Exploring Temperature: Learn to Compare and Convert in Mathematics Primary 5 Third Term Lesson Notes Week 1

Subject: Mathematics

Class: Primary 5

Term: Third Term

Week: 1

Topic: Temperature

Sub-topic: Degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit

Duration: 1 hour

Behavioral Objectives:

  • Pupils should be able to compare degrees of hotness or coldness in degrees Celsius.
  • Pupils should be able to convert temperature from degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit.

Key Words:

  • Temperature
  • Degrees Celsius (°C)
  • Degrees Fahrenheit (°F)
  • Thermometer

Entry Behavior:

  • Pupils should know that temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is.

Learning Resources and Materials:

  • Thermometer
  • Pictures showing different scenarios (boiling water, tap water, cold water, etc.)
  • Worksheets with temperature conversion exercises

Building Background / Connection to Prior Knowledge:

  • Review the concept of temperature and explain the use of a thermometer.
  • Discuss how pupils can feel temperature changes in their everyday lives.

Embedded Core Skills:

  • Critical thinking
  • Problem-solving
  • Mathematical calculations

Learning Materials:

  • Thermometers
  • Pictures and illustrations
  • Worksheets

Reference Books:

  • Lagos State Scheme of Work
  • Mathematics textbooks (Primary 5 level)
  • Teacher’s guide on temperature

Instructional Materials:

  • Thermometers
  • Pictures of temperature scenarios
  • Charts explaining Celsius and Fahrenheit scales


  • Understanding temperature and its measurement
  • Comparing temperatures in degrees Celsius
  • Converting temperatures from degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit using the formula (9/5 × °C) + 32
  1. Comparing Temperatures:
    • You can compare different temperatures.
    • For example, compare your body temperature with the temperature in the classroom.
  2. Degrees Celsius (°C) and Fahrenheit (°F):
    • Temperature is measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or degrees Fahrenheit (°F).
    • For example, water boils at 100°C or 212°F.
  3. Converting Temperature:
    • You can convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit using this formula: F = (9/5 × °C) + 32.
    • For example, to convert 40°C to Fahrenheit:
      • F = (9/5 × 40) + 32
      • F = 72 + 32
      • F = 104°F
    • To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius: C = (F – 32) × 5/9.
    • For example, to convert 95°F to Celsius:
      • C = (95 – 32) × 5/9
      • C = 35°C
  4. Thermometers:
    • A thermometer measures temperature.
    • There are different types of thermometers:
      • Mercury thermometer measures water and air temperature.
      • Clinical thermometer measures body temperature.
  5. Practice:
    • Try converting the following temperatures:
      • Convert 25°C to Fahrenheit: (9/5 × 25) + 32 = 77°F
      • Convert 68°F to Celsius: (68 – 32) × 5/9 = 20°C
  6. Examples:
    • Convert 28°C to Fahrenheit:
      • (9/5 × 28) + 32 = 82.4°F
    • Convert 113°F to Celsius:
      • (113 – 32) × 5/9 = 45°C

Class Activity Discussion

  1. What is temperature?
    • Temperature tells us how hot or cold something is.
  2. How do we measure temperature?
    • We measure temperature using a thermometer.
  3. What units do we use to measure temperature?
    • We use degrees Celsius (°C) and degrees Fahrenheit (°F).
  4. What is a mercury thermometer?
    • A mercury thermometer measures the temperature of water, air, and other liquids.
  5. What is a clinical thermometer?
    • A clinical thermometer measures human body temperature.
  6. What is the formula to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit?
    • F = (9/5 × °C) + 32.
  7. What is the formula to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius?
    • C = (F – 32) × 5/9.
  8. At what temperature does water boil in degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit?
    • Water boils at 100°C or 212°F.
  9. At what temperature does water freeze in degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit?
    • Water freezes at 0°C or 32°F.
  10. What are the coldest months in the temperature table?
    • The coldest months are June and August with 22.2°C.
  11. Which month had the highest temperature?
    • July had the highest temperature at 33.4°C.
  12. How much hotter was September than April?
    • September was 0.5°C hotter than April.
  13. What is the average temperature for the six months in the table?
    • The average temperature is around 27.4°C.
  14. Convert 15°C to Fahrenheit.
    • (9/5 × 15) + 32 = 59°F.
  15. Convert 68°F to Celsius.
    • (68 – 32) × 5/9 = 20°C.


  • Step 1:
    • The teacher revises the previous topic on measuring and estimating temperatures.
    • Ask pupils questions about the previous lesson to refresh their memories.
  • Step 2:
    • Introduce the new topic by explaining what temperature is and how it is measured.
    • Show pupils a thermometer and explain how to use it.
  • Step 3:
    • Allow pupils to share their experiences with temperature (e.g., feeling hot or cold).
    • Discuss how different situations (like boiling water, rainfall, cold water) have different temperatures.
    • Correct pupils when necessary and provide additional explanations.
  • Teacher’s Activities:
    • Explain the differences between degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit.
    • Show pupils how to convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit using the formula.
    • Provide examples and practice exercises.
  • Learners’ Activities:
    • Listen and watch the teacher’s demonstrations.
    • Ask questions and participate in discussions.
    • Complete worksheets on converting temperatures from Celsius to Fahrenheit.


  • Ask pupils to convert given temperatures from Celsius to Fahrenheit.
  • Provide additional practice problems to check pupils’ understanding.

Answer the following questions

  1. The degree of hotness or coldness of an object is known as _______. a) speed b) length c) temperature d) weight
  2. We measure temperature using a _______. a) ruler b) thermometer c) calculator d) clock
  3. Temperature is measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or degrees _______ (°F). a) Fahrenheit b) Kelvin c) Joules d) Meters
  4. The formula to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit is _______. a) (5/9 × °C) – 32 b) (9/5 × °C) + 32 c) °C + 32 d) (9/5 × °C) – 32
  5. The formula to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius is _______. a) (5/9 × (F – 32)) b) (9/5 × F) + 32 c) F – 32 d) (5/9 × F) – 32
  6. Water boils at 100°C or _______. a) 32°F b) 212°F c) 0°F d) 100°F
  7. Water freezes at 0°C or _______. a) 100°F b) 32°F c) 212°F d) 50°F
  8. The clinical thermometer is used to measure _______. a) water temperature b) room temperature c) human body temperature d) air temperature
  9. The maximum and minimum thermometer measures _______. a) the average temperature b) the lowest and highest temperature at a weather station c) boiling point of water d) none of the above
  10. Convert 25°C to Fahrenheit: a) 50°F b) 77°F c) 32°F d) 212°F
  11. Convert 15°C to Fahrenheit: a) 50°F b) 59°F c) 32°F d) 104°F
  12. Convert 77°F to Celsius: a) 10°C b) 15°C c) 20°C d) 25°C
  13. Convert 68°F to Celsius: a) 5°C b) 10°C c) 15°C d) 20°C
  14. Convert 100°C to Fahrenheit: a) 100°F b) 200°F c) 212°F d) 300°F
  15. Convert 32°F to Celsius: a) 0°C b) 10°C c) 20°C d) 30°C


Evaluation Questions:

  1. What is temperature?
  2. How do we measure temperature?
  3. What is the freezing point of water in degrees Celsius?
  4. What is the boiling point of water in degrees Fahrenheit?
  5. Convert 20°C to degrees Fahrenheit.
  6. Convert 68°F to degrees Celsius.
  7. What instrument is used to measure temperature?
  8. What is 30°C in degrees Fahrenheit?
  9. How many divisions are between 0°C and 10°C on the thermometer?
  10. How do you convert Celsius to Fahrenheit?


  • The teacher goes around the classroom, checking pupils’ answers and providing guidance where necessary.
  • Give positive feedback and encourage pupils to continue practicing temperature conversions at home.
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