FIRST TERM E-LEARNING NOTE
JS1 (BASIC 7)
SUBJECT – BASIC SCIENCE
SCHEME OF WORK
- Orientation-Learning about science.
- Scientific Methods.
- Family health – cleanliness.
- Family health – Nutrition.
- Environmental conservation and safety I (Maintaining Balance)
- Carbon and Nitrogen cycles.
- Environmental conservation and safety (sanitation).
- Biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials.
- Disease vectors.
- Control Measures.
TOPIC: – ORIENTATION – LEARNING ABOUT SCIENCE
- Meaning, definition of science and Branches of science
- Science related occupations
- Reasons why we study science
Basic science is concerned with all aspects and branches of science put together
Sub-Topic 1: MEANING AND DEFINITION OF SCIENCE
Science is an exciting and dynamic subject. Science deals with experiments ( practical work) to help in answering the various questions. It affect our everyday activities. Science can be defined as a reliable body of knowledge about living and non-living things, our environment, about natural events and occurrences. Scientists asks and answers a lot of questions. A person who studies science is called a scientist.
Branches of science
The Branches of science includes:
- Define the word science.
- State three major branches of science
Sub-Topic 2: Science Related Occupations
There are so manyscience related occupations which include the following
Engineering, Architecture, Pharmacy, Medical Doctor, Sociologists, Geologists, Biologists, Botanists, Driving, Aeronautic Engineer, etc.
Engineers (building site)
Reasons Why we Study Science
There are many reasons why we study science. As scientists we do the following
- Ask questions
- Sorting out things
- Make guesses (hypothesis) Microscope
- Carry out experiments
- Make conclusion
Scientists also find out about things using their senses.
- List five processes used by scientists when trying to solve a scientific problem.
- Which organs do we use for the following activities:
- List 2 science related occupation. How can you become one the two listed.
Describe three problems that you think can be answered by science.
Nigeria Basic Science Project by STAN page 1-14.
Topic: SCIENTIFIC METHODS
- Meaning of scientific methods
- Explanation of terms
Sub-Topic1: MEANING OF SCIENTIFIC METHODS
These are methods used by the scientists to find answers or solutions to various questions and problems identified. Scientific methods include:
- Identifying a problem
- Making hypothesis
- Drawing conclusion.
Scientists Sort Things out: They can sort things out by colour, sound, by sex, such as boys from girls or sorted out according to performance in class test, or sorted out by colour, shape, size, weight, roughness, how they respond to things that are done to them. These facts about things are called their properties.
- List five properties used by the scientists in sorting out things.
- Identify six processes/methods used by scientist to find solutions to their numerous questions.
Sub -Topic 2: EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Identifying a Problem: Scientists are very inquisitive. They are always asking questions so as to know why things are the way they are and find solutions to those questions.
Observation: Scientists observe objects very well by making use of their five senses which are eyes, hands, skin, noses and tongues. In a science lesson, it is dangerous to taste because some objects are poisonous.
Experimentation: A scientist also carries out experiment and writes down what they do and observe in the experiment. It is a practical way of finding solution to their questions. There are various equipments used by the scientist which include computer, Bunsen burner microscope, test-tubes, thermometer, etc.
Telescopes help us see things that are far away. They make distant objects look bigger.
Making Hypothesis (Making Guesses): After scientists have sorted out things, the only way they could get any further was by making guesses and then doing experiments to see if they are right. Scientists call a guess like this a hypothesis.
Recording: Recording is the art of writing down what has been observed in the course of the experiment. This is to remind them what they have done, what they have seen and what they have found out, or perhaps, they might be asked to draw a picture of the experiment.
Interpretation: There are many interpretations to be made from the experiment like observing reading. Its involves the analyzing the experiment.
Drawing conclusion: The purpose of this is to be sure if the experiment answers /supports the hypothesis rightly or not. If it is right, the experiment is repeated several times to get the same result again and again.
- Highlight five processes adopted by scientists to answer some of their questions.
- Mention five equipments used by the scientists for their work.
Identify and state the uses of seven science equipments.
Nigeria Basic Science Project by STAN pages 8-14
TOPIC: – FAMILY HEALTH (CLEANLINESS)
QUOTE: “Let it be observed, that slovenliness is no part of religion; that neither
this, nor any text of Scripture condemns neatness of apparel.
Certainly this is a duty, not a sin”.
‘Cleanliness is, indeed, next to Godliness’.
– John Wesley
- Personal cleanliness.
- Meaning of personal cleanliness
- Methods of maintaining personal cleanliness
- Advantages and disadvantages of personal cleanliness.
Sub-Topic 1: PERSONAL CLEANLINESS
Personal cleanliness is important for health because it kills very tiny organisms (micro-organisms) which can cause disease. It does not require much effort.
Personal cleanliness is keeping of ones body and his personal belongings neat, clean and tidy always.
Good personal health is a state of well-being of the whole body. Good health can be maintained by
- Doing exercise
- Eating a balanced diet
- Maintaining personal cleanliness
- Avoiding habits such as smoking and drinking alcohol
METHODS OF PERSONAL CLEANLINESS
- Cleanliness of your hair: Hair should be washed and combed every day. Plaited or braided hair should be brushed everyday and washed once a week. Hair must be kept clean to stop parasites, such as lice and fleas living in it.
- Cleanliness of your skin/regular bath: Skin is the covering of body. It secretes sweat. Sweat is sticky and can cause an unpleasant smell. The skin can provide a breeding ground for parasites such as lice, scabies mites and micro-organisms. To avoid this you should wash your body using soap once or twice a day.
- Cleanliness of your teeth, hands and nails: Teeth should be clean with a chewing stick or with toothpaste and a brush every morning and at night before going to bed. Cleaning removes food particles that can decay and encourage the growth of harmful micro-organisms. Wash your hands before meal and after going to the toilet or handling dirty things. Brush nails with a nail brush when you wash your hands. Keep your nails short.
- Cleanliness of your clothes,( under-wears) and shoes: Clothes absorb sweat. You should change clothes every day and washed before wearing them again. Shoes should be cleaned and dried properly after use.
- Cleanliness of our homes: Our homes must be kept clean at all times for healthy living. We should sweep and dust furniture, clear bushes around the home and toilets should be flushed and kept clean.
- Make a list of the things you have to do each day to make sure that your body is clean
- Explain the word micro-organisms.
Sub-Topic 2: ADVANTAGES OF OBSERVING PERSONAL CLEANLINESS
When personal cleanliness is observed, we enjoy the following
- You look attractive and beautiful.
- You will be lively and healthy.
- You will be emotionally balanced
- You will be regular and punctual at school and at work.
- One will be socially acceptable.
- Germs will not breed on your food or other edible materials.
- The brain will be at alert.
DISADVANTAGES OF NOT OBSERVING PERSONAL CLEANLINESS:
- Poor health
- Spread of diseases
- Emotional instability
- Low self esteem among others
- Money will be wasted on drugs and hospital.
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of observing and not observing personal cleanliness?
- Make a list of rules that you would observe to keep in good health.
- Name four materials required for keeping healthy.
- State the effects of exercise on health.
Nigeria Basic Science Project by STAN pages44-47
TOPIC: FAMILY HEALTH (NUTRITION)
- Food and adequate diet.
- Type or composition of nutrition
- Adequate diet
Sub-Topic 1: Food and Adequate Diet:
Food: Food is anything eaten to satisfy appetite and to meet physiological needs for growth, to maintain all body processes, and to supply energy to maintain body temperature and activity
Adequate/Balanced Diet: An adequate diet is that which is sufficient in quantity and food nutrients in the required amount/proportions or consists of a variety of foods in the right quantities and proportions to meet our needs.
Types of Food: This refers to the ways of grouping foods on various bases and purposes. Examples of food types are
- Solid or liquid
- Local or imported
- Cereals, vegetables or fruits
- Eaten raw or cooked
1.Why is food important to you?
- Define balance/adequate diet.
SUB-TOPIC: Classes of Food Nutrients:
There are five main classes of nutrients found in food, namely carbohydrates, proteins, fat and oil, minerals salt and vitamins. Nutrient is a group of chemical compounds found in food .In an adequate diet, they become six including water.
Carbohydrates: These are mainly concerned with supplying us with energy rice, yam, maize, cassava, etc.
Proteins: -These are food nutrients mainly concerned with growth and repair of parts of the body e.g meat, fish, eggs, beans, groundnut, milk, etc.
Fish as source of protein
Fats: They supply us with energy, palm oil, groundnut oil, butter, margarine, e.t.c. they supplied us energy.
Vitamins: These consist of fruits and green leafy vegetables – vitamins aid digestion and sound health.
Apples Pawpaw pineapples
Mineral salts : It helps us to digest our food and form the hard parts of our skeleton.
– onions, milk, tomatoes, dried fish, okra, olives e.t.c.
Tomatoes Okra Olives
- List food items which would make up a balanced or adequate breakfast, lunch and supper.
- Differentiate between a meal and a balanced diet.
In a tabular form, identify the food nutrients and examples of their food items.
READING ASSIGNMENT: Read Stan pages 47-50.
TOPIC: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION AND SAFETY 1 (MAINTAIN BALANCE)
- Source of earth energy.
- Water cycle.
Sub – Topic 1: Source of earth energy:
The sun is the primary source of all forms of energy. The sun radiates direct heat and light energy to the earth.
PLANTS AS PRIMARY PRODUCERS
- Plants get their energy from the light of the sun and used it to make food during the process of photosynthesis. This is the process whereby green plants manufacture their food in the presence of sunlight, carbon dioxide and water.
- Herbivores and carnivores (animals that eat plants and flesh) eat various parts of the plants to get the energy stored in the plants for their life processes. They store some and lose some energy as heat.
- As dead plants and animals decay, the chemicals in their bodies return to the earth. The mineral elements maybe absorbed by plants again. As this occurs, chemicals are cycled from living things to the non-living environment, reverting to the earth as elements.
- What is the source of all forms of energy?
- What type of energy does sun radiates on earth?
- The process of capturing light energy from the sun by plants is called –?
Plants as Primary Producers
In a community all the populations are depending on each other. For instance, in a community living organisms made up of plant (grass), cattle and man. There is producer, primary consumer and secondary consumer.
Grass Cattle Man
Producer pry consumer sec. consumer
This is a simple food chain. Here, plant is seen as the primary producer in this ecosystem.
Grass Grasshoppers lizard Hawk
Explain why plants are the primary producers.
- Define the term food web.
- With the aid of a diagram, describe a food web.
PRE-READING ASSIGNMENT: Read STAN pages 51-52
TOPIC: CARBON, WATER AND NITROGEN CYCLES
- Conservation of energy, water and wildlife
- Explanation on how carbon, water and nitrogen are maintained in nature
- Significance of maintaining balance natural resources
Sub – Topic 1: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
This means careful use of energy. The energy that comes from the sun is converted into a form in which it can be stored in green plants and which later is fed upon by other living things. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be transformed from one form to another.
CONSERVATION OF WATER
Water cycle provides a system for conserving water in nature. Water used for domestic washing and other purposes always find their ways to the atmosphere. It evaporates in the heat of the sun to form water vapour (evaporation). The water then falls back to the earth as rain.
CONSERVATION OF WILDLIFE
Ecosystem is made up of living organisms and their non-living environment. Wildlife plays an important role in maintaining the balance of various ecosystems. Their existence is threatened by
- Destroying and reducing their living space by burning, damming rivers and drawing swamps.
- Polluting their environments
- Indiscriminate hunting for their products
- Over fishing for food.
The importance of maintaining balance of resources in the environment is to enable human beings to meet up with all essential needs. The consequence of not maintaining balance will result to death of all living.
Carbon, used by all living organisms continuously circulates in Earth’s ecosystem. In the atmosphere it exists as carbon dioxide ( carbon iv oxide) a colourless, and odourless gas. Plants absorb carbon dioxide in the process of photosynthesis. Animals acquire the carbon stored in plants tissues when they eat and exhale carbon dioxide as a by product of metabolism. Surface bodies of water, especially oceans absorb vast amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Some carbon is removed from circulation as deposits of coal, oil, natural gas and limestone. The burning of fossils fuels adds additional carbon dioxide to the atmosphere
6 Co2 + 6H2O sunlight
C6 H12 O6 + 6O2
Sub Topic: Water Cycle
The source of all water is the sea. Sun heat the sea and some of the sea water changes into vapour through the process called evaporation. . The continuous movement of water from the land, rivers and oceans to the atmosphere and from the atmosphere to the land, rivers and oceans is known as the water cycle.
- What is the source of all water?
- When water evaporates it turns to what?
- What do you understand by wildlife conservation?
- Why is water conservation important?
SUB-TOPIC : NITROGEN CYCLE
Nitrogen is an essential element. The earth atmosphere contains 78% of nitrogen gas. Nitrogen is essential for making proteins and chlorophyll by plants.
The chemical nature of nitrogen gas (with triple bonds), makes it unusable in its elemental form. Thus, atmospheric nitrogen is fixed as ammonium by means of lightening (natural fixation), microbes (biological fixation) and industrial fixation (under high pressure and temperature). Nitrogen is also converted into nitrogen oxides (NOx) by burning fossil fuels.
Soil nitrogen is contributed by application of plant manures and fertilizers. Nitrogen from the soil reservoir is absorbed by some species of plants in the chemical form of ammonium ions or nitrate ions. Animals, on the other hand, derived their nitrogen requirements by consumption of plants and other organic matter.
Also known a ammonification, organic form of nitrogen from the animal wastes, death and decayed living organisms is converted into inorganic form. Over here, decomposers (bacteria and fungi) act on the decayed organic matter containing nitrogen and convert it into ammonium (NH4+).
By the process of nitrification, the ammonium NH4+ is converted into nitrates NO3– that are assimilated by plants. First, ammonium is oxidized into nitrites (NO2–), which are further oxidized to form nitrates (NO3–). In this nitrogen cycle step, oxygen is essential for conversion of the nitrates by nitrifying bacteria (mostly soil bacteria).
Denitrification is the process, wherein nitrates are converted to the molecular nitrogen form (N2) in an anaerobic condition by the process of reduction. Heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic denitrifiers are responsible for carrying out this nitrogen cycle step. This is the end of nitrogen cycle, in which the molecular nitrogen is returned back to the atmosphere and soil.
WAYS OF NITROGEN CYCLE
- Nitrogen fixation– This is done by nitrogen bacteria called Azotobacter, clostridium and Rhodo spirillum living in the soil are able to produce nitrates from free nitrogen in soil.
- Nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotic bacteria):- Species of Rhizobium associate with roots of leguminous plants e.g. groundnut, beans and crotalaria to build up nitrates which the root of the plant absorbs to from protein.
- Blue green algae: are capable of fixing the atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates.
- Thunder storms: During thunderstorms, the lightning produced causes the atmospheric to combine with oxygen to from nitrogen (ii) oxide (No)
N2 + O2 2NO
- Decay: – during decay of plants and animals, protein is decomposed by putrefying bacteria into ammonia. Nitrifying bacteria oxidize ammonia to nitrites. And another nitrifying bacteria (Nitrobacteria) convert’s nitrites to nitrates.
The process of converting ammonia to nitrates is known as nitrification.
- State the various process involved in carbon cycle
- What is the percentage of carbon (iv) oxide present in atmosphere?
- Define nitrification
- Write the equation involved in photosynthesis
- Draw a well labeled diagram of water cycle
READ STAN PAGES 54-58
TOPIC: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION AND SAFETY (SANITATION)
CONTENT: Definition of conservation
Types of human activities
Effects of human activities on ecosystem.
Conservation is defined as the control exploitation, planned or judicious use of natural resources to ensure their continuous availability and to preserve the quality or original nature of the environment. It can also be defined as the preservation of natural resources from loss waste or exploitation.
TYPES OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES
- Some human activities on the environment include:
- Construction of roads and houses
- Use of transportation
- Construction of industries
- Disposal of refuse, sewage, industrial effluent and
One important way of improving our environment is by maintaining a high level of sanitation. Sanitation is the removal of waste of all kinds from the home and its immediate surroundings. These include refuse which means dry waste and sewage which is the liquid wastes.
- List three human activities that affect the environment.
SUB TOPIC: Effects of human activities on the ecosystem
- Human activities have diverse effects on the ecosystem.
- Farming causes soil erosion. Many animals are forced to migrate from their natural environment and become extinct.
- Construction of roads and houses results in the loss of plants and animal species.
- During the construction of industries, forests are destroyed, animals are killed, and it affects and alters the plants and animals species of the ecosystem.
- Disposal of refuse, sewage, industrial effluent and waste causes pollution.
Explain the effects of road construction and farming on ecosystem.
List all the types of human activities.
State the effects of human activities on the environment.
Read Stan pages 67-72.
BIO DEGRADABLE AND NON BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS
Benefits of environmental sanitation
The compost: Is the organic matter which are decomposed by the action of bacteria.
Biodegradable materials are the materials discharged through human activities from homes and industries into the environment and are capable of being decomposed by natural means such as the activities of micro
-organisms while non-degradable materials are those which cannot be decomposed by natural means.
Examples of biodegradable materials are sewages like waste water, urines, feaces and others discharged from laundries, kitchen, toilet and bathrooms. Also examples of non-degradable materials are solid waste such as packaging materials, nylons, pure water nylon, bones, hairs, chemicals.
Effects of biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials
It causes high sanitation hazards
It creates bad color
It provides breeding grounds for insects and rodents that spread diseases
It hinders and harms the activities of beneficial micro-organisms.
It causes health hazards
(1). What are degradable materials
(2). Define compose
(3). List 5 effects of biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials on environmental sanitation
Sub Topic: Control of Biodegradable and Non-biodegradable materials in an environment
The way of controlling biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials are
- Provision of dustbins with cover in strategic places
- Burning of refuse in incinerator
- Dumping them in isolated areas far from human habitation
- Burying refuse in a sanitary landfill
- Creating or setting-up of enforcement sanitary personnel by the government To ensure commitment with sanitary rules
- Embark on enlightenment through radio and television programmes on adequate and proper refuse disposal
(1). List 5 ways of controlling biodegradable materials
(2). List the effects of non-degradable materials
Differentiate between sewage and refuse.
Mention ways of disposing refuse and sewage
READING ASSIGNMENT. Read Stan pages 67-79.
TOPIC: DISEASE VECTORS
Types of disease vectors
Life cycle of the mosquito and other vector
A vector is an animal or insect which can carry micro-organism that cause disease from one animal to another. Examples of vectors are rats, ticks, fleas and other insect such as mosquitoes, flies and lice.
Disease is a state of ill health or a disruption of the normal functioning of the body. There are diseases that can be passed from person to person or from animal to man. These are called communicable (infectious) diseases caused by micro-organisms like bacteria, viruses and protozoan. Organisms that cause diseases are called pathogens. Diseases that are not passed on to other people are called non-communicable (non-infectious) diseases.
TYPES OF DISEASE VECTORS
Tsetse fly Bedbugs
LIFE CYCLE OF THE MOSQUITO
The mosquito is the carrier of the micro-organism which causes malaria. The micro-organism is a protozoan called plasmodium. It lives in the blood cells, passes waste matter into them and eventually destroys them. The malaria parasite is carried is carried by the female anopheles. When the mosquito bites a person it passes the parasite into the blood.
LIFE CYCLE OF MALARIA
The stages in the life cycle of the mosquito: eggs-larva-pupa-adult
What is a vector?
Explain the life cycle of a mosquito.
Sub –Topic: Other Vectors
Control measures : water drainage, insecticides, oil spreading/spraying.
Transmission of malaria, river blindness, and sleeping sickness.
This is the common name for the most of familiar species of non-biting muscoid fly. It is found in the vicinity of human habitations throughout the world. It is often a carrier of such diseases as typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery, trachoria and anthrax. The adult fly transmits disease by contaminating food with disease organisms which it has picked up on its hairy legs or has ingested and then regurgitated.
LIFE CYCLE OF THE HOUSEFLY: The female lays an average of 150 white eggs in a mass. The female can live for about two months and can lay between 600 to 1000 eggs during its lifetime. The eggs hatch in about 12 hours into white, legless larvae called maggots which grow to 12.5mm in length. The maggots develop into pupa in five to six days. The pupa develops into a new adult in another four
to five days if the weather is warm or in a month or later if weather conditions are favourable.
LIFE CYCLE OF TSETSE-FLY
Tsetse-fly carries the sleeping sickness parasite. The parasite is trypanosome. The tsetse-fly spread the disease to man and other animals like goats, sheep pigs, horses and donkeys, by biting them. The parasite is passed to the bitten animal through the saliva of the tsetse fly. The bitten animals begin to feel the effects of the parasite after one to three weeks. The human victim suffers fever, headache, and frequent sleeping; hence it is called sleeping sickness or nagana.
Tsetse flies breed in shady, damp places such as the vegetation by the
River side. Some breed in open places like the grassland. One mating is sufficient for the tsetse fly to continue to produce new tsetse flies for the rest of her life time. The tsetse fly has a life span of between three weeks and five months. The eggs develops inside the fly and hatch into larvae which are released in a shady place.
The larva then developed into pupa and pupa to adult or imago.
TOPIC: CONTROL MEASURES
CONTENT: CONTROL MEASURES OF MOSQUITOES; CARRIER OF MALARIA AND OTHER CARRIERS.
A drop of oil can be put on top of the water containing the larva and pupa stages of the mosquito; this hinders the further development of mosquitoes.
The knowledge of thee life cycle of mosquito will bring insight on how to control its spread. A large number of mosquito eggs and larvae are destroyed by small fish. Mosquito may be controlled by eliminating their breeding places with oil or insecticides. Other ways of controlling the breeding of mosquitoes include clearing the bushes around the houses, removal of all broken bottles and any container that can hold water pouring kerosene on any stagnant water around the houses
Mosquito is the carrier of the micro-organism which causes malaria. This micro-organism is a protozoan called Plasmodium. Malaria is mainly caused by a type of mosquito called Female anopheles Mosquito. Major control measures are
CONTROL MEASURES OF MOSQUITOES; CARRIER OF MALARIA
(1) Clearing of stagnant water which is a breeding place for the growth of mosquito.
(2) Using insect repellant e.g. Raid
(3) Using mosquito nets over sleeping beds
(4) Clearing bushes around us.
CONTROL MEASURES OF BLACK FLY; CARRIER OF RIVER BLINDNESS
River blindness is a disease caused by a filarial worm. It is transmitted by an infected blood-sucking Black fly.
(1). Complete avoidance of bites of Black flies.
(2). Using insect repellant
(3). the destruction of the black flies by insecticides or fumigants
(4). Treatment of infected persons promptly by a medical doctor.
CONTROL MEASURE OF HOUSE FLY; CARRIER OF DYSENTERY
Apart from the three ways of preventing the spread of diseases by vectors such as:
I. Removing their breeding places
II. Controlling their life cycle
III. Killing the germs in the body of infected person without being harmed;
House fly could be controlled in the following ways;
- Avoid exposing human faeces, kitchen waste and refuse or compost heaps around
- Always cover your food, do not house fly to land on it.
- Spraying house fly with insecticides to kill them.
CONTROL OF TSE-TSE FLY
Like other vectors, tsetse fly could be controlled by:
- controlling their life cycle
- getting rid of their breeding places
3 Clearing bushes around your houses.
4 Stop the flies from breeding.
- What are vectors?
Mention diseases cause by vectors
Describe the life cycle of mosquitoes
Draw the diagram of life cycle of mosquito, house fly and tsetse fly
READING ASSIGNMENT Stan pages 81-87.
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