SECOND TERM E-LEARNING NOTES
SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY CLASS: SS 2
SCHEME OF WORK
1. Configuration, possible oxidation, Isotopes of hydrogen and unique Position of hydrogen of hydrogen in periodic table,
2. Laboratory and Industrial preparation of hydrogen
3. Physical and chemical properties,
4. Compounds of hydrogen, Uses and test of hydrogen.
PERIOD 1: CONFIGURATION, POSSIBLE OXIDATION AND ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN AND UNIQUE POSITION OF HYDROGEN OF HYDROGEN IN PERIODIC TABLE.
Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table with nucleus and electron. It is a gas; diatomic molecule in which two atoms of hydrogen are covalently bonded. The atomic number of hydrogen is one. The electronic configuration of hydrogen is 1s1. It has oxidation number of +1 and -1
ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN
Hydrogen exhibits Isotope with Hydrogen or protium [11H], Deuterium or heavy hydrogen [21H or D] and tritium [31H or T] as the Isotopes. These Isotopes have relative atomic masses of 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
The Isotopes have similar chemical properties but different physical properties although tritium is radioactive.
UNIQUE POSITION OF HYDROGEN IN THE PERIODIC TABLE
It can lose this single electron to form positive ions[H+] just like the elements in groups [Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr] and based on the argument it can be considered to be placed in group 1 along with group 1 elements. However, the H+ ion is not stable like ions formed by group 1 elements. Most of the properties of H+ are not similar to the properties of group I elements.
Hydrogen can also gain one electron to form hydride ion (H–) similar to halogens (group 7 elements) forming halides ion. Thus hydrogen is unique and anomalous in being similar to two different groups of elements. With electro positive alkali and alkali-earth metals, hydrogen forms compounds like LiH, NaH, and CaH2 etc. Similar to halogens form LiCl, Na, CaCl2 etc. On being electrolysed these hydrides yield hydrogen or halogen at the anode showing the similarities between the two. The ionisation energy of hydrogen and halogen are comparable. While those of alkali- metal are very low. It is similar to halogen in been a non-metal, a bad conductor of heat and electricity and diatomic. Hydrogen form covalent compound like those of halogens.
- To which group does hydrogen belong?
- What is the position of hydrogen in the periodic table?
- Mention the existing Isotopes of hydrogen
- Discuss the uniqueness of hydrogen
(Visited 15 times, 1 visits today)