Preservation of grains and cereal crops; maize, millet, rice, guinea corn, wheat etc. Agricultural Science Primary 6 First Term Lesson Notes Week 5

Subject: Agricultural Science

Class :Primary 6

Duration: 40 minutes

Term: 1st Term

Week: 5

Topic: Preservation of Grains and Cereal Crops

Learning Objectives:

  1. To understand the importance of preserving grains and cereal crops.
  2. To identify common methods of grain preservation.
  3. To learn how to store grains and cereal crops properly.

Embedded Core Skills:

  • Agricultural knowledge
  • Problem-solving skills
  • Environmental awareness

Learning Materials:

  • Visual aids (pictures of grains, storage methods)
  • Samples of grains (maize, millet, rice, guinea corn, wheat)
  • Whiteboard and markers


  1. Introduction to the importance of grain preservation.
  2. Explanation of common methods of preserving grains.
  3. Demonstrating how to store grains and cereal crops properly.


Step 1: Introduction (5 minutes)

  • Start by discussing the importance of grains and cereal crops in our diet.
  • Explain that preserving these crops is crucial to ensure food security and prevent wastage.
  • Preserving grains and cereal crops matters because:
    1. Food Security: It ensures we have enough to eat, especially during shortages or emergencies.
    2. Waste Prevention: It stops grains from spoiling, saving money and resources.
    3. Nutrition: It keeps grains fresh, so we get more nutrients from our food.
    4. Economic Stability: It supports farmers and food industries, helping the economy.
    5. Self-Reliance: It reduces the need for importing expensive grains.
    6. Environmental Care: It reduces food waste, which is good for the planet.
  • Evaluation
    1. Preserving grains and cereal crops helps ensure ________ food supply. a) Adequate b) Limited c) Random d) Expensive
    2. It prevents grains from ________, which saves money. a) Growing b) Spoiling c) Expanding d) Flying
    3. Proper preservation keeps grains fresh and ________. a) Colorful b) Tasty c) Nutritious d) Heavy
    4. Preserving grains supports farmers and the ________. a) Economy b) Weather c) Ocean d) Playground
    5. It helps in being less ________ on importing grains. a) Dependent b) Hungry c) Sleepy d) Confused
    6. Reducing waste is good for the ________. a) Planet b) Moon c) Stars d) Ocean
    7. Proper grain preservation prevents food from ________. a) Dancing b) Singing c) Spoiling d) Flying
    8. When grains are preserved well, they have more ________. a) Money b) Color c) Nutrients d) Friends
    9. Supporting farmers helps them make a ________. a) Cake b) Loss c) Profit d) Mistake
    10. Preserving grains ensures that we have enough to eat, especially during ________. a) Emergencies b) Vacations c) Birthdays d) Movies
    11. Keeping grains fresh means we get ________ nutrients from our food. a) Fewer b) More c) Less d) Better
    12. It stops grains from ________ and going bad. a) Growing b) Dancing c) Singing d) Spoiling
    13. Preserving grains is important for ________ stability. a) Economic b) Social c) Educational d) Political
    14. Reducing the need for importing grains can save ________. a) Money b) Time c) Space d) Energy
    15. Preserving grains and cereal crops is crucial for food ________. a) Insecurity b) Security c) Loneliness d) Disappointment

Step 2: Main Content (20 minutes)

  • Discuss various methods of grain preservation: drying, cleaning, fumigation, and hermetic storage.
  • Here are various methods of grain preservation, explained briefly:
    1. Drying: This means removing moisture from grains using sunlight or machines. Dry grains last longer.
    2. Cleaning: It’s about getting rid of dirt, insects, and broken grains. Clean grains stay safe to eat.
    3. Fumigation: This is using chemicals to kill pests (like insects) that harm grains. Fumigation keeps grains bug-free.
    4. Hermetic Storage: It’s sealing grains in airtight containers to keep air and pests out. Hermetic storage stops grains from spoiling.
  • Evaluation :
    1. Drying is a method of grain preservation that removes ________. a) Moisture b) Color c) Pests d) Smell
    2. Cleaning grains means getting rid of ________. a) Dirt and insects b) Flavors and colors c) Heat and light d) Size and shape
    3. Fumigation uses chemicals to kill ________ that harm grains. a) Plants b) Pests c) Birds d) Machines
    4. Hermetic storage involves sealing grains in ________ containers. a) Open b) Transparent c) Airtight d) Paper
    5. Drying grains helps to prevent them from becoming ________. a) Tasty b) Fresh c) Spoiled d) Dry
    6. Cleaning grains removes dirt, insects, and ________ grains. a) Broken b) Beautiful c) Expensive d) Red
    7. Fumigation uses chemicals to keep grains free from ________. a) Moisture b) Dirt c) Pests d) Air
    8. Hermetic storage keeps grains safe by sealing them from ________. a) Insects b) Light c) Air and pests d) Moisture
    9. When we dry grains, we are removing ________ from them. a) Color b) Moisture c) Pests d) Taste
    10. Cleaning grains helps ensure they are ________ to eat. a) Ready b) Broken c) Safe d) Dry
    11. Fumigation uses chemicals to get rid of ________ in grains. a) Moisture b) Dirt c) Pests d) Heat
    12. Hermetic storage uses ________ containers to protect grains. a) Transparent b) Airtight c) Open d) Big
    13. Drying is important to prevent grains from becoming ________. a) Tasty b) Fresh c) Spoiled d) Wet
    14. Cleaning grains removes things like dirt, insects, and ________ grains. a) Broken b) Beautiful c) Expensive d) Soft
    15. Fumigation helps in keeping grains ________ from pests. a) Wet b) Fresh c) Dry d) Safe
  • Use visual aids to show the process of each preservation method.
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
  • Drying:
    • Advantages:
      • Longer Shelf Life: Drying extends the storage time of grains, reducing spoilage.
      • Inexpensive: It’s a cost-effective method, especially when using sunlight.
      • Natural: Sun drying doesn’t involve chemicals.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Weather-Dependent: Sun drying requires sunny weather, which can be a challenge in some regions.
      • Labor-Intensive: Turning grains and monitoring the process can be time-consuming.


    • Advantages:
      • Removes Contaminants: Cleaning removes dirt, insects, and damaged grains, ensuring better quality.
      • Improved Storage: Clean grains are less likely to attract pests or spoil.
      • Safer to Eat: Cleaner grains are safer for consumption.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Labor-Intensive: Cleaning can be physically demanding and time-consuming.
      • Equipment Needed: Proper cleaning may require specialized equipment.


    • Advantages:
      • Effective Pest Control: Fumigation efficiently eliminates pests like insects and rodents.
      • Quick Process: It works relatively fast to protect grains.
      • Wide Applicability: Suitable for various types of grains.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Chemical Hazards: Fumigation involves the use of chemicals, which can be harmful if not handled correctly.
      • Cost: The cost of fumigants and safety measures can add up.
      • Environmental Concerns: Improper disposal of fumigant containers can harm the environment.

    Hermetic Storage:

    • Advantages:
      • Airtight Seal: Prevents air and pests from entering, preserving grain quality.
      • Long-Term Storage: Suitable for long-term storage of grains.
      • Reduces Losses: Effective in reducing post-harvest losses.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Initial Investment: Purchasing hermetic storage containers can be expensive.
      • Maintenance: Requires periodic inspection and maintenance to ensure airtight seals.
      • Limited Size: Available containers may have limited capacity.

    Each method has its strengths and weaknesses, and the choice depends on factors like available resources, scale of production, and the specific grains being preserved.

  • Evaluation
    1. Drying grains helps ________ their shelf life. a) Increase b) Reduce c) Maintain d) Sell
    2. Drying grains under the sun is ________. a) Expensive b) Time-consuming c) Chemical-free d) Risky
    3. Cleaning grains removes ________. a) Freshness b) Contaminants c) Taste d) Size
    4. Clean grains are ________ to pests. a) Attractive b) Unattractive c) Delicious d) Invisible
    5. Fumigation is quick in protecting grains but involves ________. a) Chemical hazards b) Sunshine c) Water d) Air
    6. Hermetic storage containers are ________ to keep pests out. a) Open b) Airtight c) Dirty d) Transparent
    7. Hermetic storage is suitable for long-term ________. a) Play b) Storage c) Losses d) Harvest
    8. Hermetic storage requires regular ________ to stay airtight. a) Cleaning b) Inspection c) Fumigation d) Drying
    9. Drying grains extends their ________. a) Taste b) Cost c) Storage time d) Weight
    10. Cleaning grains removes dirt and ________. a) Contaminants b) Sunshine c) Rain d) Air
    11. Fumigation effectively eliminates ________. a) Pests b) Sunshine c) Grains d) Water
    12. Fumigation involves the use of ________. a) Water b) Chemicals c) Soil d) Air
    13. Hermetic storage prevents ________ from entering the containers. a) Air and pests b) Sunshine c) Rain d) Water
    14. Hermetic storage is effective in reducing ________ after harvest. a) Profits b) Costs c) Post-harvest losses d) Contaminants
    15. Each preservation method has its own ________. a) Advantages and disadvantages b) Prices and sizes c) Colors and shapes d) Flavors and tastes

Step 3: Practical Demonstration (10 minutes)

  • Show the students how to properly store grains using airtight containers or bags.
  • Explain the importance of keeping grains away from moisture, pests, and sunlight.
  • Allow students to practice storing grains in small groups.

Teacher’s Activities:

  • Facilitate discussions and activities.
  • Provide practical demonstrations.
  • Answer questions and clarify doubts.

Learners’ Activities:

  • Listen attentively.
  • Participate in discussions and practical activities.
  • Ask questions for clarification.
  • Practice proper grain storage.


  • Observation of students during the practical demonstration.
  • Written assessment: 5 short-answer questions.

Sample Short-Answer Questions:

  1. Why is it important to preserve grains and cereal crops?
  2. Name three common methods of grain preservation.
  3. What are the advantages of hermetic storage for grains?
  4. How can you protect grains from pests during storage?
  5. Explain the role of drying in grain preservation.

Conclusion on the Topic: In conclusion, we have learned that preserving grains and cereal crops is vital for food security and preventing wastage. We discussed various methods of preservation and practiced proper grain storage techniques. Remember, by preserving these valuable crops, we contribute to a more secure and sustainable food supply

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