Active voice and Passive Voice. Third Term Basic 7/ JSS 1 Third Term English Grammar

third

term

basic

7

ENGLISH

STUDIES

SCHEME OF WORK

WEEK TOPIC

  1. Speech Work: Consonants /l/ and /r/; Structure: Verbs– Active Voice(Introduction) Comprehension/VocabularyDevelopment; Reading Skill – Reading for Spatial description; Composition: Expository (Brainstorming) Literature: Poetry: Types of poems.
  2. Speech Work: Sounds Weak forms/Ә/ (after, often,listen); Structure: Verbs:Verbs– making sentences with active voices; Comprehension/VocabularyDevelopment. Writing Skill – giving specific answers. Composition: Expository Arrangement of ideas in logical sequence; Literature: Poetry: More work on Figure of Speech and Literary terms.
  3. Speech Work: Nasal Sounds /m, n, ŋ/Structure: Verbs– Passive VerbsComprehension/Vocabulary Development. Listening Skill – Listening for maximum retention and recall; Composition:

Expository – Use of Transitional Devices (Paragraph Linkers), Stages of writing); Literature: Structure and themes in Sanyaolu’s ‘Racism

4.Speech Work: Stress: Introduction to Stress;Structure:Verbs– Highlighting the rules of Passive VoiceComprehension/VocabularyDevelopment. Writing Skill: Composition: Expository- Guided writing: Introduction, Body and ConclusionLiterature:Poetry: Figures of Speech in Sanyaolu’s ‘Racism’

  1. 5. Speech Work: Stress: Stress pattern. Structure: Making sentences with Active and Passive Voices;Comprehension/VocabularyDevelopment. Reading to follow direction in written communication. Composition: Expository- (Model Essays). Literature: Poetry: Structure and themes in Akeem Ajibade’s ‘Let my Mother Sing’
  2. 6.Speech Work: Stress: Compound Words. Structure:Question Tag Comprehension/Vocabulary Development. Listening Skill – listening to follow direction in written communication. Composition; Narrative, Descriptive, Argumentative and Expository – identifying the differences.Literature: Poetry: Figures of speech in Akeem Ajibade’s ‘Let my Mother Sing’.
  3. 7. MID-TERM BREAK
  4. 8.Speech Work: Consonant Clusters. Structure: Pronouns: Forms of

PronounsComprehension/VocabularyDevelopment. Writing Skill (given passage). Composition:

Informal letters; writing to suit different situationsLiterature: Poetry – more on Figures of speech. Encourage students to write a poem.

  1. 9.Speech Work: /h, j, w/ Structure; Pronouns: Positions and Functions of Pronouns Comprehension/VocabularyDevelopment: Listening Skill (given passage).

Composition: Formal Letters; writing to suit different situations. Literature:More work on literary devices

  1. 10.Revision
  2. 11.Examinations

WEEK 1 SPEECH WORK

CONSONANT SOUNDS /l/ and /r/

These two sounds are not similar but we shall consider them together in this lesson. When you say /l/ the tip of your tongue makes contact with the alveolar ridge as the air passes the sides of your tongue. It is called lateral and it is voiced. Eg: leak, line, lead, lemon, fill, middle, shall,silly etc.

Silent : talk, walk, yolk,could,folk,palm,half,should,calm etc.

/r/To pronounce this sound, the tip of the tongue comes very near but does not actually touch the alveolar ridge eg. Rate,rock,rag,rank,robe,race,rake,rug,range,ferry, rib, parade,barrel etc.

COMPARISON OF /l/ and /r/

/l/ /r/
Lot Rot
Lack Rack
Lag Rag
Lip Rip
Loom Room
Ply Pry
Bleed Breed
Blew Brew
Play Pray
Flesh Fresh
Fly Fry
Flew Brown

Comprehension/VocabularyDevelopment;

Topic: The Police

Text: NOSEC BOOK 1 Unit 16 Page 145

The passage is all about the roles that Police plays in fighting against crime in the society. It will help students to be familiar with duties and responsibilities in our society. Some of them are: direction of traffic in the densely populated area, arresting and prosecution of the offender.etc.

Composition: Expository (Brainstorming)ASPECT: Composition

TOPIC: TYPES OF ESSAY

SUB-TOPIC: Expository (Introduction)

CONTENT: EXPOSITORY (INTRODUCTION)

An expository essay is one in which the writer tries to explain how something works, how something is done or how something is made. Expository essays demand the ‘how of things. Such essays call for explanation of a process or an idea.

EVALUATION:

  1. What is an expository essay?
  2. What does expository essay demand?

ASSIGNMENT: Explain how to play a local game of your choice to someone who has not seen the game played before.

Literature: Poetry: Types of poems.

TOPIC: POETRY

CONTENT:

  1. Definition of poem
  2. Definition of poetry
  3. Types of poem
  4. Language of poetry

Sub-Topic1: Definition of poem

A poem is a piece of creative writing that is usually written in verse or stanzas.It can also be defined as imaginative writing in form of stanzas .

Poetry is a collection of poems. It can also be divined as a study of poem

A collection of poems is known as anthology

A poet is someone who writes a poem.

EVALUATION:

  1. What is a poem?
  2. What is poetry?

Sub-Topic2: Types of Poems

These are epic, ode, dirge, sonnet, Ballard, elegy

Epic: A long poem with many exciting adventures .It is a long poem that tells the achievements of heroes.

Ode: A poem written to or about a person or thing.

Dirge: A poem of mourning

(Sonnet): A poem with 14 lines that Rhyme with each other in a fixed pattern.

Ballard: A long poem that tells a story

Elegy: A sad poem especially about someone who has diet

EVALUATION

  1. Mention four types of poems
  2. What is an Ode?

Sub-Topic3: The language of poetry: This refers to elements of poetry

  1. Imagery: These are created in poetry by means of figures of speech.
  2. Rhythm: Refers to the alteration of stressed and unstressed syllables.
  3. Sound: This is one of the elements that compose vocal utterance.

EVALUATION

  1. Mention 2 element s of poetry
  2. What is sound in poetry?

ASPECT: Structure

TOPIC: VERBS

SUB-TOPIC: Active verbs

CONTENT

ACTIVE VERBS

Active voice is when the subject performs the action described by the verb. It is used when the action flows from subject to the object

Assuming Paul performed a particular action which is expressed by a verb; it therefore, means that Paul will be regarded as the doer or performer of the action. In English grammar, Paul will be referred to as the subject and the verb in that sentence will be in the Active voice. For example, Paul wrote a letter.

Here, wrote is in the active voice since the subject of the verb (Paul) is doing the writing.

So, a verb is said to be in the active voice. Examples

  • I saw Paul
  • We ate some mangoes
  • The driver drove the car carelessly.
  • Bola sang the song melodiously.
  • Ade killed a goat.

EVALUATION:

Change the following sentences from Active into passive.

  • Mustapha swept the floor.
  • We sang a new song.
  • The girl read an interesting book.
  • I own a new school bag
  • They fought a serious war.

ASSIGNMENT:

Change the following sentences from Active to passive.

  1. Dare bought six tubers of yam
  2. The teacher gave us some difficult sums.
  3. She spoke to me.
  4. A dog bit the old woman.
  5. Ikechukwu lifted the heavy basket.

WEEK2

ASPECT: Speech work

TOPIC:SUB-TOPIC: /Ə/

CONTENT

/Ə/ This vowel represents the weak form of a weak a vowel in an unaccented position .It could be used in the weak form of these words like ‘and’ ‘but’ ‘an’ ‘can’. Examples of words where it is prominent are:

Again about
Baker Doctor
Colour Mother
Famous Observe
Oblige alone
Along Away

EVALUATION;Write twenty other words with /Ə/.

ASPECT:Structure

TOPIC: VERBS: A verb is used to express an action or a state of being. A verb changes its form to mark such categories as tense, aspects, voice etc.

ACTIVE VOICE: This refers to a situation where the action is done by the subject in the sentence.

Examples;

  1. The dog chased the postman.
  2. Obi cleaned the blackboard.

PASSIVE VOICE: Refers to a case whereby the action is done to the subject in the sentence.

Examples

  1. The postman was chased by the dog.
  2. The blackboard was cleaned by Obi.

Making Sentence with Active and Passive Voices

  1. Obi cleaned the blackboard. The blackboard was cleaned by obi.
  2. The dog chased the postman. The postman was chased by the dog.
  3. I wash the clothes. The clothes are washed by me.
  4. The mother feeds the baby. The baby is fed by the mother.
  5. Adana cooks the meals. The meals are cooked by Adana

SUB-TOPIC: HIGHLIGHTING ACTIVE VOICE

CONTENT

There are two ways to express an ‘action’; active and passive voices.

A sentence in which the logical subject is the same as the grammatical subject is called an active sentence.

Logical subject is the subject that is the one who is actually said to be performing the actions of the verbs. When the subject in a sentence comes before the verb, we call this subject the grammatical subject.

Examples

  • Aisha ate the food.
  • The girl has beaten the boy.
  • A carpenter will make the chair.
  • The police must arrest that thief.
  • My wife was drawing a picture.
  • They changed the sentence. I am kicking a ball.
  • We read many novels The boy is eating the food. We have sent the message.

EVALUATION

1. What is a verb?

3. Change these sentences to passive voice

    1. The cat ate the fish
    2. Emeka dusts the chairs.

ASSIGNMENT

  1. Identify the active voices in the following passage.

Labi was checking through the carton of empty bottles which had been returned from chief Fadaka’s house when he found a paper bag which had slipped between the wrinkled flap and the side of the carton. He took it out, and to his surprise he found it contained a thick bundle of bank notes of a high denomination, totaling nearly ten thousand naira.

  1. Construct five sentences containing active voice.

ASPECT: Comprehension

TOPIC:Reading to Follow Direction in Written Communication.

CONTENT:

Another aspect of reading comprehension is the ability to follow direction in written communication. The students should be able to study map, on which certain directions are given or indicated… at ASCON Topoyour destination.

EVALUATION: In your own sentence explain the passage you have just studied.

ASSIGNMENT: Students should answer the question on the exercise on the passage page 155.ASPECT: Composition

TOPIC: EXPOSITORY ESSAY

Expository essay explains how something is made or done by following a process. It reveals the secret of doing things .The aim of expository writing is to inform, to instruct or bring someone else to one’s point of view.

EXAMPLES OF TOPICS

How to prepare my local food

How to make tie and dye (campala)

How to my local game (ayo)

SUB-TOPIC: Elements of writing

CONTENT

An expository essay is one in which the writer attempts an exposition or explanation of an idea, or how to do or make something.

The elements of writing are:

  • Introduction
  • The body of the essay
  • Conclusion

EVALUATION: State the elements of writing.

WEEK-END ASSIGNMENT:

Change the following passive voice to active voice.

    1. The cat was chased by the dog.
    2. Jude was betrayed by the girls.
    3. The book was bought by him.
    4. The works were done by them.
    5. The assignment is being given by the teacher.
    6. Ade was being arrested by the police.
    7. The debate had being won by her before the rioters came.

WEEK3

ASPECT: SPEECH WORK

TOPIC: NASAL SOUNDS / m/ / n/ /ŋ/

The nasal sounds are produced as a result of closure in the mouth and the air flow escaped through the nose.

The examples are stated below;

/m/ man, moon, make, name, bomb, claim, frame, lame, damn, hymn, condemn, bomb, comb, dumb, climb, plumb, crumb, grammar, commission, etc.

In the following words, ‘m’ and not ‘b’ is the end sound even though ‘b’ can be seen. It is not pronounced. Plumb,dumb, climb, comb, tomb, bomb, numb, lamb, crumb.

More so, ‘m’ is the end-sound of these words and not ‘n’. Hymn, condemn, solemn.

/n/ name, nose, neck, new, note, stone, brain, gnash, gnat, gnaw, know, knowledge, knot, knit, knew, manner, banner, nanny, funnel, cranny, etc.

When ‘n’ is used after ‘m’ at word final positions, it is not pronounced. Examples: damn, hymn, condemn, column.

When ‘n’ is used after ‘k’ at word beginnings, it is pronounced while ‘k’ is silent. Examples: know, knot, knew, knit, etc.

When ‘n’ is placed after ‘g’ at word beginnings, it is pronounced while ‘g’ is silent. Examples: gnash, gnaw, gnat, etc.

/ ŋ/ sing, king, ring, bank, bring, ink, spring, song, hang, tongue, bang, plank, bangle, anxious, drink, function, precinct, minx, etc.

EVALUATION: From the words lettered A to D, choose the word that has the same consonant sound(s) as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.

bomb

Bubble B. stay C. come D. bone

ASPECT: STRUCTURE

TOPIC: VERB – PASSIVE VERBS

Passive Structure: This is when the sentence is reversed from the object form to subject form. E.g. A ball is kicked by me.

PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE:

(1) Active: I kick a ball.

(2)Passive: A ball is kicked by me.

(3)Active: He writes two letters.

(4)Passive: Two letters are written by him.

PAST TENSE:

(1)Active: I kicked the ball.

(2)Passive: The ball was kicked by me.

(3)Active: The boy wrote a letter.

(4)Passive: A letter was written by the boy

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

(1)Active: I am kicking a ball.

(2)Passive: A ball is being kicked by me.

  1. Active: He is writing two letters.
  2. Passive: Two letters are being written by him.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE:

  1. Active : I have kicked the ball.
  2. Passive: The ball has been kicked by me.
  3. Active: He has written two letters.
  4. Passive: Two letters have been written by him.

ASSIGNMENT :Turnthese sentences from passive to active.

a.The permission was granted me by the manager.

  1. I was issued the conduct certificate by the principal.
  2. I was given loan by the bank.
  3. Youare ordered to shut the door.
  4. You are advised to be careful of your health.
  5. The doctor was sent for by me.
  6. A song is sung by Amaka.
  7. A nice food was being cooked by Bola.
  8. The letter has been written by Ola.
  9. Non-violence was preached by Azikiwe. Reading comprehension: Behaviour of Students

Text; NOSEC Book 1 page 162-163.

Extract:The behaviour of some students nowadays gives us a lot of concern. I cannot just understand why they choose to mis-behaviour…he referred to as his brothers and sisters.

Evaluation: In your own opinion briefly discuss your experience on behaviour of students in your class during lesson.

Assignment: Answer the questions 1-10 on page 163 of NOSEC book1.

ASPECT: COMPOSITION

TOPIC: EXPOSITORY ESSAY(ARRANGEMENT OF IDEAS IN LOGICAL SEQUENCE).

    • Title of essay
    • Introduction
    • Body of the essay
    • Conclusion

Expository essay tells us how things are done through description of a process.

Before you start writing, you need to understand the topic very well, think deeply about it (brainstorming) and then itemize the points to be discussed. Then re-arrange the points in a logical manner. The paragraph must be fully developed.

EVALUATION: Discuss this topic in the class with your classmates: The Evil of Unemployment in My Country.

Youmay use the following points as guidelines in developing your composition (essay). Discuss each point in one paragraph. Some common problems associated with unemployment are:

Prostitution

Armed robbery

Hired assassination

Thuggery

Affliction by diseases

Broken marriages

Untimely death (e.g. suicide) Malnutrition

Paragraph Linkers : Also, But, However,Meanwhile, Apart from these, In addition to these etc.

Use any three of these points to develop the body of your essay.

LITERATURE: Literature: Structure and themes in Sanyaolu’s ‘Racism’

WEEK 4

ASPECT: Speech work

TOPIC: STRESS

SUB-TOPIC: Introduction to stress.

Stress, in English Language is the extra force(emphasis)placed on the part of a word to receives strong pronunciation than the other. In English the part or chunk that the word is divisible into is called syllable. Therefore, a particular syllable (sound unit) that is pronounced more than the other is called the stressed syllable. In speech, stress helps us to differentiate the meaning of a word that has the same spelling but different meaning and belong to different part of speech.NOTE : Noun is stressed in the first syllable and verbis stressed on the second syllable of two syllable words.

NOUN VERB
IM-port im-PORT
EX-port ex-PORT
CON-duct con-DUCT

ES-cort es-CORT

NOTE: A word cannot be stressed in English because it has only one syllable; stress can only start from two syllables.

Pronounce these words: EN-ter, O-pen, PA-per,MO-ney, BO-rrow, a-LIVE, di-VINE, a-PPLY,be-WARE, en-JOY etc

EVALUATION:

  1. Define stress in your own word.
  2. What is the part that pronounced more the other called?
  3. Give examples of stressed words.

ASSIGNMENT: Stress the following words

  1. Parent
  2. Country
  3. Duplicate
  4. Jubilate
  5. Reward

ASPECT: STRUCTURE:

TOPIC: VERBS

Verbsare the action words in the sentences.

Active Structure is when the action is performed by the subject. e.g. I kick a ball

Examples of Active Verbs:e.g. come, sit, stand, write, do, kick, draw, eat, etc.

Highlighting the rules of Passive Voice.

Passive voice is when the object of a sentence takes the place of the subject and the subject is placed in the position of the object while the verb “be” is used with the past participle. For example, “Mary beat the boy “(active voice) becomes “The boy was beaten by Mary (passive voice).

In the active voice, “Mary” is the subject of the sentence while “the boy” is the subject (grammatical) in the passive voice though the sentences mean the same thing. The verb “be” comprises “is, are, was and were”. More examples:

  1. I saw Paul (Active voice).
  2. Paul was seen by me (Passive voice).
  3. We ate some mangoes (Active voice).
  4. Some mangoes were eaten by us (Passive voice).

(a) Now, take note of the changes that usually occur while writing passive sentences from active ones. Object form of the subject.

Active Passive

I Me

He Him

She Her

We Us

They Them

(b)The verbs also change apart from above pronouns.

Active Passive

Saw Seen

Ate Eaten

Wrote Written

Drove Driven

Sang Sung

EVALUATION: (a) Change the following sentences from active into passive.

  1. Mustapha swept the floor.
  2. We sang a new song.
  3. The girl read an interesting book.
  4. I own a new school bag.
  5. They fought a serious war.
    1. Define passive verb.
    2. Explain the transformation that take place in passive voice of verb

PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE:

Active: I kick a ball.

Passive: Two letters are written by me.

PAST TENSE:

Active: I kicked the ball.

Passive: The ball was kicked by me.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE:

Active: I am kicking a ball.

Passive: A ball is being kicked by me.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE:

Active: I have kicked a ball.

Passive: A ball has been kicked by me.

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE:

Active: I was writing my note.

Passive: My note was being written by me.

PAST PERFECT TENSE:

Active: I had kicked the ball before he arrived.

Passive: The ball had been kicked by me before he arrived.

ASSIGNMENT.

Change the following sentences into passive sentences.

  1. Bola cooks her food.
  2. Ngozi was reading her note.
  3. John is doing his home work.
  4. They have done their work.
  5. He has broken his new pencil.

ASPECT: COMPREHENSION

TOPIC: THE TAXI DRIVER

Text:NOSEC Book 1 page 171-173.

CONTENT : A man, Mr Okonkwo was once driving taxi in the city of Lagos. He was a very poor man… it really pays to be contented and to be honest.

EVALUATION:Students should answer questions 1-13 on page 172.

ASPECT: COMPOSITION

TOPIC: EXPOSITORY ESSAY(ARRANGEMENT OF IDEAS IN LOGICAL SEQUENCE).

    • Title of essay
    • Introduction
    • Body of the essay
    • Conclusion

Expository essay tells us how things are done through description of a process.

Before you start writing, you need to understand the topic very well, think deeply about it (brainstorming) and then itemize the points to be discussed. Then re-arrange the points in a logical manner. The paragraph must be fully developed.

EVALUATION: Discuss this topic in the class with your classmates: The Evil of Unemployment in My Country.

Youmay use the following points as guidelines in developing your composition (essay). Discuss each point in one paragraph. Some common problems associated with unemployment are:

Prostitution

Armed robbery

Hired assassination

Thuggery

Affliction by diseases

Broken marriages

Untimely death (e.g. suicide) Malnutrition

Use any three of these points to develop the body of your essay.

LITERATURE:Poetry-Read the selected poem (oral and writing poetry.)

WEEK 5

Speech Work

TOPIC: STRESS

SUB-TOPIC: Stress Pattern.

Stress occurs in different places in a word, and this, we call stress pattern.

STRESS PATTERN

1. In words of two syllables, the first syllable is stressed if the words are nouns.

e.g.STUdent,PICture,MOther,TEAcher,FAther,BUtcher,TAIlor,VENdor,TRAder,DOCtor,WORker,DRIver, BUILder,FARmer,LAWyer etc.

  1. In words of two syllables, the second syllable is stressed if the words are verbs. dePEND, aCHIEVE, proTECT, exPLAIN, inSULT,exPORT, apPROACH etc
  2. Generally, in English, any syllable which contains /∂/ (shwa) should not be stressed. aWAY,TAIlor, aGO, DOCtor, aLLOW,
  3. Stress can also be placed on the third syllable of words, examples are: uniVERsity, typoGRAphical, elecTRIcity, psychoLOgical, distriBUtion etc.

EVALUATION:

  1. What is stress pattern?
  2. State four stress pattern you know.
  3. Give three examples on each of the stress pattern mentioned in 2 above.

Structure: Verbs– Passive Verbs

SUB-TOPIC: Making sentences with passive voice.

The subject in a passive sentence is not the person or thing that does the action of the verb. It is the person or thing that is acted on by the verb.

  1. The injured man was helped by a passer-by.
  2. The man was being questioned by the police.
  3. The patient was operated on by a team of five surgeons.
  4. An elderly man was run over while crossing the road.
  5. Roger has been given his promotion.
  6. The window was broken by someone.
  7. My brother was given extra tuition by his teacher.
  8. The sorting is done by machine.
  9. The safe was blown open with dynamite.
  10. I was showered with presents on my eighteenth birthday.

EVALUATION: Change the following sentences from active voice to passive voice without changing the tense or meaning.

  1. The games master coaches the football team.
  2. John is playing ball.
  3. The farmer has killed a snake.
  4. The butcher was killing a goat.
  5. Will the messenger deliver the letter?
  6. Lawal saw the cave.
  7. Bunmi has read the novel.
  8. Did you buy this book?
  9. The watchman arrested the thief.
  10. The traders bought all the yams.

ASPECT: Comprehension

TOPIC: The New Alhaji

CONTENT: When Alhaji Abdullahi got back from Mecca,he met his friend,Mr Makama,who greeted him and then asked:’What was the Hajj like Alhaji?’ …..I keep it in memory of my father.

EVALUATION:Answer questions 1-5 on page 184 of NOSEC Book 1.

ASSIGNMENT:NOSEC book1 pages 72-73.

ASPECT: Composition

TOPIC: EXPOSITORY ESSAY.

This kind of composition reveals the systematic way of doing things .It exposes the facts, characteristics and methods of doing it. Also it uncovers what was hidden about the fact .It should be discussed in sequential and logical order.

EVALUATION: Write an article for publication in your school’s magazine on the topic: The Evil of Unemployment in My Country.

Youmay use the following points as guidelines in developing your composition (essay). Discuss each point in one paragraph. Some common problems associated with unemployment are:

  1. Prostitution
  2. Armed robbery
  3. Hired assassination
  4. Thuggery
  5. Affliction by diseases
  6. Broken marriages
  7. Untimely death (e.g. suicide)

IIX. Malnutrition

ASSIGNMENT: Use any three of these points to develop the body of your essay. Do not write address, salutation and complementary closing.

Poetry: Structure and themes in Akeem Ajibade’s ‘Let my Mother Sing’

ASPECT: Poetry

TOPIC: Figures of Speech and Literary TermRecommended Poems.

Figures of speech are extensively and effectively used in poetry to express the ideas and feeling in an impressive manner.

Some of the literary terms used in poetry are:

1.Simile : A figure of speech which is used in comparing two different thing with the use of ‘like or as’

2.Personification. A figure of speech which is used to believe in lifeless or inanimate objects.

3.Metaphor: A Metaphor is an implied simile in which the two things are treated as one.

4.Apostrophe: A figure of speech which is used to address a lifeless object.

5,Symbolism: it is an image or word that stands for something other than the literary meaning. E.g. crown- a symbol of kingship.

6.Repetition: it is the re-occurrence of words for emphasis sake. E.g. he that will come, will come.7.Synecdoche: this is the use of a part to represent the whole. E.g. All hands on deck.

EVALUATION:Identify five the literary terms used in the poems read.

ASSIGNMENT:

Explain some figures of speech used in the recommended poems with examples.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

Objective Test:

Choose the right option to complete the following sentences below.

  1. I have ________ the tree down. (A) cuts (B) cut (C) cutting (D) cut
  2. The ball was kicked________ me. (A) with (B) in (C) by (D) on

(3)We ______reading our books at that time. (A) are (B) was (C) were (D) will

Choose the right option that contains the sound below

(4)/ au/ (A) new (B) now ( C) do ( D) load

(5)/ m/ (A) low (B)moon (C) we ( D)thin Essay Questions:

Change the following sentences into passive sentences.

      1. My father built that house.
      2. The policeman arrests the offender.
      3. He hid the money under the bed.
      4. The car knocked over a pedestrian.
      5. I’m sending the book by express delivery.

REFERENCES

    1. Eyisi J. etal. 2012. New concept English for junior secondary schools; Lagos. Learn Africa.
    2. Onuigbo Sam. 1990. Oral English for schools and colleges; Nsukka. AFP.
    3. Osajie E.O. 2002. Complete guide to Literature- in- English for colleges. Lagos. J&C.
    4. Grant N. etal. 1984. Junior English Project Book 1. Pearson Longman.
    5. Mbele K. & Omodara F. Goodbye to Failure in English for junior secondary schools 1; Lagos.

Treasure.

    1. Sandberg & Fawcett. Evergreen: a guide to writing and reading; New York.Houghton.
    2. Oluikpe B.O. etal. Intensive English for junior secondary schools 1; Onitsha. AFP.
    3. Banjo A. etal. 1997. Exam Focus English. Ibadan. University press.

WEEK 6

Speech work: Stress.

Structure: Question Tag.

Comprehension/VocabularyDevelopment: Obedience

Composition: Expository-guided writing.

Literature: Poetry-more on literary terms using recommended poems.

ASPECT: Speech work

TOPIC: STRESS

SUB-TOPIC: Stress of Compound word.

Words of three syllables

DElicate disCUssion disaGREE
FORtunate proJECtion disbeLIEF
PREsently oCCAsionafterNOON
CHAracter straTEgicrefuGEE
BAchelor colOnialunderSTAND

EVALUATION

Use your dictionary to guide you in stressing the words below: quantity, classical,Jamboree, civilian, dramatic, agriculture, democracy, demonic, disaster,employment.

ASSIGNMENT

  1. Define stress in your own word.
  2. What is the part that pronounced more the other called?
  3. Give examples of stressed words.

ASPECT: STRUCTURE : QUESTION TAG. :

TOPIC: QUESTION TAGS CONTENT:

These are usually a kind of Yesor No questions. They are attached (or tagged on) to the end of a statement. If the statement is positive the question tag will be negative and if the statement is negative the question tag will be positive. For example:

    1. Youare leaving now, aren’tyou?
    2. Youare not leaving now, are you?
    3. The boys are not leaving yet, are they?
    4. Sola took the book, didn’tshe?

The subject of the verb in the statement is usually repeated in the tag.

She is here, isn’tshe?

Use ‘It’ only when the subject being referred to is a little baby, an animal, an object or an abstract noun thus:

    1. The dog has eaten its food, hasn’t?
    2. My baby is sleeping, isn’tit?
    3. A good idea is vital to progress, isn’tit?
    4. The rain is heavy today, isn’tit?

Answer tag questions

    1. Youare leaving now, aren’tyou?

No, I am not or yes, I am.

    1. The dog has eaten its food, hasn’tit?

No, it hasn’tor yes, it has

    1. My baby is sleeping, isn’tit?

Yes,it is or No, it isn’t

    1. Youbring them every day, don’tyou?

Yes,I do or No, I don’t EVALUATION:

Give a suitable statement to these question tag.

    1. __________________, didn’t he?
    2. __________________, will they?

Give a suitable tag to these statements.

    1. They must be severely punished, _________?
    2. Her baby is not eating well, ___________?

Comprehension: Obedience

Text:NOSEC book1 page 189-190

EXTRACT: The importance of obedience in the life of any man or organization cannot be over stressed. Without obedience, there will be chaos and disorder…so it pays to be obedient.

EVALUATION:NOSEC Book 1Page190 Questions 1-14.

ASPECT: Composition

TOPIC: EXPOSITORY (GUIDED COMPOSITION)

THE FOOD I LIKE BEST.

There are many types of food. Now write a composition on the food you like best. Here are some questions to guide you. Remember not to number your points but write them in paragraphs.

  1. Which type of food do you enjoin most?
  2. Describe it generally, the source and manner of preparation etc.
  3. Why do you like that kind of food more than the others?
  4. When did you first begin to like that kind of food?
  5. How often do you eat it?
  6. What do you benefit from it?
  7. Would you recommend it to your friends? If yes, why?

EVALUATION: What is an expository essay?

ASSIGNMENT: Write a composition on why you like English Language.

ASPECT: Poetry

TOPIC: LITERARY TERMS USED IN THE RECOMMENDED POEMS.

EVALUATION: Identify five literary terms used in the poems read.

WEEK 7: MID-TERM BREAK.

WEEK 8.

Speech work: Consonant Clusters.

ASPECT: Speech work

TOPIC: CONSONANT CLUSTERS

Describing Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters refer to a situation where a word begins with two or three consonants or ends with two,

three or four consonants. Note that, no vowel sound intervenes between a consonant clusters.

Recognizing the forms of clusters

There are three forms of consonant cluster namely

  • two consonant cluster
  • three consonant cluster
  1. Two consonant cluster
INITIAL

Black /bl/

Bread/br/

Cloud /kl/

Cry /kr/

Drop /dr/

Great /gr/

Play /pl/

Speak /sp/

Tree /tr/

Dwell /dw/

Frog /fr/

Pray /pr/

FINAL

best /st/ sons /nz/ bells /lz/ pots /ts/ caps /ps/ books /ks/ teams /mz/ legs /gz/ inflict /kt/ ant /nt/ task /sk/ lump /mp/, etc

  1. Three-consonant cluster
Initial

Splash /spl/

Spray /spr/

Square /skw/

Street /str/

Scroll /skr/

Spread /spr/

Strong /str/

final nest /sts/ bands /ndz/ next /kst/ ants /nts/ tasks /rs/

lumps /mpz/

posts /sts/

Practising Consonant Clusters

Pronounce the following words that comprise consonant clusters

Doublestrong

Grab beast

Spread lumps

Plead flee

Crowd mats, etc

EVALUATION

    1. What is consonant cluster?
    2. A vowel always comes in between a consonant cluster True/False?
    3. How many types of consonant clusters do we have?
    4. Give 3 examples each of 2 of them at the initial and final positions.

ASSIGNMENT: Underline the Consonant Cluster in the following:

  1. spring, strong, spread
  2. tasks, next bands
  3. glad bribe, crowd
  4. dish, ribs, castle

Structure:Pronouns: Forms of Pronouns

PRONOUNS: FORMS and POSITION

Definition of pronouns

A pronoun takes the place of a noun “pro” is a Latin prefix meaning for. Pronoun = for a noun.

Forms and Position of Pronouns

  1. Personal pronouns which is further classified as subject

Subject object

I me

You you

He him

She her

It it

We us

They them

  1. Possessive pronoun

Subject object

My mine

His his

Her hers

Its its

Our ours

Their their

  1. Reflexive pronoun example myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, etc.
  2. Demonstrative pronoun

Examples: This, these, that, those, etc

  1. Interrogative pronoun: Examples: What, whom, whom, which, whose, etc.
  2. Indefinite pronoun: Examples All, anybody, anything, every one, everybody, more, some, etc.
  3. Relative pronoun: Examples who, whose, whom, which, that etc

Informal letters; writing to suit different situations

ASPECT: COMPOSITION

TOPIC: INFORMAL LETTERS

An informal letter is a letter written to anyone that is related or close to us in relationship such as: father, mother, brother, sister, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece cousin, in-law, close friend, pen-friend, classmate, neighbour, etc. It requires only one address.

FEATURES OF INFORMAL LETTERS

  1. Address of writer (written at the top right-hand corner of your writing sheet of paper)
  2. Date (written under the writers address).
  3. Opening salutation (e.g.; Dear Uncle, Aunt, Brother, Sister, etc).
  4. Body
  5. Closing salutation

Yours sincerely, (no signature or surname is allowed).

Writing to suit different situation with the knowledge of what informal letters are and the features, informal letters could be written to suit different situation such; congratulating, appreciating, demanding, etc.

EVALUATION

  1. What is an informal letter?
  2. Mention five persons an informal letter could be written to?
  3. Mention 4 features of informal letters
  4. In informal letters, the writers address is written at _____?

ASSIGNMENT: Write a letter to your uncle appreciating him for the Christmas gifts he sent to you.

Literature: Poetry – more on Figures of speech. Encourage students to write a poem

Composition: (Narrative, descriptive, argumentative and expository) identifying the differences between them.

WEEK 9

ASPECT: Speech work: /h, j, w/

/h/ This is a voiceless glottal fricative which is produced as the airstream passes through an open glottis to the mouth. Eg. who, hole, hospital house, hat, horse, behave, behold, inherit etc

Silent in: hour,heir,exhibit, honour,exhaust etc.

/j/ This is a semi-vowel sound that is pronounced with the front part of tongue is raised towards the hard palate to the position higher than the production of /i:/.

Eg. Yet,yam, youth, few, new, suit, tune, yard, year, yes, yoke, yen, yours etc.

/w/ This is a voiced bilabial consonant.eg. we, well, wise, wolf, when, wear, queen, choir, one, once, question, square, dwarf, squach etc

ASPECT: Structure

TOPIC: Position and functions of pronoun

Position of pronouns: Pronoun could be used to replace noun in a sentence either as subject or object.

FUNCTIONS OF PRONOUN

  • Pronoun replaces noun in a sentence.
  • It helps to avoid unnecessary use of nouns.

ASPECT: Composition

TOPIC: FORMAL LETTERS: WRITING TO SUIT DIFFERENT SITUATIONS

Definition of formal letters

Formal letters are letters written to offices. They are otherwise known as official letters.

Features of Formal Letters

Formal letters have the following features

  1. Address of the writer & date (written at the top right hand corner of the sheet of paper).
  2. Address of the addressee (writer below the writers address at the left hand corner of the writing paper)
  3. Salutation (written below the addressee’s address
  4. The letter heading (This comes below the salutation on the centre between the writer’s address and the addressee’s address.
  5. The body of the letter (written in paragraphs)
  6. Conclusion

Writing to Suit Different Situations

Our exposure to the definition and features of formal letters should enable us write to suit different situations such as;

Application for employment, application for admission, application for supplies, etc.

EVALUATION

  1. What is a formal letter?
  2. A formal letter is otherwise referred to as ___?
  3. Mention 3 features of a formal letter.
  4. What position does the addressee’s address take in the writing sheet.

ASSIGNMENT: Write an application for permission to be absent from school for one week.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

Supply appropriate question tag for each of the statements below

    1. He isn’t a lier.—————-?
    2. Many students like English. —————–?
    3. Mary loves flowers.—————-?
    4. She lives in Lagos. ———–?
    5. Youare not feeling well. —————?
    6. He didn’t wear a suit.—————–?
    7. Yourare feeling sleepy. ———–?

REFERENCES

  1. Eyisi J. etal. 2012. New concept English for Junior Secondary Schools; Lagos. Learn Africa.
  2. Onuigbo Sam. 1990. Oral English for schools and colleges; Nsukka. AFP.
  3. Osajie E.O. 2002. Complete guide to Literature- in- English for colleges. Lagos. J&C.
  4. Grant N. etal. 1984. Junior English Project Book 1. Pearson Longman.
  5. Mbele K. & Omodara F. Goodbye to Failure in English for junior secondary schools 1; Lagos. Treasure.
  6. Sandberg & Fawcett. Evergreen: a guide to writing and reading; New York.Houghton.
  7. Oluikpe B.O. etal. Intensive English for junior Secondary Schools 1; Onitsha. AFP.
  8. Banjo A. etal. 1997. Exam Focus English. Ibadan. University Press

Poetry: More on figures of speech

Definition of Poetry and Figures of Speech

Poetry is a collection of poem. Figures of speech refer to a word or phrase which does not have its normal or basic meaning.

Examples of Figures of Speech

  1. Simile: This is a figure of speech, in which something is compared with another using “like” or “as” as fast as a deer, as feeble as a child, as gentle as a dove, as agile as a monkey, as light as feather,
  2. Metaphor: A metaphor is a figure of speech which compares two things that posse similar feature by saying that one thing is another. It is a direct comparison between two things without the use of “like” and “as”

Examples

i. Ade was a lion in the fight ii. She is the pillar of our family iii. He is a giant among men etc

3. Irony: This involves the use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning. It is a situation where the meaning is contradicted by the appearance or presentation of idea.

Examples

  1. The boy is so intelligent that he failed his exam.
  2. The students are so respectful that they insult their teacher.

4. Personification: This is a figure of speech in which an inanimate object is endowed with human qualities or abilities.

Examples

  1. My car was happy to be washed
  2. The picture in that magazine screamed for attention. iii. The carved pumpkin smiled at me.
  3. Alliteration: This refers to the repetition of an initial consonant sound.

Examples:

    1. Dusks demands daylight.
    2. Sara’s seven sisters slept soundly in the sand.
  1. Onomatopoeia– The use of words that imitates the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to.

Examples:

    1. The buzzing of bees
    2. The clatter of utensils iii. The flutter of birds, etc
  1. Hyperbole: This is a figure of speech that uses exaggerated words.

Examples

i. The whole word is staring at me. ii. Bill Gates winning a computer iii. I’m so busy trying to accomplish one million things at a time.

  1. Pun: A play or on words, sometimes on different senses of the same word and sometimes on similar sense or sound of different word.

Examples

    1. Santa’s helpers are subordinate clauses.
    2. I’m a shoe maker; I can mend your soul.
  1. Litotes: A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite.

Examples

i. Einstein is not a bad Mathematician.

  1. Synecdoche: This is a figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole or the whole for part.

Examples

  1. ABC for Alphabets
  2. The grey beard for old man, etc.

EVALUATION

  1. What is poetry?
  2. Give 2 of figures of speech.

ASSIGNMENT: Give five examples each of the following figures of speech:

      1. Metaphor
      2. Hyperbole
      3. The subject matter of a poem is called_______
      4. What is a poem?
      5. The language of poetry refers to ______-?
      6. Mention 2 elements of poetry

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

    1. From the words numbered A to D choose the one which has the same consonant cluster as the one represented by the underlined letters.
    2. Next A. necks B. taxed C. task D. nest
    3. Merged A. wedged B. marked C. messed D. mist
    4. Limbs A. links B. climbs C. lamps D. lumps
    5. Tempts A. bombed B. jumped C. exempt D. pints
    6. Pinched A. asked B. fists C. mixed D. punched
    7. Change the following from active into passive voice
    8. I drive a car.
    9. Daniel won a prize.
    10. The man killed a goat.
    11. She is writing her note.

REFERENCES

  1. Eyisi J. etal. 2012. New concept English for junior secondary schools; Lagos. Learn Africa.
  2. Onuigbo Sam. 1990. Oral English for schools and colleges; Nsukka. AFP.
  3. Osajie E.O. 2002. Complete guide to Literature- in- English for colleges. Lagos. J&C.
  4. Grant N. etal. 1984. Junior English Project Book 1. Pearson Longman.
  5. Mbele K. & Omodara F. Goodbye to Failure in English for junior secondary schools 1; Lagos. Treasure.
  6. Sandberg & Fawcett. Evergreen: a guide to writing and reading; New York.Houghton.
  7. Oluikpe B.O. etal. Intensive English for junior secondary schools 1; Onitsha. AFP.
  8. Banjo A. etal. 1997. Exam Focus English. Ibadan. University press.
  9. Banjo A. etal. 2009. New Oxford Secondary English course. Ibadan. University press.

WEEK 10 Revision

WEEK 11 Examination

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