# Exploring Temperature: Learn to Compare and Convert in Mathematics Primary 5 Third Term Lesson Notes Week 1

**Subject**: Mathematics

**Class**: Primary 5

**Term**: Third Term

**Week**: 1

**Topic**: Temperature

**Sub-topic**: Degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit

**Duration**: 1 hour

**Behavioral Objectives**:

- Pupils should be able to compare degrees of hotness or coldness in degrees Celsius.
- Pupils should be able to convert temperature from degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit.

**Key Words**:

- Temperature
- Degrees Celsius (Â°C)
- Degrees Fahrenheit (Â°F)
- Thermometer

**Entry Behavior**:

- Pupils should know that temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is.

**Learning Resources and Materials**:

- Thermometer
- Pictures showing different scenarios (boiling water, tap water, cold water, etc.)
- Worksheets with temperature conversion exercises

**Building Background / Connection to Prior Knowledge**:

- Review the concept of temperature and explain the use of a thermometer.
- Discuss how pupils can feel temperature changes in their everyday lives.

**Embedded Core Skills**:

- Critical thinking
- Problem-solving
- Mathematical calculations

**Learning Materials**:

- Thermometers
- Pictures and illustrations
- Worksheets

**Reference Books**:

- Lagos State Scheme of Work
- Mathematics textbooks (Primary 5 level)
- Teacherâ€™s guide on temperature

**Instructional Materials**:

- Thermometers
- Pictures of temperature scenarios
- Charts explaining Celsius and Fahrenheit scales

**Content**:

- Understanding temperature and its measurement
- Comparing temperatures in degrees Celsius
- Converting temperatures from degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit using the formula (9/5 Ã— Â°C) + 32

**Comparing Temperatures:**- You can compare different temperatures.
- For example, compare your body temperature with the temperature in the classroom.

**Degrees Celsius (Â°C) and Fahrenheit (Â°F):**- Temperature is measured in degrees Celsius (Â°C) or degrees Fahrenheit (Â°F).
- For example, water boils at 100Â°C or 212Â°F.

**Converting Temperature:**- You can convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit using this formula: F = (9/5 Ã— Â°C) + 32.
- For example, to convert 40Â°C to Fahrenheit:
- F = (9/5 Ã— 40) + 32
- F = 72 + 32
- F = 104Â°F

- To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius: C = (F â€“ 32) Ã— 5/9.
- For example, to convert 95Â°F to Celsius:
- C = (95 â€“ 32) Ã— 5/9
- C = 35Â°C

**Thermometers:**- A thermometer measures temperature.
- There are different types of thermometers:
- Mercury thermometer measures water and air temperature.
- Clinical thermometer measures body temperature.

**Practice:**- Try converting the following temperatures:
- Convert 25Â°C to Fahrenheit: (9/5 Ã— 25) + 32 = 77Â°F
- Convert 68Â°F to Celsius: (68 â€“ 32) Ã— 5/9 = 20Â°C

- Try converting the following temperatures:
**Examples:**- Convert 28Â°C to Fahrenheit:
- (9/5 Ã— 28) + 32 = 82.4Â°F

- Convert 113Â°F to Celsius:
- (113 â€“ 32) Ã— 5/9 = 45Â°C

- Convert 28Â°C to Fahrenheit:

Class Activity Discussion

**What is temperature?**- Temperature tells us how hot or cold something is.

**How do we measure temperature?**- We measure temperature using a thermometer.

**What units do we use to measure temperature?**- We use degrees Celsius (Â°C) and degrees Fahrenheit (Â°F).

**What is a mercury thermometer?**- A mercury thermometer measures the temperature of water, air, and other liquids.

**What is a clinical thermometer?**- A clinical thermometer measures human body temperature.

**What is the formula to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit?**- F = (9/5 Ã— Â°C) + 32.

**What is the formula to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius?**- C = (F â€“ 32) Ã— 5/9.

**At what temperature does water boil in degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit?**- Water boils at 100Â°C or 212Â°F.

**At what temperature does water freeze in degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit?**- Water freezes at 0Â°C or 32Â°F.

**What are the coldest months in the temperature table?**- The coldest months are June and August with 22.2Â°C.

**Which month had the highest temperature?**- July had the highest temperature at 33.4Â°C.

**How much hotter was September than April?**- September was 0.5Â°C hotter than April.

**What is the average temperature for the six months in the table?**- The average temperature is around 27.4Â°C.

**Convert 15Â°C to Fahrenheit.**- (9/5 Ã— 15) + 32 = 59Â°F.

**Convert 68Â°F to Celsius.**- (68 â€“ 32) Ã— 5/9 = 20Â°C.

**Presentation**:

**Step 1**:- The teacher revises the previous topic on measuring and estimating temperatures.
- Ask pupils questions about the previous lesson to refresh their memories.

**Step 2**:- Introduce the new topic by explaining what temperature is and how it is measured.
- Show pupils a thermometer and explain how to use it.

**Step 3**:- Allow pupils to share their experiences with temperature (e.g., feeling hot or cold).
- Discuss how different situations (like boiling water, rainfall, cold water) have different temperatures.
- Correct pupils when necessary and provide additional explanations.

**Teacherâ€™s Activities**:- Explain the differences between degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit.
- Show pupils how to convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit using the formula.
- Provide examples and practice exercises.

**Learnersâ€™ Activities**:- Listen and watch the teacherâ€™s demonstrations.
- Ask questions and participate in discussions.
- Complete worksheets on converting temperatures from Celsius to Fahrenheit.

**Assessment**:

- Ask pupils to convert given temperatures from Celsius to Fahrenheit.
- Provide additional practice problems to check pupilsâ€™ understanding.

Answer the following questions

- The degree of hotness or coldness of an object is known as _______. a) speed b) length c) temperature d) weight
- We measure temperature using a _______. a) ruler b) thermometer c) calculator d) clock
- Temperature is measured in degrees Celsius (Â°C) or degrees _______ (Â°F). a) Fahrenheit b) Kelvin c) Joules d) Meters
- The formula to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit is _______. a) (5/9 Ã— Â°C) â€“ 32 b) (9/5 Ã— Â°C) + 32 c) Â°C + 32 d) (9/5 Ã— Â°C) â€“ 32
- The formula to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius is _______. a) (5/9 Ã— (F â€“ 32)) b) (9/5 Ã— F) + 32 c) F â€“ 32 d) (5/9 Ã— F) â€“ 32
- Water boils at 100Â°C or _______. a) 32Â°F b) 212Â°F c) 0Â°F d) 100Â°F
- Water freezes at 0Â°C or _______. a) 100Â°F b) 32Â°F c) 212Â°F d) 50Â°F
- The clinical thermometer is used to measure _______. a) water temperature b) room temperature c) human body temperature d) air temperature
- The maximum and minimum thermometer measures _______. a) the average temperature b) the lowest and highest temperature at a weather station c) boiling point of water d) none of the above
- Convert 25Â°C to Fahrenheit: a) 50Â°F b) 77Â°F c) 32Â°F d) 212Â°F
- Convert 15Â°C to Fahrenheit: a) 50Â°F b) 59Â°F c) 32Â°F d) 104Â°F
- Convert 77Â°F to Celsius: a) 10Â°C b) 15Â°C c) 20Â°C d) 25Â°C
- Convert 68Â°F to Celsius: a) 5Â°C b) 10Â°C c) 15Â°C d) 20Â°C
- Convert 100Â°C to Fahrenheit: a) 100Â°F b) 200Â°F c) 212Â°F d) 300Â°F
- Convert 32Â°F to Celsius: a) 0Â°C b) 10Â°C c) 20Â°C d) 30Â°C

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**Evaluation Questions**:

- What is temperature?
- How do we measure temperature?
- What is the freezing point of water in degrees Celsius?
- What is the boiling point of water in degrees Fahrenheit?
- Convert 20Â°C to degrees Fahrenheit.
- Convert 68Â°F to degrees Celsius.
- What instrument is used to measure temperature?
- What is 30Â°C in degrees Fahrenheit?
- How many divisions are between 0Â°C and 10Â°C on the thermometer?
- How do you convert Celsius to Fahrenheit?

**Conclusion**:

- The teacher goes around the classroom, checking pupilsâ€™ answers and providing guidance where necessary.
- Give positive feedback and encourage pupils to continue practicing temperature conversions at home.