2 Word associated with human body system and function

  • Consonant clauses
  • Expository essay:- controlling HIV/AIDS in Nigeria
3 Word associated with health 

Consonant clauses

Noun phrase and functions

4 Relative pronouns

Summary writing 

Word associated with building and building construction

5 Unstressed vowels sound

Argumentative Essay:- should female circumcision should abolished or military rule is better than civilian rule

6 Plural forms of nouns


7 Test 
8 Adjectives and adverbs

Expository Essay:- scientific writing on a report of an experiment carried out by a student or a laboratory report 

9. Complex sentences

Analysis of complex sentence


10 Phrasal Verbs:

Letter writing: features and format of a Formal letter





Nominalization is an academic grammar tool which is used to turn verbs and adjectives into nouns.

Example: Exercising is essential for good health in this example, we have turned the verb “exercise” into a noun so that it can serve as the subject of the sentence.

Nominalization function just like nouns: as subjects and objects of verbs and preposition.

Also, in linguistics, nominalization or nominalisation is the use of a word which is not a noun (e.g. a verb, an adjective or an adverb) as a noun or as the head of a noun phrase, with or without morphological transformation. The term can also refer specially to the process  of  producing  a noun from another part of speech.

How Nominalization are formed:

Example: The Fiber in apples helps with digestion.

Nominalizations are formed by adding a suffix to the original verb or adjective.

A suffix is a meaningful segment that is added into the end of a word. Unlike prefixes, suffixes can change the part of speech of a word. 

Example: The suffix – tion changes the verb digest into a noun: digestion.

More examples are:

ance / ence (permanent – permanence)

ing (eat – eating)

ness (healthy – healthiness) 

ment (enjoy – enjoyment)

tion (assimilate – assimilation)


Formation of verbs from Adjectives

Adjective Verb

Able Enable 

Abundant Abound 

Wide Widen

Specific Specify

Rich Enrich

Solid Consolidation

Popular Popularize 

Just Justify 

Flat Flatten

Pure Purify

Different Differentiate 

Base Debase 

Civil Civilize 

Dark Darken

Equal Equalize


TOPIC: CONSONANT SOUNDS /j/ and /ʋ/ /jʋ:/


Consonant sounds are sounds that are produced when there is an obstruction in the air stream. The obstruction can be partial or total. The English consonants according to Roach (2002) are sounds that obstruct the flow of air through the vocal tract. 

Consonants could also be described in mainly articulating terms because they usually involve contents of speech organs in their description. These sounds are produced with the air which originates from the lungs called “Pulmonic egressive air” and passes through the vocal tract. These are twenty-four (24) consonant sounds in English language. Each has its mode of articulation. 

The consonant sounds are divided into two:  (i) voiced sounds (ii) Voiceless sound 

Voiced sounds: these are sounds produced when the vocal cords vibrate in the course of their production, in order words, some English consonants are voiced sounds. There are fifteen (15) voiced sounds in English.

They are: /b/, /d/, /g/, /j/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /v/, /w/, /z/, /ʒ/, / j /, /d/, /dʒ/

Voiceless sounds are sounds produced when the vocal cords do not vibrate in the course of the production. Meaning, some English consonant are produced when the vocal cords do not shake while producing them. These sounds are termed “voiceless sound”. There are nine (9) voiceless sounds in English, they include: /t/, /k/, /p/, /f/, /s/, /ts/, /h/, /ʃ/, /ɵ/

/j/ – approximant or semi vowel, palatal. This sounds like vowel /i/ it occurs in words that start with letter “y” as in 

ye /ji:/

yield /ji:ld/

yard /ja:d/

year /j: (r)/

It can also appear in the pronunciation of words like:

duty /dju:ti/ news /nju:z/ student /stju:dənt/

knew /nju:/ muse /mju:z/ pew /pju:/

huge /hju:dʒ/ sue /sju:/ unique /ju:nisk/





Summary writing is primarily concerned with starting so much in very few words by remouing superfluous and expanded details.

Also, summary writing is concerned  with producing a bridged versions of a given text or passage so that all the salient issues are brought out. It also involves writing down a brief and concise account of a long passage.

There are four main things students have to note in order to write a good summary. These are:

  1. Brevity: this demands that the student must be brief and concise in their answers. There is no room for the use of flowering language or any other additional information aside from the main points.
  2. Relevance: thus calls for a candidate’s answers to be relevant to the points mentioned in the passage. Students are not expected in summary writing to give any fact or point outside the passage, however relevant they think the fact or point is 
  3. Proper courage of the passage: this demands that students must read and understand every aspect of the passage.
  4. Clarity: this means that students are expected to put down their answers clearly.




This refers to when two or more consonants occur together in a word without a vowel between them. E.g. street, slump etc.

It can be found at the beginning (initial) middle (media) or end (final) of words,

In many Nigerian languages, there are no consonant clusters, but in English, there may be initial cluster of two, three or four consonant in a word without an intervening vowel.

Two consonant sounds in initial position: examples are bride, dwell, crime, flame, spice, play, crop etc.

Crust /krᴧst/ trickle /trikl/

Stay /stei/ cradle /greit/

Scheme /ski:m/ graph /grᴂf/

Fruit /fru:t/ prince /prins/

Tree /tri:/ drop /drↄp/


Class Work

Give eight examples of consonant clusters in the initial position and transcribe your examples.





Comprehension is a process of reading, understanding and explaining what is written in a passage. For every comprehension exercise, there must be a passage to be read. The purpose of comprehension exercise is to test students’ understanding of a given passage. In comprehension, the thought of the writer are presented to students for reading, understanding and explaining.

Useful Hints On SSCE Comprehension

SSCE comprehension is to test students’ understanding of the passage. After reading the passage, you interpret or explain the content of the passage in your own words. It is when you do this that you claim to have understood the passage. Although you are at liberty to make use of words from the passage, you must be careful not to be too reckless in copying down the portion of the passage which you feel answers the questions.

Always restrict your answer to you understanding of the passage. No one is interested in your personal opinion of the topic discussed in the passage. In addition to this, you are not concerned with the correctness of the facts or information in the passage. You should not allow beliefs or opinion to affect your reactions or answer to the passage.


Step-By-Step Approach to SSCE Comprehension

SSCE comprehension demands a careful step-by-step approach. Majority of the students who fail comprehension exercise fail because they are in a hurry to answer without taking time to understand the passage. The suggested step-by-step are the following: 

  1. Read the passage very carefully and make sure that you understand the passage. This may take you more than one reading, depending on your skill and ability to read and understand the passage. The first reading will intimate you with the subject matter or theme of the passage. Read the passage for the second time and take note of the attitude of the author of the passage to his subject. After the second reading, you may read the questions in order to know the main points emphasised in the passage. Then go for the third reading of the passage and not the significant points that answer the questions on the passage.

The reading of the passage must be done quickly with full attention in order to have a total understanding of the passage. It is after understanding the passage that you can now go back to the questions and start answering them.

  1. In putting down your answer, they need not be written in sentences, unless otherwise stipulated but make sure you give only one answer to a question.
  2. Though you are free to use the words from the passage in your answers, you must be able to use your own words or expression to show your understanding of the passage.
  3. Where your answer should show comparison between two or more things mentioned in the passage, your answer must indicate or show the comparison.
  4. Where you are asked to substitute a word or phrase in place of some underlined words in the passage the word must fit in perfectly in terms of meaning and collocation.
  5. When you are substituting a word or phrase with another word or phrase, if the word or phrase is an adjective or noun or in a particular tense, your answer should be in a similar form.
  6. Your answer, if taken as a whole, must make sense before any part of it is accepted for scoring.
  7. You must take pains to spell your words correctly. Though you may be pardoned for wrong spelling of words in comprehension answers, except if it is woeful, it shows your diligence if you spell your words correctly.
  8. Your answers must be error-free grammatically, too.





The crowding of consonant sounds within the same environment before the insertion of a vowel sound in words is consonant cluster. It is the coming together of more than one consonant sound in a word. It can be easily identified if the transcription is done. It can appear at different locations – initial, medial or final position, but the common ones are initial and final position. It can be expressed as (ccc) (vccc) that is 3 consonants may come before vowel and up to 2 consonant may follow the vowel.


2 consonant clause words


Initial (ccv) Medial (vccv) Final (vcc)

Play after shift

/plei/ /a:fta/ /sift/

Twinkle master risk

/twiokal/ /ma:ster/ /risk/


  1. Consonant cluster words

Initial (cccv) Final (

Strength texts

/stregke/ /tesk/

Strong ask

/str3g/ /a:sk/



Skw Kw

Squander queen

Square equality

Squash quench

Squad quiet

Squalor equal





Writing is a form of persuasive communication. There is always a point of view to project and which the writer wants the reader to understand. In order words, we write for a reader. The success of writing is therefore best judged by how well the reader understands the message we are trying to send by writing.

Writing is one of the most significant features if a literate society. It is the use of language in its written form. The writer’s opinion is the thesis, which indeed an essay should contain organised materials properly synthesized constitute good writing. 


The qualities of a good writing have been discussed in varied forms. However, we find these noted in Ebele Eko (1987) more encompassing and exhaustive than others. They are 

  1. Economy
  2. Simplicity
  3. Clarity


  1. ECONOMY: Economy in this sense means conciseness. To ne concise is to utilise the minimum number of words to express an idea in a sentence without loosing any detain. Also a good writing should be concise in the number of sentences in a paragraph and in the number of paragraphs in a piece of writing. A good writing should not emphasise economy at the expense of clarity and accuracy. Redundancy of words, sentences and paragraphs should be avoided.
  2. SIMPLICITY: The language of a good writing should be simple. It should not be too difficult to understand. To achieve this, the writer should avoid the use of rare and complex vocabularies: and long complex sentences which could be broken down into several well arranged simple sentences. What should engage the writer’s mind is how well his message is delivered and understood. Anyway, writing is done for someone else to read.

In all, a good writing should be straight forward and easily understood.

  1. CLARITY: Clarity is another important quality of a good writing. A writer should express his subject of discussion as clearly as possible. He should have the ordinary readers in mind. He should be eager to invite more people into his field. This can be best done by demystifying the subject with the use of language which does not convey obscurity and vagueness of ideas. No matter how technical and abstract a subject might be a writer should be able to give the reader information and instruction that are simple, clear, direct and therefore effective, useful and educative. This goes a long way to show that the writer has adequate knowledge of his subject.

Longer essays require elaborate outlines. These outlines can occur in any of the two forms – topic and sentence outlines. The topic outline is shorter. It sets down points or ideas instages without explaining. The sentence outline is more restricted and more specific in its directives.

The form of the outline

Stage I – Formulate the thesis and establish the purpose of the essay

Stage II – Write down the major ideas or topic sentences each directly connected to the thesis as major paragraph

Stage III – Sub-divide each topic sentence into sub-paragraphs, each dealing with just a point.

State IV – (a) Complete the subdivision and write complete sentence  (b) Revise the essay ensuring the topic of the presentation (c) Adhere to the outline

Types of Essay

  1. Narrative Essay
  2. Descriptive Essay
  3. Argumentative Essay
  4. Expository Essay.





Stress means the extra force usually applied when pronouncing a partivular word or syllable. In other words, it refers to a property of syllables which make them stand out as more noticabe than others. 

Stress can also be described as the contrast between different degrees of breath – force given to syllables in English. 

Stress embraces three clear categories. They are word stress, sentence stress and emphatic stress.


Word stress is more or less fixed. Each word possesses strong/weak stresses which is content words in English. These are Nouns, Adverbs, Verbs and Adjectives. It begins strongly at the beginning of the stress and dies down at the end of the syllable. It is often made wit stable pitch. 

In speech we use words of one, two or more syllables. In any words of more than one syllable, one syllable is stressed and the other syllable normally has a lesser degree of stress. In English, there are three degrees of stress:

  1. Primary / strong stress
  2. Secondary stress
  3. Unstressed / weak syllable 

Stress placement is shown

(i) By either placing a mark (‘) at the beginning of the stressed syllable, for example ‘contest con’test. 

(ii) OR by capitalizing the letters of the stressed syllable: for example CONtest, contest.


Primary/strong/stressed syllable

It is a syllable pronounced with greater or much effort. It is indicated by placing a STROKE (‘) or top before the syllable sound to be stressed but in this work, the stressed shall be written in capital letter

Primary stress on 

1st syllable 2nd syllable 3rd syllable

CAPtain comMAND democratic

 RUbber supPORT teleVIsion 

PAINter reJOICE inhiBItion

JOURney meTAlLIC acaDEmic

SUBject humILITY pessiMIStic






Summary writing is concerned with producing a bridge versions of a given test or passage so that all the salient issues are brought out. It involves a critical analysis of a given text to determine the purpose of a writer and using that as a point of departure to form an opinion on the subject within the prevailing socio-cultural circumstances.

For SSCE candidate, summary questions require the candidate to express ideas in one or two sentences depending in the question.

Steps to summary writing 

Certain skills are required for a successful summary writing exercise!

  1. Good vocabulary development is essential in carrying out the task.
  2. Write in sentence: summary answers should be written in sentences. When the student writes a preamble (a kind of introduction to his sentence) to his answers, the preamble must flow into the sentences.
  3. Short and concise answers: summary answers should be short and concise. Avoid inclusion of irrelevant testraneous materials in every scoring answer. Limit your answers only to inform available in the passage.
  4. Use your own words: in wrting down your answers make us of your own words and expressions as much as possible. You are not expected to engage in mindless lifting of words and expressions from the passage.
  5. Use good grammar: summary answers should be written down in good grammar and expression. Make sure that your answers are devoid grammatical and expression errors.


Class works: New Oxford secondary English course for senior secondary schools page 38.


Assignment: New Oxford secondary English course for senior secondary schools page 52-53.




An adjective is described as a word that qualifies or modifies nouns and pronouns.

Adjective generally, give more information about nouns and pronouns – in items of the attributes such as quality, colour, quantity etc. Such words come nearer to the nouns they modify than all other elements that modify such nouns.


There are two uses of every adjective, namely: (i) Attributive use (ii) Predicative use

  1. ATTRIBUTIVE USE: An adjective used with a noun is known as attributive use.

Examples: beautiful girl

Cleaner student

Tall tree

Fair face

Lovely flower


  1. PREDICATIVE USE: An adjective used with a verb is known as predicative use.

Examples: she is afraid

He is alive

They are dead

He looked happy



Adjectives are divided into ten types namely:

  1. Adjective of quality
  2. Adjective of quantity
  3. Adjective of number
  4. Demonstrative adjective
  5. Distributive adjective
  6. Interrogative adjective
  7. Possessive adjective
  8. Emphasizing adjective
  9. Exclamation adjective
  10. Proper adjective


  1. ADJECTIVE OF QUALITY: Is the adjective that is used to talk about the quality of a person or a thing.

Example: Wealthy, regional, industrial, fundamental, elementary, primary

E.g: The Yoruba is a regional language 

He is a wealthy person

Kafanchan is an industrial city

  1. ADJECTIVE OF QUANTITY: An adjective used to talk about the quantity of things.

Exmaples: little, much, enough, no, any, whole, some, all, great, half, sufficient

E.g. There is a little milk in the jug

My father earned enough money

He showed much courage in the war


  1. ADJECTIVE OF NUMBERS: An adjective used to talk about the number of things or persons is known as adjective of number.

Examples: fine, few, no, many, all, some, most, several, first, any, one.

E.g: She wrote six papers for her B.A

Only a few people are kind to the poor

I got first class in my B.A

All students passed in the exam.


  1. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE: An adjective used to point out which person or thing we speak about is known as demonstrative adjective.

Example: this, that, these, those

E.g: This book is very interesting 

That girl is very beautiful 

Those flowers are lovely


  1. DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVE: Is an adjective used to refer to each and every person or thing separately 

Example: each, every, either, neither, any, none, both

E.g. Each boy was awarded a diploma

Every Nigerian is entitled to adult franchise

Every citizen should love his motherland

Neither party has got majority in the recent elections

Neither country accepted the treaty


  1. INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE: An adjective used to question is known as interrogative adjective .

Example: what, which whose

E.g: What advice shall I give you?

What language do you teach at college?

Which place do you wish to visit?

Which poet do you like most?

Whose photograph is this?

Whose hand writing is this?

On whose recommendation did you apply for this post?


  1. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE: is an adjective used to talk about ownership or possession.

Example: my, your, our, his, her, its, their

E.g: Your father is a doctor

My mother is a teacher

Our country is Nigeria

His wealth was lost

Her husband died in an accident

All their daughters were married last year.



An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb and adjective or another adverb

Examples: She writes quickly

Bukola is very smart

He explained the poem fairly well


Adverbs are divided into eight kinds on the basis of their use

  1. Adverb of manner
  2. Adverb of place
  3. Adverb of time
  4. Adverb of frequency
  5. Adverb of certainty
  6. Adverb of degree
  7. Interrogative adverb
  8. Relative adverb


  1. ADVERB OF MANNER: An adverb used to show how an action is done is known as an adverb of manner. Example: quickly, bravely, happily, hard, fast, well clearly, soundly, probably, possible, evidently, unfortunately, luckily, sadly

E.g: They lived happily

Bukola walks gracefully

She speaks fluently

  1. ADVERB OF PLACE: Is an adverb that is used to show where an action is done.

Example: here, there, up, down, near, below, above, away, out, in, everywhere, backward, within, by.

E.g. I went there

She stood near the gate

Please come here


  1. ADVERB OF TIME: An adverb used to show when an action is done is known as adverb of time.

Example: now, then, today, tomorrow, early, soon, still, yet, before, late, ago, lately, daily, already, never, since, formarly.

E.g. My father is not at home now

She will come here soon

She came late yesterday 


  1. ADVERB OF FREQUENCY: An adverb used to show how often an action is done is known as adverb of frequency.

Example: once, twice, often, never, always, occasionally, again, frequently, seldom, sometimes 

E.g They talked to each other again

We visited Jos twice

They never go to films


  1. ADVERB OF CERTAINTY: An adverb used to show definiteness of the action is known as an adverb of certainty 

Example: surely, certainly, definitely, obviously

E.g. surely, she loves me

I shall certainly help you

Janet is obviously very cleaner 






COMPREHENSION: reading a passage in New oxford secondary English SS2 page 62 unit 9. 

Class work: answer the comprehension question in unit 9


Structure: Complex sentences: analysis of complex sentences

The complex sentence is a combination of the main clause and one or more subordinate  caluse(s) 

Ex: I prayed before I left

She came as soon as she heard


The analysis of a complex sentence 

  • Find out the principal clause
  • Find out the subordinate clause
  • Identify each sub – clause as noun clause, adjective clause and adverb clause
  • Explain how each sub-clause is related to the principal clause 
  • And finally analyse both the principle and sub-clause as you analyse a simple sentence



Bukola told me that she would marry me

  1. Bukola told me – main clause
  2. That she would marry me – noun clause, object of the verb “told”


When I received my salary I went to Lagos where the zoo was situated.

  1. I went to Lagos – main clause
  2. When I received my salary – adverb clause of time modifying the verb “went”.
  3. Where the zoo was situated – adjectival clause, qualify the noun ‘Lagos’

I believed that she had married the person whom she had loved

  1. I believed – main clause
  2. That she had married the person – noun clause object of the verb “believed”
  3. Whom she had loved – adjectival clause qualify the noun ‘person’ 






Bukola told me Principal clause That  Bukola   Told  Me 
That she would marry me Noun clause object of the verb “told” That  She  Would marry  Me 


I went to Lagos Principal clause Went  To Lagos
When I received my salary  Adverbial clause of time modifying the verb “went” When  Received  My salary
Where the zoo was situated  Adjectival clause of time modifying the verb went  Where  The zoo Was situated
I believed  Principal clause I Believed 
That she had married the person Noun clause object of the verb “believed” That  She Had married The person
Whom she loved  Adjective clause qualifying the noun “person” Whom  She Had loved 






Syllable is a unit of sound composed if a central peak of sonority (usually a vowel) and the consonants that cluster around this central peak.

A syllable is also that part of a word, which is said with one breath or pulse. It is the smallest unit of speech, which can be pronounced at once. It usually contains one vowel and some consonants e.g. in ‘baby’ there are two syllables, each containing a consonant and a vowel /beil/ and /bi/.

Words and syllables

Words may be classified in the bars of the number of syllables they have. It could be one syllable, two or more than two syllables. There are three (3) categories of syllables namely.


Monosyllable Words: words that are made up of one syllable. Every monosyllable word which makes makes its counterpart, i.e. structural words to be stressed is when they appear in isolation e.g.

Prepositions – on, in, of, etc

Conjunctions – and, but, etc

Pronouns – she, he, you etc

Other monosyllabic words – man, go, book etc


Disyllabic words: words which are made up of two syllables. One of the two syllables gets stressed which the second has its quality reduced.

Disyllabic words can receive the stress placement on the first or second syllable depending or the state and class of the word. Nouns usually receive their stress placement in the first syllable while verbs receive them on second syllable.


Word Noun Verb

Export EXport export

Desert DEsert deSERT 

Convict CONvict conVICT

Refuse REfuse reFUSE

Further Practice On Informal Letter English Grammar Primary 6 Third Term Lesson Notes Week 5

Also, adjectives are stressed on the first while verbs are stressed on the second syllable. E.g. 

Word Adjective Verb

Frequent FREquent freQUENT

Absent ABsent abSENT 

Polysyllabic Words: words with more than two syllables. Importantly the stress placement changes as the word class of the word changes e.g. examination, impossible, generation etc.


Activity: Write out five words each for the following types of syllable

  1. Monosyllabic words
  2. Disyllabic words
  3. Polysyllable words





When one intends to put ideas, information findings or opinions down in paper for the purpose of storage for postenfy, utmost care and castion need to be taken by the writer to ensure that the intention is perfectly communicated and the readership duty considered.

Stages in the creative writing process

  1. Deciding on a theme and genre: taking a decision on what to write about and the genre to adopt for your writing is an important exercise towards a fulfilling writing process or career.
  2. Language Usage: Writing involves using the words of a language. A writer must therefore be versatile in the language he choosed to write in. perhaps the fact needs to be stressed that the quality of any writing is largely assessed in the basis of language. Therefore, a writer should be at home with the rules of punctuation, spelling and grammar of the language for correct usuage. A writer should also be conversant with the connotative use of words in the language apart from the normal meaning.
  3. Research: another prewriting activity which is common to all writing is the choice of a subject. Some experts are of the view that a writer should write only things he knows while others one of the view that he should write also in those things he does not know by researching into them.

Activity: the students would be grouped to write on any of the genres of literature



A letter is a writing communication sent by post or messenger. These two persons might be living in the same town, city, country or may as well be living in different  countries. 

Types of Letter

Letter writing is divided into two major types

  1. Formal letter
  2. Informal letter


This is an official type of letter. In most cases, the persons, involve in this type of letters are not known to each other. They may not have met in their lifetime. Everything about this leteer is formal / official. The writer has to mind his/her language and tone. This letter could be from one pension to a group of people e.g. letter for employment or (letter from a group of people of an individual) e.g a letter from a community to their local government chairman.

Features of Formal letter 

The following has to be put into consideration when writing a formal letter

  1. Two addresses
  2. Title of the letter
  3. The body of the letter
  1. The language has to be formal
  2. The tone of the letter has to be respectful and polite
  3. The need to be straight forward and brief
  4. Answers must be given to all question asked.
  1. Subscription
  2. Signature
  3. Name 

1.Two Addresses: In a formal letter, two addresses are required from the writer his/her own address and the address of the addressee. (The person he/she is writing the letter to)

4, Mohammed Way,

P.O Box, 2641,

Benin City,

Edo State.

14th June, 2014


The Personal Manager,

Sumal, Food Limited,

14, Oluyole Industrial Estate,

Ring Road,


Oyo state. 


  1. Salutation: The common salutation used in a formal letter are: Dear Sir or Dear Madam as the case may be.
  2. Tittle of the letter: Every formal letter has a is this that shows or tells from the beginning what the letter is all about.
  3. The body of the letter: Ina formal letter, the language has to be formal. Also, formal letter does not allow the use of slang and sweet mounting. The tone has to be respectful. This is because the writer may not know the age of the addressee, and he/she might not take it kind. If the tone is not courteous. The formal type of letter is known for its straight forwardness, there is no need beating around the bush,. Where questions are asked, you must give details to every question asked.
  4. Subscriptions: The common subscription used in a formal letter is Yours faithfully, you sign your signature before writing your name at the end of the letter.





Phrasal verbs are derived from a combination of a verb and other particules like the adverb and preposition.

Examples of phrasal verbs are:


Phrasal Verbs Meaning

  1. Account for give good reason
  2. Back out withdraw, refuse
  3. Carry out perform, obey, fulfil
  4. Catch up with over take 
  5. Clean up mess
  6. Die down become gradually calmer and   

finally, disappears (riot, fires)

  1. Deal with tackle a person
  2. Get back recover, reach home
  3. Hand over surrender authority
  4. Give away give something
  5. Hold up stop, delay
  6. Jump up accept
  7. Pull off succeed
  8. Move in move oneself from a flat
  9. Take after resemble


Examples in sentences

  1. You must account for what you spend
  2. He promised to help me but he backed out later.
  3. You must carry out my orders
  4. He carried out the hazardous task and won the appreciation of all
  5. The lorry driver tried to catch up with the car.
  6. Malians must try to catch up with other nations in technology
  7. I asked Tayo to clean up the stains on my shirt.
  8. I tried to get my money back from him.
  9. Please wait here, I will get back soon
  10. She does not known how to deal with her husband
  11. I heard the cries of the patients and they died down soon
  12. He handed over the charge to the newly elected chairman.
  13. The chief guest gave away the prizes to the winners.
  14. I gave away all the money to my friend
  15. We were held up by heavy traffic yesterday.
  16. They dumped at the offer happily and asked the state government to finalise the project
  17. The electronic company pulled off the project and earned huge profits
  18. This flat is very small so let us move into a spacious one
  19. Bukola takes after her mother.


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