Subject :


Class :

SS 1

Term :


Week :

Week 5


Topic :



Previous Knowledge :

The pupils have previous knowledge of


that was taught as a topic in their previous lesson

Behavioural Objectives :  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • Explain the meaning of democracy
  • Discuss the main features of democracy.
  • State the meaning of political culture
  • Highlight the components of political culture
  • Define political socialization
  • Explain agents of political socialization.

Teaching and Learning Resources :  .

  • Online materials
  • Schemes of work
  • Textbooks
  • Newspaper
  • Films that are related to the topic
  • Pictures
  • Activity charts








  1. Democracy
  2. Political culture
  3. Political socialization

Sub-Topic 1:


Democracy can be defined as a system of government in which the exercise of political power and authority is vested in the people through their elected representatives. Abraham Lincoln, the 16th American president defines democracy as government of the people, by the people and for the people.

Democracy originated from ancient Greece. There are two types of democracy namely; direct and indirect democracy.


  1. There is majority rule: Majority participates in government as we know that not all would be able to take part in government. The will of the majority as determined through a free and fair election must always hold at the same time.
  2. Tolerance of active opposition party : Democracy can thrive in an environment where opposition parties or groups are allowed to contribute to the democratic process.
  3. Protection of minority interest: Although majority decides in a democratic state but there is respect and considerations for the minority rights
  4. Protection of fundamental human rights: The rights of the citizens must be recognized, respected and guaranteed by the constitution and government of the state.
  5. Supremacy of the law and Respect for the rule of law: The law of the land must be supreme and should be no respecter of persons. That is, nobody should be above the law.
  6. Independence of the judiciary: The judiciary must be independent of the other organs of government so that they can perform their constitutional roles of giving fair hearing and function without fear or favour.
  7. Periodic elections:there should be elections at regular intervals in order to prevent the emergence of a dictator.
  8. Free and fair elections: there must be credible free and fair elections which should be handled by an independent body to effect a change in government.
  9. Universal adult suffrage: All qualified adult citizens of voting age should be given the opportunity to vote during election periods without any form of restriction. In Nigeria, the right age to vote is eighteen years.
  10. Independent electoral commission: The electoral commission must carry out all the electoral processes without any form of electoral malpractices e.g. rigging of election, gerrymandering, etc.
  11. Existence of multi-party system: There should be the existence of multiparty system so that citizens will be able to join the party of their choice and thereby promote political participation.
  12. Independent mass media/freedom of expression: The press should also be free to perform its duties of giving unbiased information to the people and criticize the government for any wrongdoing.



Meaning: Political culture can be defined as the attitudes, beliefs, values, norms, ideas, opinion that guide the behaviour of people in a political system. The concept of political culture was introduced by Gabriel Almond. The political culture of a nation affects the way its people and public officials act and react to conditions, structures, institutions, as well as the way they go about solving national problems.


  1. COGNITIVE ORIENTATION: It has to do with the knowledge and understanding the people have about the political system and the officials.
  2. EVALUATIVE ORIENTATION: It refers to the extent the people can assess the operation or functioning of the political system and the officials i.e. the extent of their performance.
  • AFFECTIVE ORIENTATION: It has to do with how the people feel i.e. their attitude towards the political system and its officials.


  1. Define political culture
  2. State three components of political culture.
  3. What is democracy?
  4. Mention four features of democracy.



Meaning: Political socialization is the process by which individuals acquire the norms,values, attitudes beliefs acceptable behaviours of a given political system from childhood to adulthood and transmitted from generation to generation.Political socialization can also be defined as all political learning- formal or informal, deliberate or unplanned- that occur at every stage of life which is meant to shape peoples political behaviours. For example, learning to pledge allegiance to the flag, sing the national anthem, obey figures of authority etc. are all parts of the socialization process.


  1. THE FAMILY: The family is the first agent of political socialization. Here the child learns elementary knowledge of politics e.g. power authority etc.
  2. THE SCHOOL: Educational institutions also socializes the child politically through what he learns in the school and involvement in the school politics especially in higher institution of learning.
  • THE PEER GROUP: This refers to the people of the same age group. They do interact and exchange ideas and information. By so doing political socialization ensures.
  1. THE MASS MEDIA: The mass media include the radio, television, magazines etc. Through their programmes, the people are socialized politically.
  2. POLITICAL PARTIES: Political parties through rallies, campaigns, seminars etc. Help in socializing the masses politically.
  3. PRESSURE GROUPS: These involve organized people with common interest, opinions, and judgement. The group create political awareness and educate their members and the general public on their political rights, duties, and obligations. This could be done through campaigns and all forms of formal and informal gatherings.
  4. RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS: These involve institutions like churches and mosques. Teachings and instructions from religious bodies help individuals to get socialized politically. The importance of religious bodies as agents of socialization cannot be over emphasized. Religious leaders inform their followers about their obligations to both constituted authorities and the society at large.


  1. Define political socialization.
  2. Mention five agents of political socialization.


  1. What is democracy?
  2. State five features of democracy.
  3. Define political culture.
  4. How many components of political culture do we have? Name them.
  5. Outline five agents of political socialization.
  6. Explain the meaning of democracy
  7. Discuss any four main features of democracy.
  8. State the meaning of political culture
  9. Highlight four components of political culture
  10. Define political socialization
  11. Explain any three agents of political socialization.


READING ASSIGNMENT: Read about communalism and feudalism.

Objective Review Evaluation Questions 

  1. Democracy originated from (a)Greece (b) Britain (c) USA (d) Germany
  2. Which of the following is a basic principle of democracy? Rule by (a) majority and the protection of the minority (b) the wealthy few (c) the minority at the expense of the majority (d) two political parties.
  3. The concept of political culture was introduced by____(a) Fredrick Engels (b) Abraham Lincoln (c) Harold Laski(d) Gabriel Almond
  1. Which of the following is a basic component of political culture? (a) Cultural development (b) Cultural design (b) Cultural display (d) Cognitive orientation
  2. Political socialization begins from (a) Adulthood (b) Childhood (c) Old age (d) Manhood
  3. Government can be defined as the study of (a) constitution (b) cabinet system of government only (c) how people rule themselves (d) presidential system of government only
  4. Which of the following is not an acceptable function of government? (a) Defence (b) provision of social amenities (c) subversion (d) embarking on public enlightenment.
  5. The primary function of government in a state is to (a) maintain law and order (b) provide transport services (c) engage in campaigns and rallies (d) imprison criminals
  6. The functions of the state are achieved through (a) political socialization (b) separation of powers (c) organs of government (d) Diplomatic means
  7. A unique feature of a state is (a) information (b) anarchy (c) organised laws (d) direct democracy




The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise


The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written. He or she does the necessary corrections when the need arises.



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