Employment : Meaning , Types and Causes of Unemployment

Subject : Social Studies



Topic : Employment : Meaning , Types and Causes of Unemployment



Class : Primary 4



Term :  Second Term


Week : Week 11


Previous Knowledge : Pupils have previous knowledge of


that have been taught in their former lessons and classes


Behavioural Objectives : At the end of the lesson , pupils should be able to


1 say the meaning of employment

2 mention the reasons why people are unemployed

3 explain how people can be gainfully employed

4. Write out reasons for employment

5. explain the possible solutions to unemployment


Methods Of Teaching 

  • Discussion
  • Explanation
  • Dramatization
  • Dialogue
  • Story telling
  • Questions and Answers
  • Role Modelling



Instructional Materials 

  • Wall Charts
  • Pictures
  • Online materials
  • Textbooks
  • Scheme of work
  • Workbooks






Employment is a state of being engaged in work or job that pays income in form or salaries or wages either monthly, weekly or daily.

Employment is work done to earn a living.

Unemployment is having no work to do to earn money.

Employment means having a job or work to do to earn a living.

A person may do his or her own work or may work for other people, or even the government.

If you are doing your own work, you are said to be self-employed.

If you are working for government or other people, you are called an employee of those people or the government, and if people or government work for you, then you are the employers of those people. If you work for yourself and your are not answerable to anyone, then it means that you are self employed.


Why people should be employed

People should be employed for the following reasons:

1 So that they can earn a living.

2 To keep them busy and out of trouble.

3 So that they will contribute to the development of society.

4 So that they will be responsible members of society.

5 When people work and earn an income, they are happy.

The problems people face before getting jobs

Sometimes people face a lot of problems in getting jobs. Some of these problems are as follows:

1 The people looking for jobs are more than the jobs available.

2 Some people who want to work do not have the training and skill required for the available jobs.

3 Some people do not have the money to move to a new place, where they can get a job


The meaning of unemployment

Unemployment means not having a job to do. People who do not have a means of livelihood (i.e., of making money) or that are not engaged in a job are said to be unemployed. Some people have just left one job and they are yet to get another job. For example, a bricklayer may have just completed building one house, and may have to wait to be hired to build another. A person may have been sacked or removed from one job and is yet to get another one


1. Increase in  crime rate – armed robbery, human trafficking, prostitution, drug addiction, etc.

2. Waste of manpower

3. Threat to peace

4. Increase in dependents

5. Reduction in investment

6. It causes of migration

7. Street begging

8. under development

Consequences (bad results) of unemployment in our society

The following are some of the consequences of unemployment in our society:

1 When people are unemployed, they become sad and idle, and may develop bad habits such as stealing or prostitution.

2 Some people who do not have work become unhappy and may begin to take hard drugs, such as Indian hemp and cocaine, thinking this would help them overcome the frustration of unemployment. Soon they become drug addicts and problems for themselves and society.

3 Some people who are unemployed may become frustrated and unhappy and after a while, begin to beg for money. This brings shame to them and their families.

4 School leavers who fail to get work turn to their parents for support. This may become a big burden and sorrow for the parents.

5 When people fail to get employment, they may not be able to provide their needs and solve their problems because they do not have money. They may begin to think about their problem and worry too much about their condition, and this may affect their health.

6 Unemployment makes big towns and large cities over-crowded, because most people who are unemployed go there, thinking they would get jobs.

7 Many youths marry late because they do not have jobs to provide for themselves and a new family


1. Self employment skills

2. Provision of soft loans

3. Making agriculture more attractive

4. Population control

5. Encouraging geographical mobility of labour

6. Provision of social amenities

7. Restructuring our educational system






The topic is presented step by step

Step 1 : He revises the previous topics

Step 2 : The class teacher introduces the new topic

Step 3 : The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own contributions and he or she corrects them when the needs arise





1. Mention two differences  between employment and unemployment;

2. Write out four problems problems of unemployment

3. What is employment

4. What is unemployment

5. Mention four evils of unemployment

6. Write out four ways by which the problems of unemployment may be solved

7. What does self employed mean

8. Who is an employer of Labour

9. What does the word “employee” mean?

10. What is under employment?





The class teacher gives out a short note and he or she goes round to do the necessary marking .



Please kindly prepare for the next lesson by reading about


Natural Resources 



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