Spread of Diseases Physical and Health Education Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes Week 8

How Diseases Spread: Learn to Stay Healthy

Lesson Plan Presentation

Subject: Physical and Health Education
Class: Primary 5
Term: Third Term
Week: 8
Topic: Spread of Diseases
Sub-topic: Ways Diseases are Spread
Duration: 60 minutes

Behavioural Objectives:
By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. Describe how diseases are spread.
  2. List types of pathogens.
  3. Provide examples of diseases spread by air, food, insects, and body contact.
  4. Differentiate between communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Key Words:
Pathogen, disease, communicable, non-communicable, tuberculosis, diarrhoea, malaria, scabies.

Entry Behaviour:
Pupils are familiar with basic hygiene practices and have some knowledge of common illnesses.

Learning Resources and Materials:

  • Chart showing different types of pathogens and diseases.
  • Flashcards with disease names and pictures.
  • Hand sanitizer for demonstration.
  • Pictures of insects that spread diseases.

Building Background / Connection to Prior Knowledge:
Ask pupils to name any diseases they know and discuss how they think people get sick.

Embedded Core Skills:

  • Critical thinking
  • Communication
  • Health awareness

Reference Books:
Lagos State Scheme of Work, Physical and Health Education for Primary Schools, Textbook on Health Education.

Instructional Materials:

  • Charts
  • Flashcards
  • Hand sanitizer
  • Pictures

Content

I. Describe the ways diseases are spread:

  1. Air: Diseases can spread when infected people cough or sneeze, releasing germs into the air.
  2. Food: Contaminated food can carry germs, causing diseases when eaten.
  3. Insects: Insects like mosquitoes can carry and transmit diseases.
  4. Body contact: Touching an infected person or sharing personal items can spread diseases.

Examples of diseases spread by different agents:

  • Air: Tuberculosis
  • Food: Diarrhoea
  • Insects: Malaria
  • Body contact: Scabies

Understanding Types of Pathogens and Diseases Physical and Health Education Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes Week 6

Spread of Diseases

Ways Diseases Are Spread:

  1. Air 🌬️
    • Diseases: Tuberculosis, Flu
    • Example: When someone with tuberculosis coughs, tiny droplets with germs float in the air. If you breathe them in, you might get sick.
  2. Food 🍎
    • Diseases: Diarrhoea, Food Poisoning
    • Example: Eating food that is not clean or cooked properly can give you diarrhoea.
  3. Insect 🦟
    • Diseases: Malaria, Dengue
    • Example: Mosquitoes can carry the malaria germ. When they bite you, you can get malaria.
  4. Body Contact 🤝
    • Diseases: Scabies, Ringworm
    • Example: Touching someone with scabies can spread the mites to your skin.

Examples of Diseases Spread by Different Agents:

  1. Air 🌬️
    • Disease: Tuberculosis
    • Example: A person with TB coughing spreads germs through the air.
  2. Food 🍎
    • Disease: Diarrhoea
    • Example: Eating spoiled or dirty food causes diarrhoea.
  3. Insect 🦟
    • Disease: Malaria
    • Example: A mosquito bite can transmit malaria.
  4. Body Contact 🤝
    • Disease: Scabies
    • Example: Touching someone with scabies can spread the mites to your skin.

Remember: Always wash your hands, keep your food clean, and stay away from sick people to stay healthy!

Class Activity Discussion on Spread of Diseases

  1. Q: How are diseases spread through the air?
    A: Diseases can spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, releasing germs into the air.
  2. Q: Can you give an example of a disease spread by air?
    A: Yes, tuberculosis is a disease spread by air.
  3. Q: How do diseases spread through food?
    A: Diseases can spread through food when it is contaminated with germs, often from dirty hands or surfaces.
  4. Q: What is an example of a disease spread by contaminated food?
    A: Diarrhoea is an example of a disease spread by contaminated food.
  5. Q: How are diseases spread by insects?
    A: Insects can carry germs and spread diseases by biting humans.
  6. Q: Can you name a disease spread by insects?
    A: Malaria is a disease spread by mosquitoes.
  7. Q: How are diseases spread by body contact?
    A: Diseases can spread by body contact when touching an infected person or sharing personal items.
  8. Q: What is an example of a disease spread by body contact?
    A: Scabies is an example of a disease spread by body contact.
  9. Q: What should you do to prevent diseases spread by air?
    A: Cover your mouth when coughing or sneezing and wear masks to prevent spreading germs.
  10. Q: How can you prevent diseases spread by food?
    A: Wash your hands before eating and ensure food is cooked properly.
  11. Q: What can be done to prevent diseases spread by insects?
    A: Use insect repellent and sleep under mosquito nets to avoid insect bites.
  12. Q: How can you prevent diseases spread by body contact?
    A: Avoid sharing personal items and wash hands regularly to prevent diseases spread by body contact.
  13. Q: Why is it important to wash your hands?
    A: Washing hands helps remove germs and prevents the spread of many diseases.
  14. Q: What are communicable diseases?
    A: Communicable diseases are diseases that can be spread from person to person.
  15. Q: What are non-communicable diseases?
    A: Non-communicable diseases are diseases that cannot be spread from person to person.

Third Mid Term Test Physical and Health Education Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes Week 7

Evaluation Questions

  1. Diseases can spread through the ______.
    a) Water
    b) Air
    c) Fire
    d) Soil
  2. Tuberculosis is spread by ______.
    a) Food
    b) Insects
    c) Air
    d) Water
  3. Diarrhoea is often caused by ______.
    a) Bad air
    b) Dirty food
    c) Mosquito bites
    d) Cold weather
  4. Malaria is spread by ______.
    a) Flies
    b) Ants
    c) Mosquitoes
    d) Bees
  5. Scabies can be spread by ______ contact.
    a) Eye
    b) Ear
    c) Body
    d) Foot
  6. Diseases spread through air include ______.
    a) Malaria
    b) Scabies
    c) Tuberculosis
    d) Diarrhoea
  7. ______ is an example of a disease spread by insects.
    a) Tuberculosis
    b) Diarrhoea
    c) Malaria
    d) Ringworm
  8. Eating contaminated food can cause ______.
    a) Malaria
    b) Diarrhoea
    c) Tuberculosis
    d) Scabies
  9. ______ can spread diseases by biting.
    a) Mosquitoes
    b) Dogs
    c) Birds
    d) Fish
  10. Sharing clothes with an infected person can spread ______.
    a) Diarrhoea
    b) Tuberculosis
    c) Scabies
    d) Malaria
  11. To prevent diseases, we should always wash our ______ before eating.
    a) Clothes
    b) Hands
    c) Feet
    d) Face
  12. ______ is an example of a non-communicable disease.
    a) Malaria
    b) Cancer
    c) Tuberculosis
    d) Scabies
  13. ______ helps to prevent the spread of diseases through air.
    a) Washing hands
    b) Wearing masks
    c) Eating well-cooked food
    d) Using mosquito nets
  14. Covering your mouth when you ______ can help stop the spread of germs.
    a) Sing
    b) Cough
    c) Eat
    d) Sleep
  15. Using ______ can protect you from insect bites.
    a) Soap
    b) Nets
    c) Gloves
    d) Hats

These questions are designed to help grade 4 pupils understand how diseases are spread and how to prevent them.

Presentation

Step 1:
The teacher revises the previous topic which was “Hygiene and Personal Health”.

  • Ask pupils to recall what they learned about keeping themselves clean and preventing illness.

Step 2:
The teacher introduces the new topic “Spread of Diseases”.

  • Explain how germs cause diseases and how these germs can spread from one person to another.

Step 3:
The teacher allows the pupils to give their own contributions and corrects them when and where necessary.

  • Encourage pupils to share what they know about how diseases spread.
  • Use flashcards and pictures to show different ways diseases are spread and examples of diseases.

Teacher’s Activities:

  • Display charts and flashcards.
  • Explain how each type of pathogen spreads diseases.
  • Demonstrate the use of hand sanitizer and discuss its importance.

Learners’ Activities:

  • Participate in discussions.
  • Answer questions.
  • Identify examples of diseases from flashcards and pictures.

Assessment

  • Describe one way diseases can spread through air.
  • Give an example of a disease spread by contaminated food.
  • Name an insect that spreads diseases.
  • Explain how diseases can be spread by body contact.

Evaluation Questions:

  1. What are pathogens?
  2. Name one disease spread through the air.
  3. How can food cause diseases?
  4. Which insect is known for spreading malaria?
  5. What disease can you get from body contact?
  6. What is a communicable disease?
  7. What is a non-communicable disease?
  8. How can we prevent the spread of diseases by air?
  9. Why is it important to cook food properly?
  10. How can we avoid diseases spread by insects?

Conclusion:
The teacher goes around to mark and give feedback on pupils’ work, ensuring they understand how diseases spread and how to prevent them.

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