THIRD TERM E-LEARNING NOTE
CLASS: SS 1
SCHEME OF WORK
- Fundamental Human Rights.
- Citizenship- Meaning, Ways of Acquiring Citizenship, Ways of Losing Citizenship:
- Rights of a citizen in a State.
- Ways of Safeguarding Citizen’s Rights: Limitations To a Citizen’s Rights; Differences Between a Citizen And Non-Citizen.
- Constitutionalism- Meaning, Purposes, Relationship Between Constitution and Constitutionalism.
- Public Opinion- Definition, Features, Formation, Measurement, Functions and Demerits.
- Pressure Groups- Meaning, Types, Functions Factors That Can Aid Its Effective Operation, Factors Working Against Its Success, Modes of Operation, Dangers Posed by Its Activities.
- Political Parties- Meaning, Types of Political Parties, Functions, Comparison Between Pressure Groups and Political Parties.
- Party System- Definition, Types, Features, Merits and Demerits, Party Manifestos and Its Importance.
- Franchise- Meaning, Types, Merits, Demerits :Suffrage- Unlimited Franchise or Universal Adult Suffrage, Merits and Demerits, Types of Suffrage, Conditions Necessary For Eligibility As Candidates For Election.
- Electoral System- Definition, Features, Types, Merits and Demerits of the Types.
- Electoral Constituencies- Meaning, Factors Influencing The Delimitation of Constituencies; Types of Constituencies, Merits and Demerits of Each Type, Problems of Delimitation.
- Revision and Examination
Essential Government by C.C. Dibie.
Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele.
TOPIC: FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS
- Reasons why it is included in the constitution.
DEFINITION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS
Human rights can be defined as those privileges enjoyed by the citizens of a given state. These privileges are usually defined and enjoyed within the bounds of the law i.e. the law of the country. In the written constitutions, these rights are specified, the limit to such rights and the protection accorded them by the government. It is the responsibility of the state to ensure that its citizens enjoy these rights. Such rights include:
- Right to life, security, and protection from inhuman treatment.
- Freedom from slavery.
- Freedom from unlawful detention and imprisonment.
- Freedom of movement.
- Freedom of association.
- Freedom of expression and the press.
- Right to ownership of property.
- Right to education.
- The right to fair hearing.
- Right to vote and be voted for.
- What is fundamental human right?
- Why is it necessary in the state?
REASONS WHY IT IS INCLUDED IN THE CONSTITUTION
- It makes for easy reference since constitutions are documented, it can easily be referred to.
- The inclusion of fundamental human rights in the constitution prevents dictatorship.
- It ensures the constitutional protection of citizen’s rights.
- To enable citizens seek redress whenever their rights are infringed upon.
- The inclusion of fundamental human right in the constitution prevents the government from effecting change in them.
- It is also included in the constitution so as to comply with U.N.O’s directive.
- Why is fundamental human right included in the constitution?
- List 5 rights of a citizen.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- What are the fundamental rights of man?
- State the functions of human rights groups.
- Give account of the origin of human rights.
- What is Nazism?
- State 5 features of Nazism.
Comprehensive Government pages 74-76
Essential Government pages 89-90
- Fundamental human right means (a) freedom of exploitation (b) the privileges enjoyed by a citizen (c) dictatorship (d) right to kill
- Rights of the citizens are necessary because of the following except (a) to enable citizens seek redress (b) to prevent break down of law and order (c) to ensure peaceful co-existence in the state (d) to cause conflict
- The following are the rights of citizens except (a) Right to life (b) freedom of association (c) freedom to commit crime (d) freedom of expression
- Rights of the people can be curtailed by the government when there is (a) violent demonstration (b) peace in the society (c) development (d) absence of conflict
- The right of the citizens to vote and be voted for in an election is called
(a) nomination (b) franchise (c) indirect election (d) voting
- Define fundamental human right.
- Mention 7 rights of the citizens.
- Ways of Acquiring Citizenship.
- Ways of Loosing Citizenship.
MEANING OF CITIZENSHIP
A citizen can be defined as a person who is a legal member of and owes allegiance to a particular country he resides in which he enjoys full civil and political rights.
In every state, there are citizens and foreigners or aliens. While the citizens are entitled to all the civil and political rights available in the state, aliens or foreigners are not. Citizens of a state are expected to perform certain duties to the state because they belong to it and have rights by law.
WAYS OF ACQUIRING CITIZENSHIP
To become a citizen one needs to meet some of these criteria for citizenship. These are:
- By conquest
- CITIZENSHIP BY BIRTH: Citizenship by birth is obtained by being born in a particular state. A child born to a Nigeria couple in the United States is automatically a citizen of that country.
- CITIZENSHIP BY DESCENT: A child born to a Nigeria couple in the United States is an American. But he is also a Nigeria citizen by descent because his parents are Nigerians.
- CITIZENSHIP BY REGISTRATION: A foreigner (woman) may become a citizen by getting married to a Nigerian man and as such be registered as a citizen.
- CITIZENSHIP BY NATURALIZATION: A citizen of a country who has lived in another country for a long period; for example 15 years as in the case of Nigeria can apply for citizenship of the country he resides.
- HONOURARY CITIZENSHIP: The government of a state may confer the honour of citizenship status on a personality considered to have contributed to the development of the country in particular or to humanity in general. For example Miriam Makeba, a citizen of South Africa was honoured with the citizenship of Liberia, Ethiopia and Guinea.
- CITIZENSHIP BY CONQUEST: Through conquest after secessionist struggles, citizenship of certain individuals may be changed by acquiring a new status.
- Who is a citizen?
- Why do citizens enjoy civil and political rights in a state?
WAYS OF LOOSING CITIZENSHIP
- Through Disloyalty: A naturalized citizen can lose his citizenship if his activities are detrimental to the country’s corporate existence.
- Supporting another country: If a citizen is found supporting another country engaged in war with his country, his citizenship may be terminated.
- Imprisonment: The individual can also lose his citizenship if within a period of say 5-7 years after becoming naturalized; he gets involved in a criminal case, resulting in his incarceration for some years.
- False Declaration: If there is a fundamental breach of the citizenship agreement binding him, for instance, false declaration.
- Treason: If a citizen is found guilty of treasonable felony, his citizenship may be terminated.
- Dual Citizenship: If a citizen has a dual citizenship, that is, if he has not renounced the citizenship of his formal country.
- A citizen can lose his citizenship if he verbally renounces it.
- What is dual citizenship?
- What is citizenship by conquest?
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- Explain the following: (i) Citizenship by Naturalization (ii) Citizenship by Conquest.
- Explain the term Treason.
- How can citizenship be acquired through registration?
- List 5 features of Monarchy.
- State 5 reasons why the military intervene in politics.
Comprehensive Government pages 72-74
Essential Government pages 87-88
- Citizenship can be acquired through the following ways except (a) by coup (b) by conquest (c) by birth (d) by registration
- Citizenship acquired through one’s personal contribution to the development of a state is called (a) citizenship by registration (b) citizenship by birth (c) honourary citizenship (d) citizenship by conquest
- One of the following is a condition for becoming a citizen of a country (a) good
character (b) through conflict (c) through coup (c) bad record
- Dual citizenship means (a) citizen of three countries (b) citizen of one country
(c) citizen of no country (d) citizen of two countries
- One can lose his citizenship of a country through (a) honesty (b) disloyalty
(c) obedience (d) respect for constituted authority
- Mention 6 ways by which one can lose his citizenship.
- What do you understand by citizenship by naturalisation?
- Ways of Safeguarding Citizen’s Rights.
- Limitations to a Citizen’s Rights.
- Differences between a Citizen and Non-citizen.
WAYS OF SAFEGUARDING CITIZEN’S RIGHTS
- Independent Judiciary: An independent and impartial judiciary which a citizen can run to for protection whenever his rights are infringed upon must be put in place.
- Freedom of the Press: If freedom of the press is guaranteed, the press will fearlessly protect and safeguard the rights of the citizen.
- Democracy: The rights of the citizen will be protected and safeguarded better in a democratic state than in a totalitarian and fascist state.
- Entrenchment: A clear declaration of the fundamental human rights in the constitution is a necessary condition for the protection of a citizen.
- Peace and Order: An atmosphere of peace and order in a country is necessary condition for the protection of a citizen’s rights.
- Law: Supremacy and existence of law to maintain the rights of individual and their corresponding obligation.
- Literacy Level: The illiteracy level of the citizens should be improved upon. For example, through organising adult education classes.
- Reduction of Poverty level: There should be a drastic reduction of poverty level in the society.
LIMITATIONS TO A CITIZEN’S RIGHTS
- Slander and Libel: The law of slander, libel and sedition limit the rights of a citizen to freedom of expression.
- Conviction: A citizen who is convicted and imprisoned may lose his voting rights and movement while in prison.
- Emergency Period: Declaration of dusk to dawn curfew in times of emergency is another condition that may limit the rights of a citizen especially freedom of movement.
- State Security: Citizens may be denied of their rights to join secret societies or associations, if they threaten the state security. It is a limitation to freedom of association.
- Property: A citizen’s rights to ownership of property may be infringed upon if government considers such property like land useful for developmental purposes.
- Trespass: A citizen has no right to trespass into another person’s property. This is a limitation to freedom of movement.
- Rights to Life: A citizen may be denied of his right to life if he is condemned to death as a result of murder, armed robbery etc.
- The right of a citizen to vote and to be voted for in any given election may be denied such citizen if he is a banned politician because of his past role.
- Banning of political activities in a country is tantamount to denial of a citizen’s rights.
List 5 ways by which the rights of a citizen can be safeguarded
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CITIZEN AND NON CITIZEN
- A non citizen is not a legal member of a state, whereas a citizen is a legal member of a state.
- A citizen owes obligation to the state, while a non citizen does not owe any duty or obligation to the state.
- A citizen can serve the country in any capacity, a non citizen cannot.
- A citizen can work anywhere in the country, while a non citizen requires resident permit.
- A citizen must show loyalty to the state , while a non citizen may not.
- A non-citizen cannot vote or be voted for in any political election; a citizen can vote and be voted for.
- A citizen can take up any job of his choice, while that of a non – citizen is not.
- The rights of a citizen are guaranteed, while that of a non citizen is not.
- Mention 5 differences between a citizen and a non-citizen.
- Why is a non- citizen not allowed to vote in a country?
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- Highlight 5 ways by which the rights of a citizen can be limited.
- How can emergency situation limit the rights of the citizens of a country?
- How the law of libel and sedition can limits the rights of a citizen?
- Mention 5 sources of a constitution.
- Highlight 5 features of a constitution.
Comprehensive Government pages 74-76
Essential Government pages 89-91
- A Nigerian citizen can be deprived of his citizenship if he is (a) married to a foreigner (b) holding a dual citizenship (c) an armed robber (d) an ex-convict
- Which of this is not a civic obligation of a citizen (a) freedom of conscience and religion (b) voting during election (c) obedience to law (d) reporting criminal case
- Citizenship may be changed by (a) Birth (b) conviction (c) renunciation (d) confession
- The limitation to the right to life can be found (a) among the people (b) in the case of a convicted person (c) in the government (d) in the church
- The rights of citizen are (a) the claims he can make against others (b) claims the law allows him make against the state (c) his claims against the state (d) his claims against the people
- What are the limitations to the rights of the citizen’s of a country.
- How can these rights be protected?
- Relationship between Constitution and Constitutionalism.
MEANING OF CONSTITUTIONALISM
Constitutionalism means the rule of government according to the provision of the constitution; which checks despotic tendencies. It means that the power of government should be defined and limited by the dictates of the body of fundamental laws known as the constitution.
PURPOSES/IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTIONALISM
- Equality before the Law: It stresses the fact that no body is above the law irrespective of the person’s position or wealth.
- Limitation in the Exercise of Functions: This implies that the activities of those who govern should not be absolute. There are constitutional limitations in the exercise of their functions.
- Fundamental Human Rights: Constitutionalism enhances the protection of the citizen’s fundamental human rights.
- Popular Sovereignty: Constitutionalism promotes the right of every adult to vote and be voted for at any political elections.
- Independence: Constitutionalism implies that only the constitutional courts can enforce the people’s rights like high courts, appeal courts and the supreme courts.
- Define constitutionalism.
- Why is it necessary in a state?
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSTITUTION AND CONSTITUTIONALISM
The principle of constitutionalism is not constitution itself .Constitution is a body of laws, rules, regulations and principles dealing with how a state will be governed. It defines the structure and functions of various organs of government. Constitutionalism on the other hand, emphasises that government and its officials should act in line with the provisions of the constitution. It limits government and individual actions and activities according to constitutional restraint
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- What is the relationship between constitution and constitutionalism?
- State 4 importance of constitutionalism.
- List the types of constitution.
- What is a written constitution?
- Give 5 features of a written constitution.
Essential Government pages 74-75
Comprehensive Government pages 61-62
- A good citizen must be – (a) wealthy (b) arrogant (c) educated and ready to assist the poor (d) afraid of the government
- Essence of the constitution is to (a) encourage dictatorship (b) encourage military intervention in politics (c) suppress the views of minority groups (d) safeguard the
rights and freedom of the citizens
- Constitutionalism means (a) the use of decree (b) ruling according to the dictates of the constitution (c) disregard for human right (d) abuse of the law
- A constitution is said to be flexible when its provisions are (a) Known by the rulers (b) scattered in several books (c) easy to amend (d) difficult to amend
- All the following are sources of constitutions except (a) acts of parliament (b) devolution (c) convention (d) decrees
- What is constitutionalism?
- Explain its importance in a state.
- Definition and features.
- Formation of public opinion.
- Functions and demerits.
DEFINITION OF PUBLIC OPINION
Public opinion can be defined as the belief, values and attitudes, which are commonly held and expressed by the majority of the people on a given public issue. It therefore, refers to what the members of the public think or feel about government proposed policy or action already taken by government.
FEATURES OF PUBLIC OPINION
- Issues of public importance are involved in public opinion.
- The opinion is held or shared by the majority of people of a particular country.
- The opinion is expressed by private individuals and not by the government or any of its agencies.
- In the formation of public opinion, communication and information play a significant role.
- Public opinion is dynamic; it changes from time to time.
- Specific issues are focused in expressing public opinions rather than a general issue.
- Define public opinion.
- List 5 features of public opinion.
FORMATION OF PUBLIC OPINION
- The Mass Media: Mass media like newspapers; radio, magazines, television, journals, films, handbills, leaflets, etc act as the basis for the formation of public opinion.
- Through Election: Political parties educate the people on important public issues during campaigns, rallies, etc, and by this opinions are formed.
- Pressure Group: Organized social interest groups help in the formation of public opinion.
- Political Parties: Political parties with the help of their manifestoes, rallies, etc, act as the basis of public opinion formation in a country.
- Individual ‘s Influence: Citizens such as traditional rulers, intellectuals, tycoons, artistes and other influential citizens not at the corridors of power act as public opinion moulders in a country.
- Lectures and Symposia: Public opinion can be formed through holding of lectures and symposia where ideals on matters of public importance are expressed.
- Rumours and Gossips: Many citizens who are not well informed may form their opinions from common rumours and gossips.
List 5 ways by which public opinion can be formed.
MEASUREMENT OF PUBLIC OPINION
- Opinion Polls: This is a method of asking questions from a selected sample of people and their views are used to represent that of the entire population.
- Through Elections: Elections serves as a means of measuring public opinion on the popularity or otherwise of the government.
- Through Mass Media: Government can determine people’s opinion through exploring all the channels of communication e.g. opinion expressed in newspapers, radio, television, etc.
- Referendum or Plebiscite: This is a method of referring a political question or government policy to the electorate for approval or disapproval.
- Telephone Calls: Most of the radio stations in Nigeria today, adopt this method by presenting phone –in-programme.
- Letters to Government: Citizens may write letters to the government expressing their opinions on a particular issue of national importance.
- Opinions expressed by leaders of thought: Public opinion can also be measured through opinions expressed by local leaders of thought or leaders in the representative assemblies.
FUNCTIONS/MERITS OF PUBLIC OPINION
- It directs the government in knowing what the public thinks about its policies and actions.
- Public opinion helps the government to know the needs and aspirations of its citizens.
- It wakes government and its agencies from slumber.
- It brings about the formulation of policies and taking actions that are to the best interest of majority of the citizens.
- In election period, it helps government to ascertain its popularity and whether it can win or lose the election.
- It serves as an avenue through which public views are channelled to the government.
- Public opinion especially opinion polls help voters to cast their votes for popular candidates.
DEMERITS OF PUBLIC OPINION
- Public opinion can easily be manipulated by those who have access to mass media to their favour.
- It is difficult to measure the opinion of the people on a particular issue.
- Public opinion may be the views of very few powerful and influential people in the society.
- It may give wrong, confusing and distortful picture on a given issue.
- It is not often reliable and therefore not advisable for the government to rely on it.
- It wastes time and money in trying to ascertain public opinion.
- It may cause political instability as a result of protest and demonstration against an action of government termed to be against public opinion.
- How can public opinion be measured?
- Mention 5 demerits of public opinion.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- State 5 importance of public opinion.
- How can public opinion be formed?
- (a) Define legislature (b) Give 5 functions of a modern day legislature.
- Discuss the stages involved in passing a bill into law.
- Explain the concept of parliamentary supremacy.
Comprehensive Government pages 89-90
Essential Government pages 119-120
- Public opinion is very important because it (a) guarantees a free press (b) lets the government know what the people want (c) protects minority (d) incites violence
- Public opinion is defined as the (a) expressed views of the active and conscious citizens (b) opinion of the entire citizenry (c) education of the uneducated public (d) Views of the government
- Public opinion can be formed through the following ways except (a) elections(b) rumour and gossip (c) mass media (d) coup
- The following are the functions of public opinion except (a) it helps the government to meet the needs of the people (b) it helps the government to formulate policies (c) it is difficult to ascertain (d) it wakes the government from its slumber
- Public opinion can be expressed through (a) general strike (b) socialisation
(c) compromise (d) coup
- What is public opinion?
- What are the demerits of public opinion?
- Meaning and Types.
- Functions, Factors That Aid Its Effective Operation and Factors Working Against Its Success.
- Modes of Operation and Dangers Posed by Its Activities.
MEANING OF PRESSURE GROUPS
Pressure groups can be define as the collections of individuals with identical aims, aspiration, values and endeavours organised for the purpose of influencing governmental policies towards the attainment and protection of their individual special interest
TYPES OF PRESSURE GROUPS
- Economic Pressure Group: They include manufacturer’s associations, cocoa producers union etc which seek to influence government on issues concerning their members.
- Professional Pressure Group: These are associations of professionals including medical doctors, lawyers etc
- Occupational Pressure Group: These are formed by workers who belong to the same occupation in order to protect their occupation and interest of their member. These groups include; Nigeria Union of Journalist (NUJ), Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT) etc.
- Educational Pressure Group: These are student’s union, Academic Staff Union of University (A.S.S.U.) whose major aims are to seek for the improvement of the educational system and protecting the educational interest of its members.
- Religious Pressure Group: These are pressure groups formed with the aim of pursuing their religious interest. They include the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN) etc.
- Social Pressure Group: These groups like Old Boys and Old Girls Associations, Student Unions, Youth Clubs, etc, are formed to promote the social interest and welfare of their members.
- Ethnic/Cultural Pressure Group: It refers to the group formed to promote and protect the interests of some ethnic groups e.g. OPC, Arewa etc.
- Anomic Pressure Groups: They are organised against some government actions and cease to exist upon achievement of their aims.
FACTORS THAT CAN AID ITS EFFECTIVE OPERATION
- Large Size: The impact of pressure groups are usually felt when having large membership than with small membership.
- Dedication and Unity: Pressure groups are more effective when there is a high degree of dedication and unity among its members.
- Adequate Funds: There should be the availability of adequate funds with which to sponsor their programmes.
- Capability of the Leadership: The effectiveness of pressure groups to a very large extent depends on the quality of its leadership. The more pragmatic and charismatic the leaders are the more effective the pressure group.
- Attitude of Government: Attitude of the government of the day towards the activities of pressure group is very important.
- Good Organisation/Strategy: With good organisation, the operation of pressure group can be very effective.
- What is pressure group?
- List the types of pressure group you know.
WEAKNESSES OR FACTORS WORKING AGAINST THE SUCCESS OF PRESSURE GROUPS
- Weak leadership: Weak leadership renders pressure groups ineffective and makes them unable to achieve their demands.
- Poor organisation: A poorly organised pressure group will be a non achiever.
- Illiteracy: Illiteracy among members of pressure groups militates against their success.
- Lack of adequate fund: To have an effective and achievable programme, they need enough funds.
- Lack of dedication among members: If members of the group are not dedicated, they may not achieve their set goals.
- Inadequate political education: If leaders and members of a group are not properly educated about their rights, they cannot be effective.
- The type of government: The type and system of government being adopted in a country determines the success of pressure groups.
TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED BY PRESSURE GROUPS (MODE OF OPERATION)
- Dialogue: It is a formal discussion between government and pressure groups for a peaceful resolution.
- Ultimatum: It involves setting a date beyond which a drastic action will be taken.
Either party could be issue an ultimatum.
- Lobbying: It means persuading influential officials to support the position of the lobbyist.
- Demonstration: This is a protest procession along major routes to create awareness and elicit support of the people.
- Strike: It is temporary withdrawal of services as a means to apply pressure on the government.
- Violence: It involves violent means such as kidnapping, arson, riots, etc to force the government to comply.
- Mass media: It involves the use of intensive media campaign through news features, and advertisements, billboards etc.
- Open air campaign.
DISADVANTAGES OR DEMERITS OR DANGERS OF PRESSURE GROUPS
- They are self centred: Pressure groups as selfish interest groups only seek for the interests of its members.
- Political instability: Activities of pressure groups may bring about the downfall of a government thereby causing political instability.
- Pressure groups encourage its members to be lawless through their confrontational activities.
- Social disorder: Pressure groups may cause a state of anarchy and chaos in a country e.g. riot, violent demonstrations etc.
- Their strikes, industrial actions and boycotts may seriously destabilize the economy of a country.
- The support given to a political party by pressure group may produce a government that does not have the legitimate support of the people.
- Pressure groups are elitist in nature because they are not organised to reach everybody in the society.
- The use of rioting by pressure group may cause a lot of damages to government properties.
- Pressure group may corrupt public officials by engaging in lobbying.
- Mention 5 techniques employed by pressure groups.
- Mention 5 demerits of pressure groups.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- Highlight 5 factors that can aid the successful operation of pressure groups.
- State 5 factors that can work against the operation of pressure groups.
- Give six examples of pressure groups in Nigeria.
- What do you understand by independence of the judiciary?
- Mention five functions of the executive as an organ of government.
- Mention five ways by which the independence of the judiciary can be guaranteed.
Essential Government pages 75-77
Comprehensive Government pages 69-71
- When a pressure group is made up of people of the same profession, it is called; (a) an occupational pressure group (b) an interest group (c) a religious group (d) anomic group
- Membership of pressure groups is usually limited because they (a) promote other
people’s interest (b) have dictatorial leaders (c) lack of membership (d) pursue specific and narrow objectives
- The main objectives of pressure groups is to (a) influence government policies
(b) fund election campaigns (c) form the government (d) contest election
- The following are the techniques employed by pressure groups except (a) riot (b) prayer (c) lobbying (d) dialogue
- One of the following is a factor that can aid the successful operation of pressure groups (a) weak leadership (b) dedication and unity (c) political stability (d) large membership
- What are the factors that can aid effective operation of pressure group?
- What are the weaknesses of pressure group?
- Meaning, Types, Functions and Comparism between Political Party and Pressure Group.
- Party System: Definition Types and Features.
- Merits and Demerits of Party System, Party Manifesto and Its Importance.
MEANING OF POLITICAL PARTY
A political party can be defined as an organised group of individuals sharing a similar ideology about how to serve the national interest and seeking to acquire governmental power in order to run the affairs of a state. The aim of controlling the government machinery is the major distinguishing factor between political parties and other similar groups in the political system such as pressure groups.
TYPES OF POLITICAL PARTIES
- Mass Party: The party emphasizes large membership hence; requirements for membership are either very easy or non-existent e.g. communist party in China. It developed in response to the extension of franchise. The manifesto emphasizes people’s welfare.
- Elite Party: It developed at a time when franchise was restricted. It comprises trained and professional party members who are expected to exhibit a high sense of political commitment and discipline. They believe it is their exclusive right to control government e.g. PDP (Nigeria)
- Broker Party: It is a party for both the rich and the poor bridging the gap between the two. It promotes equality and welfare of the people.
- Charismatic Party: It is formed by and evolved around a unique and enviable character that is the unit of attraction for other members e.g. UPN, PRP (2ND republic) and NCP(4TH republic)
- Religious Party: It is a party formed along religious lines, which is dependent on the religious doctrines in a country.
- What is political party?
- List the types of political parties.
FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES:
- They articulate i.e. advances the interests of the different groups in a society.
- They aggregate i.e. collate together and advance the interests of the desperate states of opinions, views and ideas in a society.
- They serve as agents of political socialization and education.
- They recruit and train political leaders for the state.
- They mobilize the people for political activities and for discharging their obligation to the state.
- They unite people of different culture, language and religion.
- They formulate policies and programmes that often become goals of government and societies.
- Opposition parties serve as watchdogs and a check on the government in power.
- They form the government upon winning an election.
- They facilitate peaceful change of government.
COMPARISM BETWEEN POLITICAL PARTIES AND PRESSURE GROUPS
- Political parties aim at winning elections and controlling government, while pressure groups aim at pursuing the interest of their members.
- Political parties submit candidates that contest elections while pressure groups do not.
- Political parties do not limit membership but pressure groups admit only qualified member.
- Political parties address several issues; pressure groups are only concerned with issues concerning their members.
- Political parties continue to attract more members after winning elections; pressure groups cease to agitate after achieving their goals.
- While political parties are distinctly organised with defined leadership, pressure groups are not.
- While good political parties are organised to reach everybody in the society, pressure groups are not.
- Mention 5 functions of political parties.
- Compare between political parties and pressure groups.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- Explain the following terms: (i) Mass Party (ii) Broker Party (iii) Elite Party (iv) Charismatic party (v) Religious Party.
- Highlight 6 characteristics of political parties.
- What are the factors that can determine the electoral success of a political party?
- Explain the concept of the rule of law.
- Mention 5 factors that can ensure the successful operation of the rule of law.
Comprehensive Government pages 77-79
Essential Government pages 92-94
- One of the importance of political parties is- ( a) forming a trade union (b) to oppose the passage of bills into laws (c) serving as watchdogs (d) to influence government policies
- Limited membership is an example of (a) A broker party (b) A mass party (c) An elite party (d) religious party
- The primary objective of all political parties is to (a) act as watchdog (b) educate the electorate (c) eradicate corruption in public life (d) control the government
- The party that emphasises large membership is called (a) elite party (b) zero party
(c) mass party (d) broker party
- While political parties aim at forming a government, pressure groups aim at
(a) causing social unrest (b) influencing government decisions (c) imposing military rule (d) capturing power
- Explain the following: (a) mass party (b) elite part (c) broker party.
- Discuss the functions of political parties.
- Meaning and Types.
- Merits and Demerits.
- Manifesto and Its Importance.
PARTY SYSTEM (DEFINITION)
Party system refers to the number of political parties that contest or are allowed by law to contest elections for the purpose of forming a government in every democratic society.
TYPES OF PARTY SYSTEM
One party system: One party system may be defined as one in which only one legal and legitimate political party is constitutionally recognized in the country. No other party is recognized and therefore cannot exist. Examples of countries that adopt one party system are; North Korea, Cuba, China, Malawi, Kenya, Zambia etc.
Types of One Party System
- True Single- Party System: It exists when the laws of the country expressly prohibit the formation of any other political party. This party system does not accept or permit opposition. This party is operated in Malawi, Zambia, etc.
- Hegemonic One Party System: This is a party that enjoys unchallenging authority, that is, from any opposition party but the law does not prevent such opposition.
- Predominant One Party System: It exists where the electorates elect one party system all the time. It is common in Asia.
FEATURES OF ONE PARTY SYSTEM
- The legally recognized party is the only party.
- There is only one single ideology i.e. the ideology of the one legal party.
- No private ownership of the mass media.
- Government policies are strictly enforced.
- There is no legally or officially recognized opposition.
- It has dictatorship tendencies.
ADVANTAGES OF ONE PARTY SYSTEM
- It promotes national unity.
- It facilitates quick decision making.
- It prevents economic waste.
- It utilizes the most competent personnel.
- It allows easy mobilization of people.
- It ensures stability of government.
- It reduces or eliminates electoral malpractices.
- It avoids unhealthy rivalry.
- It builds a strong leadership.
DISADVANTAGES OF ONE PARTY SYSTEM
- It is undemocratic.
- It may lead to one party leadership.
- It encourages violent overthrow of government.
- It violates the rule of law principle.
- The single ideology may not appeal to people.
- It limits the political education of the people.
- It has tendency to produce a life president.
- There is absence of watchdogs to government.
- It neglects public opinion.
- What is one party system?
- Discuss five demerits of one party system.
TWO- PARTY SYSTEM
It is the existence of two political parties that are recognised by law in a society to contest for elective posts. There is also a situation where there are more than two parties in existence but only two major ones have become dominant over the years. In the aborted third republic of Nigeria, there were two parties legally recognised i.e. the National Republican Convention (NRC), and the Social Democratic Party (SDP). In the USA and Great Britain, there are two dominant parties.
FEATURES OF TWO -PARTY SYSTEM
- The two major political parties are legally and constitutionally recognized.
- There is an official opposition that is legally recognized.
- There are parties and candidates to choose from.
- It is democratic and allows operation of rule of law.
- There is press freedom.
- Provision is made in the constitution for periodic change of government through elections.
- Opposition provides a check on the ruling party.
- It prevents dictatorship.
- It provides political stability.
ADVANTAGES OF TWO-PARTY SYSTEM
- It gives choice of party and candidates to the electorates.
- It provides a strong opposition.
- It enables electorates identify the strength and weakness of the party.
- It checks the excesses of the ruling party.
- It provides for periodic elections to change governments.
- It is democratic.
- It promotes political stability in the country.
DISADVANTAGES OF TWO-PARTY SYSTEM
- It divides the country into ethnic, regional or religious groupings.
- Decision making is slower.
- It encourages electoral malpractices.
- It leads to political violence and unhealthy rivalry.
- It is more expensive than one party system.
- It can lead into a one party state.
- It leads to a serious marginalisation of minority interest.
- It leads to uneven development.
MULTI PARTY SYSTEM
It is a party system in which more than two political parties exists in a country contesting for the political power with each possessing a good chance of being elected into government. This system often results in a coalition government if no party secures absolute majority. Examples include Nigeria, USA.
FEATURES OF MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM
- Existence of more than one political party.
- All the political parties are recognised by law.
- It provides a wider range of choice for electorates to choose from.
- It enhances and broadens the scope of political education.
- It makes wider representation of people from interest available in governance.
- It often produces a coalition government.
- It prevents dictatorial tendencies.
- There is a periodic election.
- It entrenches the principle of rule of law.
- It safeguards the right of individuals.
ADVANTAGES OF MULTI PARTY SYSTEM
- It increases scope of political participation.
- It recognizes opposition parties.
- It is democratic.
- It encourages the formation of coalition government.
- It provides watchdogs to government.
- It guarantees smooth change of government.
- It allows the citizens to exercise their fundamental human rights.
- It prevents the emergence of a dictator.
DISADVANTAGES OF MULTI PARTY SYSTEM
- It is too expensive to maintain.
- It leads to unhealthy rivalry.
- It leads to political instability.
- It leads to waste of resources.
- It encourages election violence.
- It is prone to election rigging.
- It encourages corruption in the parliament.
- It leads to national disintegration.
- What is Multi-Party system?
- State 5 advantages of a Multi-Party system.
A party manifesto can be defined as the cardinal plans or programmes of a political party which the party intends to fulfil to the electorate if it is elected into power.
THE IMPORTANCE OF A PARTY MANIFESTO
- Manifesto directs the party on what to do and how to do it.
- Manifesto helps to attract more members or supporters into the party.
- Manifesto educates the electorate to have knowledge on the aims and objectives of the political party.
- Manifesto helps the electorate to assess the party on the basis of the contents of the manifesto.
- It explains how the party intends to achieve its programme when it comes to power.
- What is a Manifesto?
- List five features of multi party system.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- List and explain the types of one-party system.
- Explain the term “Zero Party” System.
- (a) What is Two Party System? (b) State 5 features of Two- Party system.
- Define separation of powers.
- Mention 5 merits of separation of power.
Comprehensive Government pages 79-84
Essential Government pages 95-99
- A variation of Two party system is- (a) True single party system (b) Dominant two party system (c) prima facie two party system (d) multi party system
- Political parties seek mass appeal (a) because revolution became necessary (b) as a result of extended family (c) to overthrow existing government (d) to cause political instability
- Coalition government is a feature of (a) Two party system (b) A multi party system
(c) A zero party system (d) one party system
- A political party that embraces both the rich and the poor is (a) Elitist party (b) A mass party (c) A broker party (d) ideological party
- One of the advantages of two party system is that (a) there is slow decision making
(b) it wastes resources (c) it prevents dictatorship (d) it divides the country
- Discuss the features of Two party system.
- Why is manifesto important?
- Meaning and Types.
- Merits and Demerits of Types.
- Types of suffrage, Conditions Necessary for Eligibility as Candidates for Election.
MEANING OF FRANCHISE
Franchise may be defined as the right of qualified adult citizens of a given society to vote and be voted for in an election. The voters are constitutionally called electorate while those seeking to be elected are called candidates.
TYPES OF FRANCHISE
There are two types of franchise namely; limited or restricted franchise and unlimited or universal franchise or universal adult suffrage.
- LIMITED OR RESTRICTED FRANCHISE
This is the type of franchise whereby not all qualified adults are allowed to vote or to be voted for. The right to vote is only granted to only those adults that fulfil certain conditions. The criteria may depend on one’s race, sex, property owned, evidence of payment of taxes etc. Example of country that practise limited franchise is South Africa during Apartheid
MERITS OF LIMITED OR RESTRICTED FRANCHISE
- It gives few well informed citizens the opportunity to vote after critical scrutiny of the candidates.
- It seems to be more mature elections than unlimited franchise.
- It makes use of qualified candidates than the universal franchise.
- It prevents foreigners who do not know much about the candidates contesting elections from voting.
- Limited franchise disallowed people of unsound mind like lunatics, criminals, bankrupts, etc to vote.
- Limited franchise reduces the rate of election violence
- It makes the tax payers to watch their representatives on the utilization of their tax money.
DEMERITS OF LIMITED OR RESTRICTED FRANCHISE
- It does not give all qualified adults equality of chance to vote.
- Limited franchise is prone to corruption because, the few people allowed to vote can all be bribed.
- Those elected through limited franchise do not reflect popular choice.
- Limited franchise is less democratic.
- Majority of the citizens of the country do not show interest in the affairs of the government since they were not allowed to vote.
- Many eligible voters do not know their representatives.
- The representatives seem to be imposed on the majority of the citizens.
- What is Restricted Franchise?
- Give 6 advantages of Restricted Franchise.
- UNLIMITED FRANCHISE OR UNIVERSAL ADULT SUFFRAGE
This is the type of franchise that allows all qualified men and women adults to vote and be voted for. This is the most popular form of franchise. It is constitutional and democratic. However, there are still some qualifications to be met by individuals before voting. Although is not as restricted as in limited franchise. Some of the criteria for voting are; age, citizenship, registration, sanity, bankruptcy, residence etc.
MERITS OF UNLIMITED FRANCHISE OR UNIVERSAL ADULT SUFFRAGE
- It gives qualified adults equality of votes.
- It creates the opportunity of full participation of many citizens of a country in their electoral system.
- It is a more democratic election.
- It avoids discriminations based on sex, race, religion, etc.
- It makes for a stable government because, participation of majority of the citizens in the election of their representatives reduces ill- feeling and revolts.
- It makes the majority of the citizens to have interest in the affairs of the government of their country.
- Elected representatives through universal adult suffrage reflect popular choice.
- Universal adult suffrage widens voter’s base.
DEMERITS OF UNLIMITED FRANCHISE OR UNIVERSAL ADULT SUFFRAGE
- It emphasizes quantity rather than quality of votes.
- Majority of the adult voters allowed to vote are illiterates who vote blindly.
- The involvement of many people in the voting encourages violent polling.
- It encourages the election of many unqualified representatives elected through unlimited franchise seem to be mediocre in outlook.
- It brings about victimization, intimidation of political opponents in the system.
- It produces electoral malpractices due to the fact that many people are involved in voting.
- What is franchise?
- Explain unlimited franchise.
TYPES OF SUFFRAGE
- Adult Suffrage: This involves the voting of adults (men and women), having the qualification.
- Male Suffrage: This is a system whereby only adult male are allowed to vote.
- Tax-Payers Suffrage: This is a system whereby only those who have been paying their taxes constantly can only vote.
- Property Suffrage: In this type of suffrage, only those with enormous assets and wealth are allowed to vote.
CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR ELIGIBILITY AS CANDIDATES FOR ELECTIONS
- Age: A person wishing to contest elections must be up to the minimum age limit stipulated in the constitution. For example in Nigeria, a person wishing to contest election for presidency must be up to 35 years of age.
- Residential Qualification: The individual must have lived in the country for a number of years or months as spelt out in the constitution of the country.
- Payment of Tax: He or she must be ready to provide the evidence of payment of tax at least for some years.
- Payment of Election Deposit: A specified sum of money must be paid by those wishing to contest election in a country.
- No Criminal Record: The person wishing to contest an election must not be an ex-convict, must not be found guilty of any criminal offence and must not be serving any form of imprisonment.
- Sanity: The would be candidate must be a person of sound and sane mind.
- Citizenship: In many modern democratic countries, only citizens are qualified to contest elections.
- Education: In most countries, qualitative education is a criterion for eligibility as election candidate.
- Filling of Nomination Paper: A person wishing to contest election must fill his nomination paper at stipulated time supported by a specified number of persons.
- Must not be banned: In a country like Nigeria presently banned former politicians are not qualified to contest elections.
- What is adult suffrage?
- Mention 5 conditions necessary for eligibility as candidates for election.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- (a) Define Unlimited Franchise (b) State 5 merits of Unlimited Franchise.
- Highlight 5 disadvantages of Limited Franchise.
- State 5 demerits of Unlimited Franchise.
- Mention 5 features of representative government.
- What are the conditions necessary for representative government?
Comprehensive Government pages 91-94
Essential Government pages 104-106
- Franchise means (a) right to formulate policy (b) right to vote and be voted for
(c) freedom of speech (d) right to education
- The term electorate means (a) those that are qualified to vote (b) those contesting election (c) the parliament (d) government officials
- In a democracy, franchise is given to all (a) loyal party members (b) residents
(c) qualified adult citizen (d) men
- The following are the conditions for contesting election except (a) age (b) human right (c) residence (d) registrstion
- One of the following is a merit of unlimited suffrage (a) it encourages rigging (b) it is undemocratic (c) it brings about victimization (d) it is democratic
- List and explain the types of suffrage.
- What is limited franchise?
TOPIC: ELECTORAL SYSTEM
- Definition and features.
- Types of electoral system.
- Merits and demerits of types.
DEFINITION OF ELECTORAL SYSTEM
Electoral system can be defined as the process and procedure by which citizens of a democratic country select through either direct voting or indirectly those who will represent them in the parliament and other positions in the government.
FEATURES OF ELECTORAL SYSTEM
- An independent and impartial electoral commission.
- There should be regular and periodic elections as stipulated by the constitution.
- The country should be delimitated into constituencies.
- Universal adult suffrage should be adopted.
- Voting should be conducted in an atmosphere devoid of intimidation, molestation and victimization.
- All interest groups in the country should be represented in the legislature.
- There should be an acceptable way of nominating candidates for elections.
- Requirement for qualification as election candidate must be clearly stipulated.
- Compilation of comprehensive voters register that should embrace all qualified voters.
- Regular and public display of voters lists.
- Periodic revision of voters lists.
- The electorate should be given political education.
- There should be an independent judiciary that will handle election petitions without fear or favour.
- Secret ballot system should be adopted.
- Counting of votes should be done publicly.
- What is electoral system?
- Enumerate 7 features of electoral system.
TYPES OF ELECTORAL SYSTEM
Plurality System or Simple Majority System: This system is usually referred to as first past the post or simple majority system. Under this system of election, the candidate who polls the highest vote is declared the winner. Britain, USA, Canada etc are examples of countries that adopt this system.
MERITS OF PLURALITY SYSTEM
- It is simple to operate as candidate with the highest vote is declared the winner.
- It is less expensive because there is no second balloting.
- A winner is always sure to emerge at the end of the ballot.
- The system discourages the formation of coalition government.
- Minority groups have the chance of ruling through this system.
- It makes for political stability.
- It makes the elected candidate to be responsible and accountable to the voters.
DEMERITS OF PLURALITY SYSTEM
- It is undemocratic because, it neglects the wishes of the majority of the voters.
- Major ethnic groups can use their majority strength to secure simple majority at the expense of the minority groups.
- It may enthrone mediocre into power.
- It encourages election rigging in order to secure the highest number of votes.
- The elected representatives and government are not the wishes of the people.
- What is Simple Majority system?
- Mention 5 merits of the system.
ABSOLUTE MAJORITY SYSTEM: In this system of vote, before any candidate is declared a winner, that candidate must score more than 50 percent of the votes cast.
MERITS OF ABSOLUTE MAJORITY SYSTEM
- It is a reflection of the wishes of the people.
- In this system, there is no room for unpopular candidate.
- It produces credible candidates judging from the outcome of the election.
DEMERITS OF ABSOLUTE MAJORITY
- It is expensive and time consuming.
- It is more cumbersome to operate than simple plurality system.
- It tends to encourage abuse in the sense that, it compels leading candidates to woo the support of other candidates.
SECOND BALLOT SYSTEM: This system involves two ballots. Firstly, the successful candidate is required to obtain an absolute majority of the votes cast that is 50 percent plus one. If this is not obtained by any of the candidates, a second ballot is required, and those candidates having less than 10 percent of the total votes in the first ballot will have to withdraw. The winning candidate is then required to secure a simple majority.
THE ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM: In this system of vote, a voter is given a ballot paper with the names of the contesting candidates. The voter has to vote by writing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc, in order of his preference depending on the number of candidates contesting the election. If there is no absolute majority, the candidates who score least can be dropped and his vote distributed to other candidates according to the second preference of the voter.
MERITS OF ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM
- Candidates backed by the voters are elected through this system.
- The system represents the interest of the various different groups in a country.
- The system is more democratic than plurality system because it takes care of the majority of the voters
- It does not enthrone mediocre into power
- The system avoids waste of surplus votes
DEMERITS OF ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM
- The system is difficult to operate as a result of its complexities.
- It encourages the formation of many political parties.
- This system cannot operate very well in under-developed nation because, majority of the citizens are illiterates who can never understand the system.
- It is very difficult to ascertain election results in this system.
- The system is very expensive to operate and time and energy wasted.
- What is absolute majority system?
- State 4 demerits of the system
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION SYSTEM: This system is used to elect representatives in multi-member constituencies. It is a method used to elect representatives into the legislature. The total number of votes which a party or group scores is calculated in proportion to the total number of votes cast. There are two types of proportional representation. These are
- The List System: In this system, the electorate votes for a list of candidates presented by a political party and each party wins the number of seats in that constituency according to the votes cast for that list
- Single Transferable Vote: This is a system in which voters vote for parties rather than candidates. Parties prepare lists in order of which they want their candidates to be elected and these names are printed in that order on the ballot papers. After counting the votes, an electoral quota is established, i.e. the minimum number of votes needed by a candidate to win one of the seats. The surplus votes are redistributed to other candidates according to the voter’s order of preference.
MERITS OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION
- It gives a true reflection of popular vote.
- The system provides representation for all interest groups in the community.
- It is a more democratic system.
- The system protects the interest of the minority groups.
- The system gives the voters wider choice.
- It avoids waste of surplus votes.
- The system gives the voter the chance to choose candidates on both personal and party merits.
DEMERITS OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION
- It is a complicated form of election.
- The system is also very expensive to operate.
- The system encourages multiplication of political parties which results in election violence.
- The system does not create room for political stability.
- The multiplication of political parties makes it difficult for the voters to assess them very well before voting.
- What is alternative system of vote?
- Mention 5 merits of alternative vote system.
- (a) Define simple majority system of vote (b) State 5 merits of this system.
- Explain the following (i) Second Ballot system (ii) Alternative system of vote.
- (a) What is Proportional representation? (b) Highlight 5 merits of the system.
- What is centralization?
- State 5 features of centralization.
Comprehensive Government pages 107-110
Essential Government pages 110- 111
- The process of conducting elections into public offices is called (a) electoral college (b) electoral system (c) open vote (d) voting
- One of the following is a type of proportional representation (a) plurality system
(b) absolute majority (c) the list system (d) first past the post
- A system of vote in which the candidate with the highest number of votes is declared winner is called (a) Simple plurality (b) proportional representation (c) Absolute majority (d) second ballot
- Another name for the Simple Majority system of vote is (a) Second Ballot
(b) Absolute majority (c) First-Past the Post.
- A system whereby parties are allocated seats in parliament is called (a) Alternative vote system (b) Absolute majority (c) Proportional representation (d) simple mjority
- What are the merits of proportional representation?
- Mention the merits and demerits of Absolute majority.
TOPIC: ELECTORAL CONSTITUENCY
- Meaning and factors that influence the delimitation of constituencies.
- Types of constituencies, merits and demerits of each type.
- Problems of delimitation.
MEANING OF ELECTORAL CONSTITUENCY
Electoral constituency refers to electoral districts in which the people can elect representatives to the house. The division of a country into constituencies is referred to as delimitation and it makes for equitability in the allocation of parliamentary seats.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DELIMITATION OF CONSTITUENCIES
- Population: The number of people living in a particular area should be taken into consideration when delimiting a country into constituencies.
- Geographical Size: Before an area can be made a constituency, it must attain certain geographical size no matter the population.
- Historical Experience: People with similar historical experience should be considered and grouped together under the same constituency.
- Custom, Culture and Tradition: Towns, villages or hamlets belonging to different cultural zones with different customs are not supposed to be grouped on the same constituency.
- Administrative Convenience: The need to consider convenience, has often led to the merging of some local areas that are near to one another.
- Language: It will be appropriate if people who speak the same language are grouped together in the same constituency for effective communication.
- Minority Consideration: In a multi-ethnic nation like Nigeria, minorities would resent being grouped with majority ethnic groups. They should therefore be given their own constituencies irrespective of other consideration.
- Religious Affiliation: In a country where there is sharp religious demarcation, consideration should be given to different religious groups when delimiting the country into constituencies.
- Number of Seats : The number of seats available and to be allocated to each constituency can influence delimitation.
- Define electoral constituency
- What is delimitation?
TYPES OF CONSTITUENCIES
SINGLE MEMBER CONSTITUENCY: This is the type of constituency in which only one member of the parliament is elected at every election and each voter is entitled to only one vote. Many candidates contest election in this type of constituency and the candidate with the highest number of vote wins the election. Nigeria, Britain, etc adopts this system.
MERITS OF SINGLE MEMBER CONSTITUENCY
- It makes it possible for the voters to know their representatives very well.
- It enables the representative to know those he represents.
- It helps to bring about accountability and responsibility especially in smaller constituencies.
- The small size of single member constituency makes it easier to discover local talents who may aspire and represent the constituency well.
- It create stable majority in the legislature than the multi member constituency.
- It is more democratic
- It encourages people in the community to take active interest in the political process.
DEMERITS OF SINGLE MEMBER CONSTITUENCY
- It leads to the choice of men who regard themselves as representatives of local interest instead of the country as a whole.
- Gerrymandering: It increases the possibility of boundary manipulation to give a particular party more representation.
- It gives less accurate reflection of popular vote.
- The minority or smaller parties may not be represented in the legislature.
MULTI MEMBER CONSTITUENCY: This refers to the type of constituency in which
two or more members of the legislature are elected at every election and each voter is entitled
to two or more votes depending on the number of candidates to be elected from the constituency. This system generally agrees with provisions for minority representation and encourages the multiplication of groups in a legislature.
PROBLEMS AFFECTING DELIMITATION OF CONSTITUENCIES
- Absence of Accurate Population Census: Many countries especially in West Africa lack reliable demographic figures that will make equitable distribution of constituencies possible.
- Inadequate Means of Transport and Communication: Many areas of West Africa are inaccessible as a result of lack of good roads and means of sending and receiving messages.
- Ethnic Problem: Every ethnic group might want to have its own constituency irrespective of the population or size.
- Religious Differences: Where there are many religious groups and differences, problem will arise if these different religious groups are to be limped together in the same constituency
- Political Gerrymandering: The political party in power may manipulate the delimitation in order to give it undue political advantages in subsequent elections.
- Spatial Dispersion of People: Many people living in many rural areas in West Africa are scattered in bushes without any sign of human settlement in those areas.
- Lack of Trained Manpower: Delimitation of constituencies is not handled by experts as a result of inadequacy of trained manpower in West Africa
- What is single member constituency?
- Mention five advantages of single member constituency.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- Enumerate 6 factors that determine the delimitation of constituency.
- List and explain the types of constituencies.
- Explain the term “Gerrymandering”
- What is delegated legislature?
- Explain argument against delegated legislation
Comprehensive Government page 99-100
Essential Government pages110-111
- The following are factors that influence delimitation of constituencies except
(a) population (b) poverty (c) religious affiliation (d) accessibility
- The act of manipulating boundaries to give a particular party more representative is called (a) Gerrymandering (b) constituency (c) plurality system (d) malpractice
- A system whereby only one member of the parliament is elected at every election is called (a) multi member constituency (b) proportional representation (c) single member constituency (d) two member constituency
- The following are the merits of single member constituency except (a) it is more democratic (b) it gives less accurate reflection of popular choice (c) it encourages political participation (d) it enables voters to know their representatives
- The division of a country into constituencies is referred to as (a) Gerrymandering
(b) Delimitation (c) constituency (d) district
- Explain the problems affecting delimitation of constituencies.
- What is Multi member constituency?