre (l)

3. Smaller amounts of liquid are measured in _______.
a) milliliters (ml)
b) kilograms (kg)
c) centimeters (cm)

4. Larger amounts of liquid are measured in _______.
a) milliliters (ml)
b) liters (l)
c) grams (g)

5. 10 milliliters (ml) is equal to _______.
a) 1 centiliter (cl)
b) 1 deciliter (dl)
c) 1 litre (l)

6. 10 centiliters (cl) is equal to _______.
a) 1 milliliter (ml)
b) 1 deciliter (dl)
c) 1 litre (l)

7. 10 deciliters (dl) is equal to _______.
a) 1 milliliter (ml)
b) 1 centiliter (cl)
c) 1 litre (l)

8. 10 liters (l) is equal to _______.
a) 1 deciliter (dl)
b) 1 hectoliter (hl)
c) 1 kiloliter (kl)

9. 10 deciliters (dl) is equal to _______.
a) 1 hectoliter (hl)
b) 1 kiloliter (kl)
c) 1 litre (l)

10. 1,000 milliliters (ml) is equal to _______.
a) 1 centiliter (cl)
b) 1 litre (l)
c) 1 kiloliter (kl)

11. 100 centiliters (cl) is equal to _______.
a) 1 milliliter (ml)
b) 1 litre (l)
c) 1 kiloliter (kl)

12. When converting from milliliters (ml) to liters (l), you divide by _______.
a) 1,000
b) 100
c) 10

13. When converting from centiliters (cl) to liters (l), you divide by _______.
a) 1,000
b) 100
c) 10

14. When converting from milliliters (ml) to centiliters (cl), you divide by _______.
a) 1,000
b) 100
c) 10

15. When converting from liters (l) to kiloliters (kl), you divide by _______.
a) 1,000
b) 100
c) 10

[mediator_tech]

Exercise 1: Express the following in liters (l)

1. 2,000 ml = 2 l
2. 1,200 cl = 12 l
3. 650 cl = 6.5 l
4. 800 cl = 8 l
5. 5,000 ml = 5 l
6. 20,000 ml = 20 l
7. 900 ml = 0.9 l
8. 14,000 ml = 14 l
9. 700 ml = 0.7 l
10. 10,500 ml = 10.5 l

Exercise 2:
A. Convert the following to cl:
1. 7 cl = 7 cl
2. 6.5 l = 650 cl
3. 10 l = 1,000 cl
4. 8.5 l = 850 cl
5. 12 l = 1,200 cl

B. Convert the following to ml:
1. 2 l = 2,000 ml
2. 10 cl = 100 ml
3. 1.5 l = 1,500 ml
4. 3 cl = 30 ml
5. 4 l = 4,000 ml

C. Convert the following to kl:
1. 1.5 kl = 1,500 l
2. 3 kl = 3,000 l
3. 4.3 kl = 4,300 l
4. 0.8 kl = 800 l
5. 0.26 kl = 260 l
6. 1.2 kl = 1,200 l
7. 0.3 kl = 300 l
8. 0.15 kl = 150 l
9. 1.04 kl = 1,040 l
10. 3.13 kl = 3,130 l

[mediator_tech]

TOPIC: Capacity

SUBTOPIC: Capacity multiplication and division of liters

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

1. Multiply in liter by whole
2. Divide in liter by whole
3. Appreciate liter as the unit of capacity

CONTENT
Multiplication and division involving litres

Topic: Multiplication and Division involving Litres

1. Example: How many liters are in 3 jerry cans, each containing 5 liters?
Solution: 3 jerry cans x 5 liters = 15 liters

2. Example: If a container holds 8 liters of water, how many 2-liter bottles can be filled?
Solution: 8 liters ÷ 2 liters = 4 bottles

3. Example: A shop sells milk in 1-liter cartons. If a customer buys 6 cartons, how many liters of milk did they purchase?
Solution: 6 cartons x 1 liter = 6 liters

4. Example: If a fuel tank holds 20 liters of petrol, and each car needs 5 liters to fill the tank, how many cars can be filled?
Solution: 20 liters ÷ 5 liters = 4 cars

5. Example: A swimming pool holds 30 liters of water. If each bucket can hold 3 liters of water, how many buckets are needed to fill the pool?
Solution: 30 liters ÷ 3 liters = 10 buckets

6. Example: A juice carton contains 2 liters of juice. How many 2-liter cartons are needed to have a total of 10 liters?
Solution: 10 liters ÷ 2 liters = 5 cartons

7. Example: A water tank can hold 15 liters of water. If each glass holds 0.25 liters of water, how many glasses can be filled?
Solution: 15 liters ÷ 0.25 liters = 60 glasses

8. Example: A milkshake recipe requires 4 liters of milk. How many 0.5-liter bottles are needed to make the recipe?
Solution: 4 liters ÷ 0.5 liters = 8 bottles

9. Example: A school trip requires 48 liters of water. If each water bottle holds 0.6 liters, how many bottles should be packed?
Solution: 48 liters ÷ 0.6 liters = 80 bottles

10. Example: A container holds 24 liters of juice. If each cup can hold 0.2 liters of juice, how many cups can be filled?
Solution: 24 liters ÷ 0.2 liters = 120 cups

Remember to explain the concepts step by step, encouraging the students to use their multiplication and division skills to solve these problems.

[mediator_tech]

Word problems
1. 3.6l of water is poured into a bucket that already contains 2.9 􀆐 of water. How much
water is now in the bucket?
2. A tank is full and it contains 30 􀆐 of petrol. 12.72 􀆐 of this is used. How much petrol is left
in the tank?
3. Five friends shared 4 􀆐 of fanta equally. How many litres did each receive?
4. A station has only 92.4 litres of petrol left. This is shared equally by six customers.
How many litres of petrol will each customer receive?
5. A trader sells 43 bottles of oil a day. Each bottle contains 0.6 litres of oil. How many
litres did she sell?
6. Thirty-six children took 1.2 litres of water each with them on a journey. What was the
total capacity of water taken?
7. A car uses 8.76 litres out of the 30.92 􀆐 of petrol in the tank. What capacity of petrol is
left in the tank?
8. A tanker emptied its water into two containers of 3 260 litres and 2 846 litres
respectively. What is the capacity of the tank?
9. A bucket of water contain 7.2 litres of water when full. Equal amount is given to
four goats. What capacity of water will each goat drink?
10. A driver bought 36.82 litres of petrol when traveling to Benin. On his way back he
bought 48.45 􀆐. What is the total capacity of petrol bought?

[mediator_tech]

1. How many liters are in 4 jerry cans, each containing 3 liters?
Solution: 4 jerry cans x 3 liters = ________ liters
a) 7
b) 12
c) 10

2. If a container holds 12 liters of water, how many 4-liter bottles can be filled?
Solution: 12 liters ÷ 4 liters = ________ bottles
a) 3
b) 6
c) 9

3. A shop sells milk in 0.5-liter cartons. If a customer buys 8 cartons, how many liters of milk did they purchase?
Solution: 8 cartons x 0.5 liters = ________ liters
a) 4
b) 2
c) 6

4. If a fuel tank holds 30 liters of petrol, and each car needs 10 liters to fill the tank, how many cars can be filled?
Solution: 30 liters ÷ 10 liters = ________ cars
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4

5. A swimming pool holds 50 liters of water. If each bucket can hold 5 liters of water, how many buckets are needed to fill the pool?
Solution: 50 liters ÷ 5 liters = ________ buckets
a) 5
b) 8
c) 10

6. A juice carton contains 1.5 liters of juice. How many 1.5-liter cartons are needed to have a total of 9 liters?
Solution: 9 liters ÷ 1.5 liters = ________ cartons
a) 4
b) 6
c) 8

7. A water tank can hold 20 liters of water. If each glass holds 0.4 liters of water, how many glasses can be filled?
Solution: 20 liters ÷ 0.4 liters = ________ glasses
a) 25
b) 50
c) 80

8. A milkshake recipe requires 6 liters of milk. How many 0.3-liter bottles are needed to make the recipe?
Solution: 6 liters ÷ 0.3 liters = ________ bottles
a) 10
b) 15
c) 20

9. A school trip requires 60 liters of water. If each water bottle holds 0.8 liters, how many bottles should be packed?
Solution: 60 liters ÷ 0.8 liters = ________ bottles
a) 50
b) 75
c) 90

10. A container holds 36 liters of juice. If each cup can hold 0.3 liters of juice, how many cups can be filled?
Solution: 36 liters ÷ 0.3 liters = ________ cups
a) 80
b) 100
c) 120

WEEK 7

TOPIC: Plane shape

SUBTOPIC: Symmetrical plane shape.

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

1. State the meaning of symmetry
2. Identify Symmetrical plane shape
3. Locate line of symmetry of plane figures at school and home.
4. Identify right angle,acute and obtuse andle in a plane shape.
5. Distinguish between horizontal and vertical.
CONTENT
symmetry means that one shape becomes exactly like another when you move it in some way: turn, flip or slide. For two objects to be symmetrical, they must be the same size and shape, with one object having a different orientation from the first. There can also be symmetry in one object, such as a face
.

Topic: Symmetry, Shapes, Angles, Horizontal and Vertical

1. Meaning of Symmetry:
– Symmetry refers to an object or shape that can be divided into two equal parts, where one half is a mirror image of the other half.
– If you fold the shape along the line of symmetry, both sides will match perfectly.

2. Identifying Symmetrical Plane Shapes:
– A symmetrical plane shape is a shape that can be divided into two equal parts that mirror each other.
– Examples of symmetrical plane shapes are:
a) Circle: It has infinite lines of symmetry. Any line passing through the center will divide the circle into two equal halves.
b) Square: It has 4 lines of symmetry. The vertical, horizontal, and two diagonal lines passing through the center will divide the square into equal halves.
c) Rectangle: It has 2 lines of symmetry. The vertical line passing through the center divides the rectangle into two equal halves.

3. Locating the Line of Symmetry of Plane Figures at School and Home:
– Look around your school and home for objects or shapes that have symmetry.
– For example:
a) Notice the windows or doors. They usually have a vertical line of symmetry, dividing them into two equal parts.
b) Look at books or notebooks. The center binding line creates a vertical line of symmetry.
c) Observe your school bag. It might have a horizontal line of symmetry, dividing it into two equal parts.

4. Identifying Right Angle, Acute Angle, and Obtuse Angle in a Plane Shape:
– Right Angle: An angle that measures exactly 90 degrees is called a right angle. It looks like an “L” shape.
– Acute Angle: An angle that measures less than 90 degrees is called an acute angle. It looks smaller and sharper than a right angle.
– Obtuse Angle: An angle that measures more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees is called an obtuse angle. It looks larger and wider than a right angle.

5. Distinguishing between Horizontal and Vertical:
– Horizontal: Something that is horizontal is parallel to the horizon or the ground. It goes from left to right.
– Example: A straight line drawn from left to right on a piece of paper is a horizontal line.
– Vertical: Something that is vertical is perpendicular to the ground or the horizon. It goes from top to bottom.
– Example: A straight line drawn from top to bottom on a piece of paper is a vertical line.

Remember to use real-life examples and visual aids to engage the students and help them understand these concepts better. Encourage them to look for symmetrical shapes and angles around them and identify horizontal and vertical lines in their surroundings.

SYMMETRICAL PLANE SHAPE

Right angle, acute angle and obtuse angle

RIGHT ANGLE

Acute angle

Obtuse angle

Exercise

The secondary cardinal points
Between North and East, the direction is called North East (NE)
Between South and East, the direction is called South East (SE)
Between South and West, the direction is called South West (SW)
Between North and West, the direction is called North West (NW)
Thus; NE, SE, SW and NW are called the secondary cardinal points.

Exercise
A. From the North direction, record the direction the compass pointer turns through in a
clockwise direction:
1. 11/2
right angles = South East (SE) 2. 1/2
right angle = _______________
3. 2 right angles = _______________ 4. 3 right angles = _______________
5. 21/2
right angles = _______________ 6. 31/2
right angles = _______________
B. How many right angles are turned through by facing:
1. North and turn clockwise to face South?
2. West and turn clockwise to face North East?
3. South and turn clockwise to face North East?
4. North and turn anti clockwise to face East?
5. North and turn anti clockwise to face South East?

[mediator_tech]

Evaluation

1. The line that divides a symmetrical shape into two equal parts is called the ________ of symmetry.
a) Line
b) Point
c) Circle

2. A circle has ________ lines of symmetry.
a) 1
b) 2
c) Infinite

3. A square has ________ lines of symmetry.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 4

4. A rectangle has ________ lines of symmetry.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3

5. An angle that measures exactly 90 degrees is called a ________ angle.
a) Right
b) Acute
c) Obtuse

6. An angle that measures less than 90 degrees is called an ________ angle.
a) Right
b) Acute
c) Obtuse

7. An angle that measures more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees is called an ________ angle.
a) Right
b) Acute
c) Obtuse

8. A line that goes from left to right is a ________ line.
a) Horizontal
b) Vertical
c) Diagonal

9. A line that goes from top to bottom is a ________ line.
a) Horizontal
b) Vertical
c) Diagonal

10. A symmetrical shape can be divided into ________ equal parts.
a) Two
b) Three
c) Four

11. A line of symmetry divides a shape into ________ parts.
a) Unequal
b) Similar
c) Equal

12. The line that divides a rectangle into two equal halves is a ________ line.
a) Horizontal
b) Vertical
c) Diagonal

13. A mirror image of a shape is created when folded along the ________ of symmetry.
a) Line
b) Point
c) Circle

14. A shape with a line of symmetry can be folded to match ________.
a) Its original position
b) A different shape
c) An angle

15. The corner of a square where two sides meet forms a ________ angle.
a) Right
b) Acute
c) Obtuse

Copy and complete this table.
Name of shape Number of lines of symmetry
a) Trapezium
b) Kite
c) Parallelogram
d) Rhombus
e) Equilateral triangle
f) Right-angled triangle
g) Isosceles triangles
h) Circle

Copy and complete.
a) A plane shape with all its four sides equal is a ____________.
b) An equilateral triangle has ____________ equal sides.
c) An isosceles triangle has ____________ line of symmetry.
d) A rhombus has ____________ lines of symmetry.
e) A rectangle has ____________ lines of symmetry.
f) A square has ____________ lines of symmetry.
g) A kite has ____________ line of symmetry.
h) A parallelogram has ____________ line of symmetry.
i) A circle has ____________ lines of symmetry.
Draw each of the following shapes and show their line(s) of symmetry.

13. Isosceles trapezium

14. Square

15. Rhombus

16. Rectangle

Unit 3

Properties of parallelogram, rhombus, kite and trapezium

A. Properties of parallelogram
Parallelogram is described as a rectangle pushed over
1. A parallelogram has four sides.
2. It is a quadrilateral.
3. Opposite sides are equal.
4. Two opposite sides are parallel.
5. Angles are not right angles.
6. Opposite angles are equal.
7. Diagonals are not equal but bisect each other.
8. No line of symmetry.

B. Properties of a rhombus
A rhombus is described as a square pushed over.
1. A rhombus has four sides.
2. It is a quadrilateral.
3. All four sides are equal.
4. Two opposite sides are parallel.
5. Diagonals not equal but bisect each other.
6. Angles not right angles.
7. Opposite angles are equal.
8. Two lines of symmetry.

Properties of a kite
1. A kite has four sides.
2. It is a quadrilateral.
3. Two sides next to each other are equal.
4. No sides is parallel.
5. It has one line of symmetry.

Exercise
1. Write down two properties of
a) rhombus b) kite
2. All the properties of the parallelogram and rhombus are the same except in two
properties. Mention the two properties that are different.
3. How would you describe a quadrilateral? Give 2 examples.
1. Draw and name four plane shapes.
2. Using dotted lines show the line or lines of symmetry in each shape.
3. a) When do we say an object is symmetrical?
b) Give two examples of symmetrical objects.
4. Draw four letters of the alphabet with their lines of symmetry.
5. List the ones with no lines of symmetry. Only 5
6. How many lines of symmetry does
a) an equilateral triangle have?
b) an isosceles triangle have?

Week 8
TOPIC: Shapes
SUBTOPIC: 3 dimensional shapes
BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:
1. Distinguish between open and close shapes
2. State the properties of close shapes
3. Appreciate the presence and use 3 dimensional shapes in Homes.
4. Identify right angle,acute and obtuse angle in a plane shape.
5. Distinguish between horizontal and vertical.
CONTENT

Cube
A cube has 8 vertices
A cube has 12 equal edges
A cube has 6 equal faces

Cuboid
A cuboid has 8 vertices
A cuboid has 12 unequal edges
A cuboid has 6 unequal faces
)
Cylinder
A cylinder has one curved face
It has two flat faces
It has no vertex
Sphere
A sphere has one curved face only.
Curved face
It has no edge and no vertex.
Cone
A cone has 1 vertex
A cone has 1 curved face
A cone has 1 flat face (i.e. a closed cone)
A cone has 1 edge

[mediator_tech]

Topic: Geometric Shapes – Cube, Cuboid, Cylinder, Sphere, Cone

1. A cube has ________ vertices.
a) 4
b) 6
c) 8

2. A cube has ________ equal edges.
a) 8
b) 10
c) 12

3. A cube has ________ equal faces.
a) 4
b) 6
c) 8

4. A cuboid has ________ vertices.
a) 4
b) 6
c) 8

5. A cuboid has ________ unequal edges.
a) 8
b) 10
c) 12

6. A cuboid has ________ unequal faces.
a) 4
b) 6
c) 8

7. A cylinder has ________ curved face(s).
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3

8. A cylinder has ________ flat face(s).
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3

9. A cylinder has ________ vertex/vertices.
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2

10. A sphere has ________ curved face(s) only.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3

11. A sphere has ________ edge(s) and ________ vertex/vertices.
a) 0 edges, 0 vertices
b) 1 edge, 1 vertex
c) 2 edges, 2 vertices

12. A cone has ________ vertex/vertices.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3

13. A cone has ________ curved face(s).
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3

14. A cone has ________ flat face(s) (i.e., a closed cone).
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2

15. A cone has ________ edge(s).
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3

Exercise
Object Number of vertices Number of edges Number of faces
1. Maggi cube
2. Die
3. Concrete block
4. Tin of milk
5. Football
6. Sugar cube
7. Ice-cream cone
8. Box
9. Class-room

Exercise 1
Study the pictures above and on page 251 along with other solid objects around the class
and classify them into open and closed objects.

Observations
1. Open object do not have a cover at the top. The inside of an open object can be seen,
because it has no cover or top face.
2. The inside of a close object cannot be seen because of the cover or top face.
Study this table carefully
Open object Closed object
Cube No of vertices 8 8
No of edges 12 12
No of faces 5 6

Cuboid No of vertices 8 8
No of edges 12 12
No of faces 5 6

Cylinder No of curved faces 1 1
No of flat faces 1 2
No of vertices 0 0
Note:

1. Tubes, pipes, straws are special cylinders with no flat face. They are known as hollow
cylinders. The two ends are open.
2. A sphere is always a closed objects.
Exercise 2
Copy and complete this table, stating whether the following solids are open or closed objects.
Name of shape Open Closed
Bucket
Cup
Refrigerator
Ice-cream cone
Ludo die
Cube of sugar
Tin of milk
Tin of Milo
Tin of tomato

A. Copy and complete the table drawn below.
Number of faces Number of edges Number of vertices
closed cube
closed cuboid
open cube
open cuboid
closed cylinder
open cylinder
sphere
cone

B. Copy and complete the following.
1. A three-dimensional shape having equal faces _____________.
2. A cuboid has _____________ unequal faces.
3. The face of a cuboid is a _____________.
4. A cylinder has _____________ flat circular faces.
5. A cone has _____________ edge.
6. An open shoe box has _____________ faces

Week 9&10
TOPIC: Pictogram and mode
SUBTOPIC: Bar graph and mode
BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:
1. Represent data on a pictogram.
2. Determine the mode from the pictogram
3. Read and interpret bar graph
4. Determine the mode from bar graph
5. Appreciate the presence of most common events/data in daily activities.
CONTENT
1. Number of red colored boxes sold by William, a shopkeeper, in six days of a week. See the picture graph or pictograph to answer the questions.
Examples of Pictographs

Information gathered from the above table:(i) Number of red boxes sold:
Monday – 4, Tuesday – 2, Wednesday – 3, Thursday – 5, Friday – 8, Saturday – 1
Therefore, sale during the week = 23
(ii) Lowest sale – on Saturday, only 1 box was sold.
Maximum sale on Friday is 8 boxes were sold.
We can easily get more information by observing this picture-graph.
2. Number of illiterate children of 5 small towns, Melrose, Marengo, Midway, Parral and Rushville. See the picture graph or pictograph to answer the questions.

Information gathered from the above table:
(i) Number of illiterate children of different small towns:
Melrose – 5, Marengo – 4, Midway – 7, Parral – 3 and Rushville – 2
(ii) Total number of illiterate = 21
3. Information about 300 children of a school who come to school by different modes of transportation.

Pictographs Face
→ 1 face represents 10 children

See the picture graph or pictograph to answer the questions.

Picture Graph or Pictograph
36Save Information gathered from the above table:
(i) Number of students going to school by different modes of transportation:
Auto-rickshaw = 6 × 10 = 60, Car = 4 × 10 = 40, Bicycle = 7 × 10 = 70, Bus = 10 × 10 = 100, On foot = 3 × 10 = 30
(ii) Total number = 60 + 40 + 70 + 100 + 30 = 300

[mediator_tech]

1. Represent data on a pictogram:
– A pictogram is a way to represent data using pictures or symbols.
– For example, you can use pictures of apples to represent the number of apples sold each day in a week. Each picture may represent 5 apples, and the height of the picture column will show the quantity.

2. Determine the mode from the pictogram:
– The mode is the data value that appears most frequently in a dataset.
– To determine the mode from a pictogram, look for the picture or symbol that appears the most times. That represents the mode.

3. Read and interpret a bar graph:
– A bar graph is a visual representation of data using rectangular bars.
– Each bar represents a category or group, and the height of the bar represents the quantity or value.
– To interpret a bar graph, read the labels on the horizontal (x) axis to understand the categories, and read the values on the vertical (y) axis to determine the quantities.

4. Determine the mode from a bar graph:
– Similar to the pictogram, the mode in a bar graph is the category or group that has the highest bar or the highest frequency.
– Look for the bar with the greatest height to identify the mode.

5. Appreciate the presence of most common events/data in daily activities:
– In our daily activities, we encounter various events or data that may have some common occurrences.
– By observing and analyzing the data, we can identify the most common events or data points.
– Appreciating the presence of the most common events helps us understand patterns, trends, or preferences in our daily lives and can assist in decision-making or planning.

Encourage students to practice representing data using pictograms and bar graphs, and to analyze the information to find the mode or identify common occurrences in their own daily activities.

[mediator_tech]

1. Represent data on a pictogram:
Example: A class conducted a survey to find out their favorite fruits. The data collected are as follows:

– 5 students chose apples
– 3 students chose bananas
– 2 students chose oranges

To represent this data on a pictogram, you can draw pictures/symbols of apples, bananas, and oranges. Let’s say each picture represents 2 students. The pictogram would look like this:

Apples: 🍎🍎🍎🍎🍎
Bananas: 🍌🍌🍌
Oranges: 🍊🍊

2. Determine the mode from the pictogram:
Using the same example from above, to determine the mode from the pictogram, we look for the picture or symbol that appears the most times. In this case, the mode is apples because it has the highest frequency of 5.

3. Read and interpret a bar graph:
Example: The following bar graph shows the number of books read by different students in a month:

Number of Books Read by Students
___________________________________
| | | |
| 5 | 8 | 3 | Students
| | | |
|____|____|_____|

The x-axis represents the students, and the y-axis represents the number of books read. From the graph, we can interpret that:
– Student 1 read 5 books
– Student 2 read 8 books
– Student 3 read 3 books

4. Determine the mode from a bar graph:
Using the same example from above, to determine the mode from the bar graph, we look for the bar with the greatest height. In this case, the mode is Student 2 because they read the most books (8).

5. Appreciate the presence of most common events/data in daily activities:
Example: A teacher keeps track of the activities her students enjoy during recess. After collecting data for a week, she finds the following results:

– Football: 10 students
– Skipping rope: 8 students
– Drawing: 5 students
– Reading: 3 students
– Playing tag: 2 students

By analyzing this data, we can appreciate that playing football is the most common activity during recess, as it has the highest frequency of 10 students. This information can help the teacher plan activities that the majority of the students enjoy.

[mediator_tech]

1. A pictogram is a way to represent data using ________ or ________.
a) Numbers, letters
b) Pictures, symbols
c) Shapes, lines

2. The mode is the data value that appears ________ frequently in a dataset.
a) Least
b) Most
c) Equally

3. A bar graph represents data using ________ bars.
a) Circular
b) Rectangular
c) Triangular

4. Each bar in a bar graph represents a ________ or ________.
a) Color, shape
b) Category, group
c) Number, letter

5. The height of a bar in a bar graph represents the ________ or ________.
a) Temperature, time
b) Quantity, value
c) Weight, length

6. To interpret a bar graph, read the labels on the ________ axis.
a) Horizontal (x)
b) Vertical (y)
c) Diagonal

7. To interpret a bar graph, read the values on the ________ axis.
a) Horizontal (x)
b) Vertical (y)
c) Diagonal

8. The mode in a bar graph is the category or group with the ________ bar.
a) Shortest
b) Longest
c) Tallest

9. A pictogram uses pictures or symbols to represent ________.
a) Words
b) Numbers
c) Data

10. To determine the mode from a pictogram, look for the picture or symbol that appears the ________ times.
a) Least
b) Most
c) Random

11. The presence of most common events/data in daily activities helps us understand ________ and ________.
a) Colors, shapes
b) Patterns, trends
c) Numbers, letters

12. The mode in a pictogram is represented by the picture or symbol with the ________ frequency.
a) Lowest
b) Highest
c) Equal

13. A bar graph helps us visualize and compare ________.
a) Words
b) Numbers
c) Colors

14. The mode in a bar graph is the category or group with the ________ bar.
a) Smallest
b) Largest
c) Average

15. Appreciating the presence of the most common events/data in daily activities can assist in ________ and ________.
a) Decision-making, planning
b) Drawing, painting