Understanding Types of Pathogens and Diseases Physical and Health Education Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes Week 6

Detailed Lesson Plan: Pathogens and Diseases

Subject

Physical and Health Education

Class

Primary 4

Term

Third Term

Week

6

Topic

Pathogens and Diseases

Sub-topic

Understanding Types of Pathogens and Diseases

Duration

40 minutes

Behavioural Objectives

By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. Define what pathogens are.
  2. Identify different types of pathogens.
  3. Describe the meaning of diseases and differentiate between communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Key Words

  • Pathogens
  • Diseases
  • Communicable
  • Non-communicable

Entry Behaviour

Pupils have basic knowledge of health and hygiene.

Learning Resources and Materials

  • Pictures of pathogens
  • Diagrams explaining diseases
  • Examples of communicable and non-communicable diseases

Building Background / Connection to Prior Knowledge

Ask pupils if they have ever heard about germs and how they can make us sick.

Embedded Core Skills

  • Critical thinking
  • Vocabulary development
  • Health awareness

Reference Books

Lagos State Scheme of Work for Physical and Health Education, Primary 4

Instructional Materials

  • Pathogen posters
  • Disease diagrams
  • Flashcards with disease names

Content

i. Understanding Pathogens

  • Meaning of Pathogen:
    • Pathogens are tiny organisms that can make us sick.
  • Types of Pathogens:
    • Bacteria, viruses, fungi, worms, and protozoa.

ii. Understanding Diseases

  • Meaning of Diseases:
    • Diseases are illnesses or conditions that affect our health.
  • Types of Diseases:
    • Communicable diseases can spread from person to person.
    • Non-communicable diseases do not spread from person to person.

Pathogens and Diseases

i. Pathogens

  • Meaning of Pathogen:
    • Pathogens are tiny organisms that can cause diseases in living things.
    • Examples: Bacteria, viruses, fungi, worms, and protozoa.
  • Types of Pathogens:
    1. Bacteria 🦠
    2. Viruses 🦠
    3. Fungi 🍄
    4. Worms 🪱
    5. Protozoa 🦠

ii. Diseases

  • Meaning of Diseases:
    • Diseases are illnesses or conditions that affect the body’s normal functions.
  • Types of Diseases:
    • Communicable Diseases: These can spread from one person to another.
    • Non-Communicable Diseases: These do not spread from person to person.
  • Difference between Pathogens and Diseases:
    • Pathogens are the tiny organisms that cause diseases, while diseases are the illnesses themselves.
  • Difference between Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases:
    • Communicable diseases can spread from person to person, while non-communicable diseases cannot spread in this way.

Remember:

  • Pathogens are like tiny invaders that make us sick, but we can protect ourselves by staying clean and healthy! 🚿💪

Relay Skills Physical and Health Education Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes Week 3

Class Activity Discussion for Grade 4

  1. What is a pathogen?
    • A pathogen is a tiny organism that can make us sick.
  2. Can you name some types of pathogens?
    • Yes, some types are bacteria, viruses, fungi, worms, and protozoa.
  3. What are diseases?
    • Diseases are sicknesses or conditions that affect our bodies.
  4. Can you explain the difference between pathogens and diseases?
    • Pathogens are the tiny things that cause diseases, while diseases are the sicknesses themselves.
  5. What are communicable diseases?
    • Communicable diseases can spread from one person to another.
  6. Can you give examples of communicable diseases?
    • Yes, examples include cough and cold, flu, and chickenpox.
  7. What about non-communicable diseases?
    • Non-communicable diseases cannot spread from person to person.
  8. Could you list some non-communicable diseases?
    • Sure, examples are asthma, diabetes, and heart disease.
  9. How do pathogens make us sick?
    • Pathogens can enter our bodies and cause harm by making us feel unwell.
  10. Why is it important to know about pathogens and diseases?
    • It helps us understand how to stay healthy and avoid getting sick.
  11. Can you catch a disease from someone else’s cough?
    • Yes, diseases like the flu and cold can spread through coughing.
  12. Are all diseases caused by pathogens?
    • No, not all diseases are caused by pathogens; some can be caused by other factors like genetics or lifestyle.
  13. How can we protect ourselves from pathogens?
    • We can wash our hands regularly, eat healthy foods, and avoid close contact with sick people.
  14. What should we do if we feel unwell?
    • We should tell an adult and see a doctor if we feel sick.
  15. Why is it important to learn about communicable and non-communicable diseases?
    • Understanding these helps us know how to prevent and manage different types of illnesses.

Swimming Strokes and Safety Rules Physical and Health Education Primary 4 Third Term Lesson Notes Week 5

Evaluation Questions

  1. Pathogens are tiny organisms that can cause __________ in living things.
    • a) Health
    • b) Happiness
    • c) Diseases
    • d) Growth
  2. The types of pathogens include bacteria, viruses, fungi, __________, and protozoa.
    • a) Plants
    • b) Animals
    • c) Worms
    • d) Rocks
  3. __________ are illnesses that affect the body’s normal functions.
    • a) Pathogens
    • b) Diseases
    • c) Plants
    • d) Animals
  4. __________ diseases can spread from one person to another.
    • a) Communicable
    • b) Non-communicable
    • c) Physical
    • d) Emotional
  5. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are examples of __________.
    • a) Diseases
    • b) Pathogens
    • c) Plants
    • d) Animals
  6. Protozoa are a type of __________.
    • a) Disease
    • b) Pathogen
    • c) Plant
    • d) Animal
  7. __________ are tiny organisms that cause diseases.
    • a) Diseases
    • b) Pathogens
    • c) Plants
    • d) Animals
  8. __________ diseases cannot spread from person to person.
    • a) Communicable
    • b) Non-communicable
    • c) Emotional
    • d) Physical
  9. Pathogens are different from diseases because pathogens are the tiny organisms that cause __________.
    • a) Health
    • b) Happiness
    • c) Diseases
    • d) Growth
  10. Non-communicable diseases do not spread from person to person, unlike __________ diseases.
    • a) Communicable
    • b) Non-communicable
    • c) Emotional
    • d) Physical
  11. __________ are examples of communicable diseases.
    • a) Cough and cold
    • b) Diabetes and asthma
    • c) Heart disease and cancer
    • d) Allergy and obesity
  12. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are types of __________.
    • a) Diseases
    • b) Animals
    • c) Pathogens
    • d) Plants
  13. Protozoa are a type of __________.
    • a) Animal
    • b) Plant
    • c) Pathogen
    • d) Disease
  14. Communicable diseases can spread through __________.
    • a) Talking
    • b) Sharing toys
    • c) Sleeping
    • d) Reading
  15. Non-communicable diseases are not spread through __________.
    • a) Breathing
    • b) Eating
    • c) Touching
    • d) Sleeping

Presentation

Step 1: Revising the Previous Topic

  • The teacher revises the previous topic on Swimming Strokes and Safety Rules.
  • Ask pupils to recall the main strokes in swimming and why safety rules are important.

Step 2: Introducing the New Topic

  • The teacher introduces the new topic: “Pathogens and Diseases”.
  • Show pictures of different pathogens and ask pupils if they know what they are.

Step 3: Engaging the Pupils

  • The teacher explains the meaning of pathogens and diseases in simple terms.
  • Pupils discuss different types of diseases they have heard about and whether they think they can spread from person to person.

Teacher’s Activities

  1. Display posters of different pathogens.
  2. Explain each type of pathogen using examples.
  3. Discuss the difference between communicable and non-communicable diseases.
  4. Show diagrams of common diseases and their effects on the body.
  5. Encourage pupils to ask questions and participate actively.

Learners’ Activities

  1. Observe and identify pathogens from pictures.
  2. Discuss diseases they have heard of and how they think they can be prevented.
  3. Write down examples of communicable and non-communicable diseases.
  4. Participate in a Q&A session to reinforce understanding.

Assessment

  • Pupils identify different types of pathogens from pictures.
  • Pupils list examples of communicable and non-communicable diseases.
  • Pupils explain the difference between pathogens and diseases.

Evaluation Questions

  1. What are pathogens?
  2. Name one type of pathogen.
  3. Can you list two examples of communicable diseases?
  4. What is the difference between communicable and non-communicable diseases?
  5. Why is it important to wash our hands regularly?
  6. Name a disease caused by bacteria.
  7. Can you explain what a virus is?
  8. What does “non-communicable” mean?
  9. How can we prevent the spread of diseases?
  10. Why should we cover our mouths when we cough or sneeze?

Conclusion

  • The teacher goes around to check pupils’ understanding and marks their work.
  • Pupils are encouraged to continue learning about health and hygiene at home.
  • Remind pupils to always wash their hands and stay healthy! 🚿💪
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