Civic Education JSS2

Scheme of work.

  1. Revision of last term work.
  2. Election and Voters responsibilities: concepts of Election. Voter and voting. Types of elections.
  3. Election and voters Responsibilities.contd.
  4. Qualifications for Elections and Responsibilities of a voter.
  5. Procedure for voting. Importance of Election.
  6. Electoral Malpractices: Concepts and forms of electoral practices.
  7. Electoral Malpractices: Causes. Consequences.
  8. Solutions to Electoral malpractices.
  9. Field work, excursion and seminars.
  10. Revision.


Topic: Voter’s Education


  1. Meaning of Voting
  2. Voters’ Registration
  3. Importance of Voting
  4. Process of Voting

Meaning of Voting

Voting can be defined as the process of formally indicating one’s choice or opinion, especially in election. It can also be defined as the means of choosing or electing a leader or an opinion at a particular time.

Voting is the process of formally indicating one’s choice or opinion especially in an election or referendum. It is also the casting of ballots for eligible aspirants by eligible voters. Voters are those who have the right to vote or those who cast their ballots in an election.

Voters’ Registration

Voters’ registration is the situation where individuals who is 18 years and above registered and have a voter’s card, this card makes the person eligible for voting during election. Voters’ registration often involves a visit to a designated voters’ registration center to enroll as an eligible voter.

A voter’s registrar who is in attendance would write the particulars of the prospective voter. The registrar gets the name, age, sex, occupation, residential address of the prospective voters.

Anybody who wants to vote in an election must have registered and have a voter’s card so that when it is time for election he/she can go to the polling unit to cast his / her vote  for the candidate of his/ her choice.

Voter’s registration is therefore the means by which those who are at the age of 18 and above visit a designated voter’s registration center to enroll as an eligible voter.  A voter’s registrar who is in attendance would write the particulars of the prospective voter (e.g. name, age, sex, occupation, residential address etc.) into a ledger or a system. After some time a voter’s card will be issued and that makes the person an eligible to vote during election.

Voters determine who becomes a political leader in a democratic system of government. So every voter has a great power to make or mar the future of a country through his /her voting power.


Explain the concepts of election, voter and voting.

SS 1 Third Term Lesson Notes Government


Voters’ Responsibilities

The responsibilities of voter are some of the following:

  1. Reject all forms of gratifications before voting for a candidate
  2. Be a vigilant and an enlightened citizen
  3. Reject corrupt political party and electoral officers
  4. Be disciplined and have self control
  5. Enlightened others who may not know the truth about the dubious politician.
  6. Do not vote twice



In Nigeria , before a citizen is qualified to contest for a political office or vote for someone, he/she must satisfy the following condition.

For Contestants

  1. You must be a legitimate citizen of Nigeria.
  2. You must be 25 years of age or above.
  3. You must be a person of good character.
  4. You must be an educated person with at least secondary school certificate. However, it varies from one political office to another.
  5. You must belong to a registered political party.
  6. You must pay your tax up to date

For voter

  1. you must be 18 years of age and above.
  2. You must be registered during the registration process.
  3. You must be a legitimate citizen of Nigeria.
  4. Detainees are not allowed to vote during elections.


  1. State 4 election qualification for contestants



Importance of Voting

The importance of voting are listed below

  • To choose a desirable leader: Voting allows the general public to choose the leader of their choice without anybody imposing leadership on them.
  • To effect a change of policy: The citizens vote for or against  a belief or ideology, if a government is not doing well, the people can vote such government out of power
  • To exercise our civic right: It is a fundamental right that a person should vote and be voted for
  • To reject a wrong leader: Voting during elections to determine the kind of life they want, through people’s vote, a bad leader can be voted out immediately.
  • It serves as a checking sit tight syndrome: Africans like power, they stay put in power, they do not want to be removed, when people are well mobilized they can unseat an individual who wants to turn a political office into a permanent sit.
  • To ensure convincing Electoral victory: When eligible voters go out to vote during election, the actual result is determined without any partiality.
  • Other reasons are:
    1. To exercise our civic and political right
    2. To participate in governance
    3. It is an avenue to make a constructive criticism to bad leaders
    4. It gives us a sense of belonging.

Process of Voting

Voting is an easy exercise; the following steps are taken in the process of voting:

  • Once an individual has a valid voter’s card, he/ she can approach a polling officer on the day appointed for election at the polling center.
  • Present the voter’s card to the presiding polling officer who will make sure that the particulars on the voter’s card corresponds with the one on the voters register or the system for that particular polling centre.
  • The presiding officer will then tear a ballot paper containing names and pictures of political aspirants and their party logo and hand it over to the eligible voter.
  • The voter is then directed to the polling booth which has an enclosure so that the voting can be private to the voter.
  • The voter uses the right thumb to touch the ink pad and presses the blank vote space on the ballot paper of a choice party.
  • the paper is then folded back cleverly so that the ink does not spread, If the ink spreads across another party logo, the vote becomes null and void
  • The ballot paper is then dropped into the transparent ballot box.

_______ is the money that we receive when we work (a) promotion (b) income (c) selection 


Contents – Electoral bodies

                 Electoral Malpractices in Nigeria

                 How to prevent electoral malpractices

Electoral Bodies

Electoral bodies are those who conduct and supervise election process. The constitution has provided for how elections should be conducted. Electoral malpractices, includes any act, omission or commission that attempts to or in essence circumvent the electoral process to favour a person, candidate or party. It is any wrongdoing affecting electoral procedures, electorates and electoral materials. Electoral Malpractice can also be defined as the manipulation of electoral processes and outcomes so as to substitute personal or partisan benefit for the public interest. The body in charge of election processes is called Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). The body conducts election into federal and state electoral constituencies. Usually for the conduct of local government elections, the State Independent Electoral Commission (SIEC) is in charge i.e. the state government takes over the conduct of the local government election.

The INEC and SIEC are responsible for the

  1. Conduction of voters’ registration,
  2. Keeping custody of voters’ registers
  3. Printing of Ballot Papers
  4. Supervision of elections
  5. Declaration of results
  6. When there is an election petition, INEC and SIEC are officials also invited to give evidence and defense at the tribunal.


  1. State 5 importance of voting
  2. Describe voting process


Electoral Malpractices in Nigeria

Electoral malpractices is the failing of all electoral institutions or bodies to carry out election in the proper or professional way it is supposed to be done.

It is any act that hinders free and fair election. i.e. it is any act of lawlessness that could stop or discourage people to cast their vote freely and sincerely.

Electoral malpractices can come in various forms which are:

  1. Intimidation of voters
  2. Partisanship by Electoral officers
  3. Impersonation
  4. Diversion of Electoral materials
  5. Stealing of electoral materials like ballot boxes, ballot papers, voters register etc.
  6. Under- age voting i.e. allowing those who are not adult to vote, those who are below the age of 18.
  7. Multiple registrations of voters by a single individual.
  8. Falsification or outright inflation of election results
  9. Bribery and corruption in the form of giving money to electoral officers with the intention to make them change election results.
  10. Keeping of electoral materials into personal custody and not with INEC or SIEC


State any 5 electoral malpractices



How to Prevent Electoral Malpractices

The following are the ways by which electoral malpractices can be prevented

  1. Arrest and prosecution of people who violate electoral laws.
  2. Swearing exercise should not be done until all petitions are disposed of at election tribunals.
  3. Customization of ballot papers in the form of putting the computer information about a registered voter on the ballot paper to prevent multiple voting.
  4. The use of advanced information technology such as computers and forensic machine for detection of fingerprints will reduce the act of multiple registrations.
  5. A person found guilty in electoral malpractices should be banned from politics for life.
  6. Pressure groups should rise up from all quarters to oppose electoral malpractices
  7. There should be a programme to educate the majority.


Mention 4 solutions/prevention of electoral malpractices

Test and Exercise

  1. INEC stands for (a) Independent National Electoral Commission (b) Independent Nigeria Electoral Commission (c) Individual National Election Corporation (d) Independent National Election Commission. ans (a)
  2. All of these are forms of electoral malpractices except (a) under age voting (b) multiple voting (c) Avoidance of violence (d) bribery and corruption. ans (c)
  3. One of these is not the duties of the electoral bodies (a) conduct of voter’s registration (b) printing of ballot papers (c) supervision of elections (d) campaigning to voters. ans (d)
  4. Failure to conduct a free and fair election is an attribute of (a) election (b) electoral bodies (c) electoral malpractices (g) voting. ans (c)
  5. Electoral malpractices can be prevented by (a) arresting innocent voters (b) stealing ballot boxes and papers (c) arresting and prosecution of people who violate election laws (d) allowing under age vote. ans (c)






Third Term Basic 8 JSS 2 Civic Education

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